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Packing systems and patterns of physical damage in post-harvest citrus fruit decay in Jammu markets  [cached]
V.S. VERMA and M.L. TIKOO
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Abstract: Mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata) were packed and marketed in wooden boxes with paddy straw as cushioning material whereas kinnow mandarin and acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia) fruits were transported, bulk-packed in gunny bags, to the market. The nature of damage in mandarin was compression bruises and cuts on the fruits. Kinnow mandarin and lime had bruises due to rough handling, compression bruises due to over-filling and over stacking of bags, vibration bruises in transit and storage houses. Besides, Kinnow fruits had stalk puncture wounds. These injuries predisposed the fruits to fungal infections leading to fruit rots. Infections and cullage losses are, therefore, a direct consequence of rough handling and unhygienic storage conditions. A spectrum of post-harvest pathogens caused a variety of fruit rots viz., blue mold rot (Penicillium italicum), green mold rot (Penicillium digitatum, P. chrysogenum), Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus rots, black mold rot (Aspergillus niger), core rot (Alternaria alternata, Absidia corymbifera), soft rot (Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizophus stolonifer), stem-end rot (Botryodiplodia theobromae) and sour rot (Geotrichum candidum). Among other pathogens Penicillium spp. inflicted major fruit losses during winter months whereas Aspergillus spp. were responsible for sizeable losses during summer and monsoon months.
Effect of Various Rootstocks on Vigour and Productivity of Kinnow Mandarin  [PDF]
Shahid Iqbal,Muhammad Ibrahim Chaudhary,Muhammad Akber Anjum
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: The performance of Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) on six citrus rootstock i.e Citumelo 4452, Citumelo 1452, Volkamariana, Yuma citrange, Mithi and Rough lemon was studies during its sixth and seventh year of transplanting. Plant height was not affected by the rootstocks used. Maximum canopy spread and stem girth was recorded on Mithi while minimum canopy spread and stem girth were on Yuma citrange and Citrumelo 1452 respectively. Fruit set was not influenced significantly by the rootstocks used. Although fruit drops in grafted plants ranged from 35.75-93.33 per cent from button to pre-harvest drop, the rootstock means in each drop were non-significantly. The highest mean number of fruits/plant was 285 fruits on Citrumelo 4475 and the lowest 77.5 fruits on Yuma citrange rootstock.
Management of post-harvest spoilage of kinnow fruits by pre-harvest spraying of fungicides  [cached]
R.N. SHARMA*, R.P. MAHARSHI1 and R.B. GAUR
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Abstract: Studies were conducted (2004-05 to 2005-06) on post-harvest rotting (spoilage) of kinnow fruits at Sriganganagar (Rajasthan). Surveys of cold storages revealed 34 to 38 per cent of post-harvest rotting in kinnow fruits. Core rot, stem-end rot, green mould rot and blue mould rot were the most destructive rots sharing 80 to 90 per cent of the total post-harvest rotting. During the storage under cold store conditions (Temp. 5 ± 1 °C and R.H. 85-90%), the fruits harvested from the plants treated with chemical or fungicidal sprays exhibited significantly less rotting in comparison to the fruits of untreated control plants. Prochloraz proved most effective fungicide in checking the post-harvest fruit rotting followed by Carbendazim provided complete protection to the fruits from infection up to 30 and 15 days of storage respectively. Minimum spoilage of 7.23 and 9.45 per cent was recorded in Prochloraz and Carbendazim respectively after 60 days of storage under cold store conditions. Eleven fungi were found associated with rotted fruits during the storage. Alternaria alternata, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum were most prominent to cause more than 60 per cent spoilage of the total fruit spoiled during the storage.
In vitro flowering in embryogenic cultures of Kinnow mandarin (Citrus nobilis Lour ′ C. deliciosa Tenora)
B Singh, S Sharma, G Rani, GS Virk, AA Zaidi, A Nagpal
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: Embryogenic cultures of Kinnow mandarin (C. nobilis Lour × C. deliciosa Tenora) were raised from unfertilized ovules dissected from unopened flower buds of this plant inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L kinetin (KN). In vitro flowering was induced in these cultures by using different concentrations of KN and sucrose as well as subjecting these cultures to different photoperiods. Maximum percentage (31.94%) of cultures producing flowers and maximum number (5.58) of flowers per culture was observed on MS medium supplemented with KN (2 mg/L) and sucrose 40 g/L at 12-h photoperiod.
Production of virus-free Kinnow mandarin and Mosambi sweet orange nucleus planting material through shoot tip grafting  [cached]
N.V. HOA, Y.S. AHLAWAT and R.P. PANT
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Abstract: A protocol to develop virus-free nucleus planting material of Kinnow mandarin and Mosambi sweet orange through shoot-tip grafting (STG) was standardized. Among the rootstocks tested, Rough lemon was found more suitable for Kinnow but Mosambi grew better on its own root. Shoot tip grafts with apical meri stem having two leaf primordia were successful up to 20.83% and were free from viruses. The increase in size of scion increased the percentage of successful grafts. Shoot-tips pretreated with anti-oxidants and plant growth regulators increased the percentage of successful grafts as compared to control. Out of three methods of grafting applied for STG, triangular incision gave best result. We found that the in-vitro grafted plants when double grafted on rootstock in the glasshouse survived better than conventional hardening shoot tips with two leaf primordia were found free from Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV), Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Citrus Yellow Mosaic badnavirus (CYMBV), Citrus yellow vein clearing Virus (CYVCV).
Seasonal occurrence and chemical management of postharvest fungal rot pathogens of mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  [cached]
VIDYA SAGAR VERMA*
Indian Phytopathology , 2011,
Abstract: Ten fungal pathogens isolated from diseased mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata) fruits during the entire marketing period were Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, P. chrysogenum, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Alternaria alternata, Absidia corymbifera, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. The seasonal disease profile of mandarin orange fruit clearly marked two distinct peak periods of fungal rot spoilage. In the first peak, the major monthly fruit rottage loss was inflicted by green and blue mold rots caused by Penicillium digitatum (1.78-2.44%) and P. italicum (0.73-1.30%). The second peak period of fruit spoilage inflicted by Aspergillus niger was observed during the summer months of May (5.27%) and June (6.05%). The cumulative rottage losses during the entire marketing season were 34.30%. Post-inoculation chemical treatments were ineffective against the major fruit rot pathogens. Pre-inoculation treatments of thiabendazole (0.05%), benomyl (0.05%) and carbendazim (0.05%) were highly effective against green and blue mold rots caused by P. digitatum and P. italicum, respectively followed by salicylic acid (0.05%), sodium metabisulphite (0.5%) and borax (6%) while thiophanate methyl (0.25%) and borax (6%) were most effective against black mold rot caused by Aspergillus niger.
Plantlets Regeneration via Somatic Embryogenesis from the Nucellus Tissues of Kinnow Mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.)  [PDF]
Mubashir Hussain, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Muhammad Iqbal, Anam Iftikhar, Huma Mehreen Sadaf, Sidra Sabir, Muhammad Asim Sultan, Muhammad Nasim Ashraf Faz
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.76074
Abstract: Studies were initiated to explore the role of nucellus tissues and growth regulators in plantlets regeneration via somatic embryogenesis of Kinnow mandarin [Citrus reticulata L. (Blanco)]. Nucellus tissues were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of auxins, cytokinins and malt extract for primary callus induction. The best response for primary callus induction (90%) was obtained when MS medium was supplemented with 5 mg/l 2,4-D and 500 mg/l malt extract. Best results for embryogenic callus induction (80%) were obtained in C8 medium. The induction of somatic embryos was highest when MS medium was supplemented with 1 mg/l BAP and maturation of somatic embryos occurred when MS medium was supplemented with 5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1 mg/l BAP. Maximum plantlets were regenerated (92%) from the somatic embryos on half strength MS medium with no hormones. The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in different potting mixtures and highest survival rate (100%) was achieved in potting mixture containing sand and peat moss (2:1).
In vitro Production of Indian citrus ringspot virus-free Plants of Kinnow Mandarin (Citrus nobilis LourxC. deliciosa Tenora) by Nucellar Embryo Culture  [PDF]
B. Singh,S. Sharma,G. Rani,A.A. Zaidi
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV)-free plants of Kinnow mandarin (Citrus nobilis Lourx C. deliciosa Tenora) were produced from a virus-infected plant using nucellar embryo culture. The parent kinnow plant was tested by indirect ELISA and RT-PCR before using its explants. An amplified product of 539 bp (partial cp gene) was obtained by RT-PCR in ICRSV infected plants. The nucellar embryos obtained from seeds collected from immature fruits of the infected plant were cultured on Murashige and Skoog`s (MS) basal medium supplemented with various concentrations of 2,4-D and malt extract (ME) alone or in various combinations. Maximum embryogenic callus induction (33.33%) was observed on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (9.02 μM) in combination with malt extract (400 mg L-1). Transfer of embryogenic calli to MS medium containing different concentrations of malt extract alone or in combination with ABA resulted in somatic embryogenesis with a maximum of 56.94% cultures in MS medium supplemented with malt extract (500 mg L-1) and ABA (7.56 μM). Cotyledonary shaped embryos when transfered to different strengths of MS medium supplemented with NAA (10.74 μM) developed into complete plantlets in maximum of 72.22% cultures on 1/2 MS medium. The plantlets were successfully acclimatizated, transferred to screen house and indexed for ICRSV employing indirect ELISA and RT-PCR and all were found negative of virus. A distinct feature of this study is the induction of somatic embryogenesis from nucellar embryos to produce virus-free plants.
Effects of Gibberellic Acid (GA3), Naphtalin Acetic Acid (NAA), Ethephon and Urea on Alternate Bearing Control in Kinnow Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)  [cached]
M. J. Moghbeli Hanzaii,E. Tafazoli
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2002,
Abstract: Alternate bearing is a key factor in limiting citrus production. Chemical controls have proved to be the most effective solution to this problem. Two different experiments were conducted to study the effects of different growth regulators (GA3, NAA, Ethephon) and urea on alternate bearing control in Kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata). In the first experiment, GA3 at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mgl-1 were applied 3 times during late autumn and early winter 1993 on off trees. Flowers reduced as a result of GA3 application in the following spring but increased in the second spring. Best results obtained with 50 and 75 mgl-1. In the 2nd experiment thinning agents: NAA (0, 100, 200 and 300 mgl-1), ethephon (0, 100, 200, 300 mgl-1) and urea (0, 4, 8 and 12%) were sprayed to the trees on on-year, when the fruitlets were about 0.75-1 cm in diameter. The results indicated that urea had no effect; however, both NAA and ethephon were effective on thinning of fruits and control of fruiting. Ethephon at 200 and 300 mgl-1, and NAA at 400 mgl-1 gave the best results.
EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA
Umesh P. Mogle
Bioscience Discovery , 2013,
Abstract: The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS) India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus and Achyranthus aspera were used against the post harvest fungal mycoflora. All the plants used were found to be antifungal. In particular Eucalyptus globulus, Argemone mexicana, Tridax procumbens and Parthenium hysterophorus were highly inhibitory. These plant extracts can be used for controlling fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes during post harvest as these are eco-friendly and do not cause environmental hazard.
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