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Ethnomusicologists researching towns they live in: Theoretical and methodological queries for a renewed discipline
Arau?o Samuel
Muzikologija , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/muz0909033a
Abstract: This article focuses on theoretical and methodological implications of the 20th-century epistemic turn in the humanities towards a more self-critical and politicized approach to the production of knowledge in academia. It examines in particular their general impact on ethnography-based disciplines such as ethnomusicology, arguing that this is felt even more intensely in work being done in the cities the researchers live in, where their home institutions are based. The article then addresses methodological alternatives for ethnomusicology in the rather conflicting 21st century context, such as participatory action strategies eliciting new grounds for collaboration between academic and extra-academic perspectives, based on ongoing initiatives undertaken by an academic research collective in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which integrate political and academic dimensions in new disciplinary ways.
Definitions and Measurement of Social Exclusion
—A Conceptual and Methodological Review
 [PDF]

Carsten Kronborg Bak
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.85025
Abstract: Poverty and inequality have long been the dominant categories to describe people’s living conditions, and they continue to reflect significant problems in Danish society, even though the risk of poverty in Denmark is low compared to other European countries. However, during the 1990s, social exclusion, as a “new” concept, has in many ways drawn attention away from poverty. The article raises the question of what social exclusion can contribute with as a concept and in what way it differs from other key concepts, for example, poverty and social capital. The overall aim of the article is to provide a broad overview analysis of a number of key scientific definitions. In addition, selected quantitative and qualitative studies on social exclusion, to problematize the lack of empirical studies of social exclusion using direct measures for social exclusion, are included. Far too often, this results in the raising of questions about to what extent it is social exclusion or other related terms being “measured” in various empirical studies. Mental health is used in the discussion on “measurement” of social exclusion as a critical case to point out shortcomings in existing empirical studies and to inject nuance into the discussion of information from qualitative studies on causal processes behind social exclusion.
Analysis of agreement among definitions of metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic Turkish adults: a methodological study
Ahmet Can, Thomas P Bersot
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-353
Abstract: 1568 subjects (532 men, 1036 women, mean age 45 and standard deviation (SD) 13 years) were evaluated in this cross-sectional, methodological study. Cardiometabolic risk factors were determined. Insulin sensitivity was calculated by HOMA-IR. Agreement among definitions was determined by the kappa statistic. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test were used to compare multiple groups.The agreement between WHO and EGIR definitions was very good (kappa: 0.83). The agreement between NCEP, ACE, and IDF definitions was substantial to very good (kappa: 0.77–0.84). The agreement between NCEP or ACE or IDF and WHO or EGIR definitions was fair (kappa: 0.32–0.37). The age and sex adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38% by NCEP, 42% by ACE and IDF, 20% by EGIR and 19% by WHO definition. The evaluated definitions were dichotomized after analysis of design, agreement and prevalence: insulin measurement requiring definitions (WHO and EGIR) and definitions not requiring insulin measurement (NCEP, ACE, IDF). One definition was selected from each set for comparison. WHO-defined subjects were more insulin resistant than subjects without the metabolic syndrome (mean and SD for log HOMA-IR, 0.53 ± 0.14 vs. 0.07 ± 0.23, respectively, p < 0.05) and had higher Framingham risk scores (mean and SD, 2.99 ± 4.64% vs. 1.10 ± 1.87%, respectively, p < 0.05). The additional subjects identified by IDF definition, but not by WHO definition also had more insulin resistance and higher Framingham risk scores than subjects without the metabolic syndrome (mean and SD, log HOMA-IR 0.18 ± 0.18 vs. 0.07 ± 0.23, p < 0.05 and Framingham risk score 2.93 ± 4.54% vs. 1.10 ± 1.87%, p < 0.05). The IDF-identified additional subjects had similar Framingham risk scores as WHO-identified subjects (p > 0.05), but lower log HOMA-IR values (p < 0.05).The metabolic syndrome definitions that do not require measurement of insulin levels (NCEP, ACE and IDF) identify twice more patients with insulin resistance and increased
Violence against Women: Methodological and Ethical Issues  [PDF]
Kaltrina Kelmendi
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.47080
Abstract:

Research on violence against women has improved and provides important information on patterns, prevalence, risk and consequences of this major threat to female well-being. Since the identification of violence against women as a problem worthy of study in 1970, evident progress has been made in understanding physical, psychological and sexual violence against women. However, while methodological improvements appear in later studies, the literature review shows many limitations and restrictions when conducting research on violence against women. The objective of this paper is to review the methodological issues that arise when studying violence against women. The paper focuses first on the history of research on violence against women, by elaborating on each perspective. Second, the paper identifies and describes methodological difficulties when researching violence against women such as methodology, operational definitions of violence, sampling frame and risk factors related to violence. The paper also elaborates on major ethical principles that should be considered and respected when researching violence against women. Finally, the paper recommends certain changes that should be made in order to improve future research on the subject.

Obstacles to researching the researchers: A case study of the ethical challenges of undertaking methodological research investigating the reporting of randomised controlled trials
Joanne E McKenzie, G Peter Herbison, Paul Roth, Charlotte Paul
Trials , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-11-28
Abstract: In 2006 we received funding to investigate if there was evidence of within-study selective reporting in a cohort of RCTs submitted to New Zealand Regional Ethics Committees in 1998/99. This research involved accessing ethics applications, their amendments and annual reports, and comparing these with corresponding publications. We did not plan to obtain informed consent from trialists to view their ethics applications for practical and scientific reasons.In November 2006 we sought ethical approval to undertake the research from our institutional ethics committee. The Committee declined our application on the grounds that we were not obtaining informed consent from the trialists to view their ethics application. This initiated a seventeen month process to obtain ethical approval. This publication outlines what we planned to do, the issues we encountered, discusses the legal and ethical issues, and presents some potential solutions.Methodological research such as this has the potential for public benefit and there is little or no harm for the participants (trialists) in undertaking it. Further, in New Zealand, there is freedom of information legislation, which in this circumstance, unambiguously provided rights of access and use of the information in the ethics applications. The decision of our institutional ethics committee defeated this right and did not recognise the nature of this observational research.Methodological research, such as this, can be used to develop processes to improve quality in research reporting. Recognition of the potential benefit of this research in the broader research community, and those who sit on ethics committees, is perhaps needed. In addition, changes to the ethical review process which involve separation between those who review proposals to undertake methodological research using ethics applications, and those with responsibility for reviewing ethics applications for trials, should be considered. Finally, we contend that the research
Loose Constitutivity and Armchair Philosophy  [cached]
Jonathan M. Weinberg,Stephen J. Crowley
Studia Philosophica Estonica , 2009,
Abstract: Standard philosophical methodology which proceeds by appeal to intuitions accessible "from the armchair" has come under criticism on the basis of empirical work indicating unanticipated variability of such intuitions. Loose constitutivity---the idea that intuitions are partly, but not strictly, constitutive of the concepts that appear in them---offers an interesting line of response to this empirical challenge. On a loose constitutivist view, it is unlikely that our intuitions are incorrect across the board, since they partly fix the facts in question. But we argue that this ratification of intuitions is at best rough and generic, and can only do the required methodological work if it operates in conjunction with some sort of further criteria of theory selection. We consider two that we find in the literature: naturalness (Brian Weatherson, borrowing from Lewis) and charity (Henry Jackman, borrowing from Davidson). At the end of the day, neither provides the armchair philosopher complete shelter from extra-armchair inquiry.
Loose packings of frictional spheres  [PDF]
Greg R. Farrell,K. Michael Martini,Narayanan Menon
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1039/C0SM00038H
Abstract: We have produced loose packings of cohesionless, frictional spheres by sequential deposition of highly-spherical, monodisperse particles through a fluid. By varying the properties of the fluid and the particles, we have identified the Stokes number (St) - rather than the buoyancy of the particles in the fluid - as the parameter controlling the approach to the loose packing limit. The loose packing limit is attained at a threshold value of St at which the kinetic energy of a particle impinging on the packing is fully dissipated by the fluid. Thus, for cohesionless particles, the dynamics of the deposition process, rather than the stability of the static packing, defines the random loose packing limit. We have made direct measurements of the interparticle friction in the fluid, and present an experimental measurement of the loose packing volume fraction, \phi_{RLP}, as a function of the friction coefficient \mu_s.
Lean Problem: Why Conpanies Fail with Lean Implementation?
Management , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.mm.20120205.12
Abstract: Lean thinking approach was reported in many papers to be very efficient and straightforward way towards process improvements in terms of productivity and value adding activities ratio. On other hand, it was also discovered that the system which is working very well in Toyota might not give similar effective results in other companies. Many manufacturers have failed in achieving success of lean thinking implementation. Current study is seeking the reasons of failures in lean thinking implementation. One of the proposals is that companies have to interpret their lean knowledge into own vision in form of lean house. Such proposal is derived from example of Scania, which is one of the best examples of lean thinking implementation outside the Toyota corporation. Study results indicate that success or failure of lean initiatives strongly depends on companies approach to it and on whether company has created they own philosophy towards lean – lean house.
Equational quasigroup definitions  [PDF]
V. A. Shcherbacov,D. I. Pushkashu,A. V. Shcherbacov
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: Quasigroup equational definitions are given.
Lean Library Management (Book Review)  [cached]
Valerie A. Lynn
Journal of Library Innovation , 2011,
Abstract: A book review of "Lean Library Management."
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