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Egomunities, Exploring Socially Cohesive Person-based Communities  [PDF]
Adrien Friggeri,Guillaume Chelius,Eric Fleury
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: In the last few years, there has been a great interest in detecting overlapping communities in complex networks, which is understood as dense groups of nodes featuring a low outbound density. To date, most methods used to compute such communities stem from the field of disjoint community detection by either extending the concept of modularity to an overlapping context or by attempting to decompose the whole set of nodes into several possibly overlapping subsets. In this report we take an orthogonal approach by introducing a metric, the cohesion, rooted in sociological considerations. The cohesion quantifies the community-ness of one given set of nodes, based on the notions of triangles - triplets of connected nodes - and weak ties, instead of the classical view using only edge density. A set of nodes has a high cohesion if it features a high density of triangles and intersects few triangles with the rest of the network. As such, we introduce a numerical characterization of communities: sets of nodes featuring a high cohesion. We then present a new approach to the problem of overlapping communities by introducing the concept of ego-munities, which are subjective communities centered around a given node, specifically inside its neighborhood. We build upon the cohesion to construct a heuristic algorithm which outputs a node's ego-munities by attempting to maximize their cohesion. We illustrate the pertinence of our method with a detailed description of one person's ego-munities among Facebook friends. We finally conclude by describing promising applications of ego-munities such as information inference and interest recommendations, and present a possible extension to cohesion in the case of weighted networks.
On the road again: Reaching out to isolated school communities  [PDF]
Karl van Dyke
University Museums and Collections Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Country New South Wales is very isolated from the urban environment of Sydney. As such, country schools find it difficult to access ancient museum material to support the teaching of the school curriculum in ancient history. With the financial burdens of distance, along with severe drought, many schools cannot make the journey to Sydney to see the archaeological material held in the Museum of Ancient Cultures at Macquarie University, one of only a handful of such museums in Australia. Consequently we have developed a ‘traveling road show’, which takes our education programs to them. In this way we also fulfill our strategic obligations to our parent university in the core area of community outreach. In return the university benefits from the on-going goodwill of teachers, students, their families and the local communities. It is through such networks and the loyalty our programs foster, that we help the university attract students to Macquarie. This paper looks at the approaches we take to support disadvantaged rural communities. It also suggests that this traveling program may serve as a model for other university museums in similar geographical circumstances to follow, as they also seek to reach out to wider audiences and increase interest in, and access to, their unique collections.
Asymptomatic, isolated tubercular splenic abscess, in an immunocompetent person
Udgaonkar U,Kulkarni S,Shah S,Bhave S
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2010,
Abstract: Tubercular splenic abscess in an immunocompetent person, especially when the patient is without any symptoms, is a rare clinical entity. We report a case of isolated tubercular splenic abscess in a 38-year-old asymptomatic healthy female and emphasize the importance of careful smear examination. The patient had come to the hospital for repair of vaginal vault prolapse. Her abdominal ultra sonography showed normal sized spleen with hypoechoic areas suggesting abscess. Fine needle aspiration of splenic lesion revealed tubercle bacilli on Ziehl Neelsen stain. The organisms also grew on culture. The splenic lesions cleared after six months of treatment with anti tubercular drugs at our Directly Observed Treatment centre under Revised National TB Control Programme. The patient was operated successfully for vault prolapse one year later.
Developing a Music Therapy Programme within a Person Centred Planning Framework
Jason Noone
Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy , 2008,
Abstract: This report describes the development of a music therapy programme for people with developmental disabilities in a day facility in Ireland. The facility is run by Enable Ireland, a national voluntary organisation, and provides therapies, supports and training for service users. Service provision is organised according to the principles of person centred planning (PCP), a model which places the desires, interests and capacities of each service user at the centre of the decision-making process. As the music therapy programme has developed, the parallels between the music therapy concepts which informed it and the PCP model have became more apparent. The main purpose of this report is to detail the core features and aimed-for outcomes of the person-centred planning process and highlight corresponding concepts from humanistic music therapy, community music therapy and music therapy for empowerment. Implications of coordinating the music therapy programme with the PCP process as implemented at Enable Ireland are also suggested. The core features of PCP are considered highly useful in conceptualising a resource-based, humanistic music therapy programme for people with disabilities. In addition, music-making in its various forms is considered a valuable activity which has the potential to satisfy the outcomes of the PCP model.
Music Attenuates Excessive Visual Guidance of Skilled Reaching in Advanced but Not Mild Parkinson's Disease  [PDF]
Lori-Ann R. Sacrey, Callie A. M. Clark, Ian Q. Whishaw
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006841
Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD) results in movement and sensory impairments that can be reduced by familiar music. At present, it is unclear whether the beneficial effects of music are limited to lessening the bradykinesia of whole body movement or whether beneficial effects also extend to skilled movements of PD subjects. This question was addressed in the present study in which control and PD subjects were given a skilled reaching task that was performed with and without accompanying preferred musical pieces. Eye movements and limb use were monitored with biomechanical measures and limb movements were additionally assessed using a previously described movement element scoring system. Preferred musical pieces did not lessen limb and hand movement impairments as assessed with either the biomechanical measures or movement element scoring. Nevertheless, the PD patients with more severe motor symptoms as assessed by Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scores displayed enhanced visual engagement of the target and this impairment was reduced during trials performed in association with accompanying preferred musical pieces. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that preferred musical pieces, although not generally beneficial in lessening skilled reaching impairments, may normalize the balance between visual and proprioceptive guidance of skilled reaching.
Behavioral and endocrine responses of socially isolated rats to long-term diazepam treatment
Dronjak Sla?ana,Spasojevi? Nata?a,Gavrilovi? Ljubica,Varagi? V.
Acta Veterinaria , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/avb0704291d
Abstract: The effects of diazepam (0.2 mg/kg/ during 21 days, i.p.) on behavior, pituitary-adrenocortical and sympatho-adrenomedullary system of socially isolated and group-housed adult male rats additionally exposed to immobilization, were studied. Social isolation led to a shorter duration of grooming and longer latency to start grooming. Diazepam in social isolated rats reduced incorrect transitions percentage, but the number of grooming bouts, duration and latency to start grooming remained unchanged. Long-term isolation significantly elevated plasma ACTH and corticosterone, while not affecting noradrenaline and adrenaline. Diazepam decreased only plasma ACTH. Social isolation and immobilization significantly elevated all examined hormones. Immobilization of diazepam-treated isolated rats enhanced plasma ACTH , the increase being significantly lower, comparing to isolated vehicle-treated rats. Immobilization significantly increased plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone of diazepam- or vehicle-treated socially isolated rats. No differences in adrenaline, noradrenaline and corticosterone level between these two groups were observed. This indicates that chronic diazepam treatment of socially isolated rats changes some grooming behavior parameters, but insignificantly affects stress-related adrenomedullary and adrenocortical alterations.
Effects of stress on catecholamine stores in central and peripheral tissues of long-term socially isolated rats
Dronjak, S.;Gavrilovic, L.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2006000600011
Abstract: both the peripheral sympatho-adrenomedullary and central catecholaminergic systems are activated by various psycho-social and physical stressors. catecholamine stores in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, adrenal glands, and heart auricles of long-term socially isolated (21 days) and control 3-month-old male wistar rats, as well as their response to immobilization of all 4 limbs and head fixed for 2 h and cold stress (4oc, 2 h), were studied. a simultaneous single isotope radioenzymatic assay based on the conversion of catecholamines to the corresponding o-methylated derivatives by catechol-o-methyl-transferase in the presence of s-adenosyl-l-(3h-methyl)-methionine was used. the o-methylated derivatives were oxidized to 3h-vanilline and the radioactivity measured. social isolation produced depletion of hypothalamic norepinephrine (about 18%) and hippocampal dopamine (about 20%) stores and no changes in peripheral tissues. immobilization decreased catecholamine stores (approximately 39%) in central and peripheral tissues of control animals. however, in socially isolated rats, these reductions were observed only in the hippocampus and peripheral tissues. cold did not affect hypothalamic catecholamine stores but reduced hippocampal dopamine (about 20%) as well as norepinephrine stores in peripheral tissues both in control and socially isolated rats, while epinephrine levels were unchanged. thus, immobilization was more efficient in reducing catecholamine stores in control and chronically isolated rats compared to cold stress. the differences in rearing conditions appear to influence the response of adult animals to additional stress. in addition, the influence of previous exposure to a stressor on catecholaminergic activity in the brainstem depends on both the particular catecholaminergic area studied and the properties of additional acute stress. therefore, the sensitivity of the catecholaminergic system to habituation appears to be tissue-specific.
Effects of stress on catecholamine stores in central and peripheral tissues of long-term socially isolated rats  [cached]
Dronjak S.,Gavrilovic L.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2006,
Abstract: Both the peripheral sympatho-adrenomedullary and central catecholaminergic systems are activated by various psycho-social and physical stressors. Catecholamine stores in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, adrenal glands, and heart auricles of long-term socially isolated (21 days) and control 3-month-old male Wistar rats, as well as their response to immobilization of all 4 limbs and head fixed for 2 h and cold stress (4oC, 2 h), were studied. A simultaneous single isotope radioenzymatic assay based on the conversion of catecholamines to the corresponding O-methylated derivatives by catechol-O-methyl-transferase in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-(3H-methyl)-methionine was used. The O-methylated derivatives were oxidized to 3H-vanilline and the radioactivity measured. Social isolation produced depletion of hypothalamic norepinephrine (about 18%) and hippocampal dopamine (about 20%) stores and no changes in peripheral tissues. Immobilization decreased catecholamine stores (approximately 39%) in central and peripheral tissues of control animals. However, in socially isolated rats, these reductions were observed only in the hippocampus and peripheral tissues. Cold did not affect hypothalamic catecholamine stores but reduced hippocampal dopamine (about 20%) as well as norepinephrine stores in peripheral tissues both in control and socially isolated rats, while epinephrine levels were unchanged. Thus, immobilization was more efficient in reducing catecholamine stores in control and chronically isolated rats compared to cold stress. The differences in rearing conditions appear to influence the response of adult animals to additional stress. In addition, the influence of previous exposure to a stressor on catecholaminergic activity in the brainstem depends on both the particular catecholaminergic area studied and the properties of additional acute stress. Therefore, the sensitivity of the catecholaminergic system to habituation appears to be tissue-specific.
The Content of Professional and Creative Self–realization of Future Teachers of Music in Terms of the System Approach
Natalia N. Samokhina
European Researcher , 2013,
Abstract: This article introduces the project of educational system content of professional and creative self-realization of future teachers of music, defined by cognitive, practically-pragmatist, person-motivated and socially-oriented educational blocks. The functioning of the selected blocks is realized by means of knowledge, abilities, skills, as well as ideological, moral and aesthetic ideas of the future specialists
Effect of immobilization stress on gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in heart auricles of socially isolated rats
Gavrilovic, L.;Spasojevic, N.;Zivkovic, M.;Dronjak, S.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2009005000040
Abstract: chronic stress is associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. the sympathoneural system plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac function both in health and disease. in the present study, the changes in gene expression of the catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (th), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (dbh) and phenylethanolamine n-methyltransferase (pnmt) and protein levels in the right and left heart auricles of naive control and long-term (12 weeks) socially isolated rats were investigated by taqman rt-pcr and western blot analysis. the response of these animals to additional immobilization stress (2 h) was also examined. long-term social isolation produced a decrease in th mrna level in left auricles (about 70%) compared to the corresponding control. expression of the dbh gene was markedly decreased both in the right (about 62%) and left (about 81%) auricles compared to the corresponding control, group-maintained rats, whereas pnmt mrna levels remained unchanged. exposure of group-housed rats to acute immobilization for 2 h led to a significant increase of mrna levels of th (about 267%), dbh (about 37%) and pnmt (about 60%) only in the right auricles. additional 2-h immobilization of individually housed rats did not affect gene expression of these enzymes in either the right or left auricle. protein levels of th, dbh and pnmt in left and right heart auricles were unchanged either in both individually housed and immobilized rats. the unchanged mrna levels of the enzymes examined after short-term immobilization suggest that the catecholaminergic system of the heart auricles of animals previously exposed to chronic psychosocial stress was adapted to maintain appropriate cardiovascular homeostasis.
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