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The Reality Monitoring Deficit as a Common Neuropsychological Correlate of Schizophrenic and Affective Psychosis  [PDF]
Daniele Radaelli,Francesco Benedetti,Roberto Cavallaro,Cristina Colombo,Enrico Smeraldi
Behavioral Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/bs3020244
Abstract: For many decades, Neuropsychological functioning has been a key point in the study of psychotic disorders. The main aim of these studies is to give a description of the neurocognitive “profile” of schizophrenia, with only little attention being paid to the common and discriminating features of different psychotic disorders. Recent studies support the hypothesis that patients affected by psychiatric disorders with psychotic symptoms have specific abnormalities of reality testing of ongoing perception, which become evident with source monitoring task. Ninety-eight patients and 50 controls were studied. Patients were divided by diagnosis and previous history of psychotic features and were administered Source Monitoring Task to test reality testing of ongoing perception. Frequencies of correct and false attributions were recorded. To obtain measures of observer sensitivity and response biases, a signal detection analysis was performed. Aims: Studying neuropsychological correlate of psychosis in euthymic mood disordered patients and patients with schizophrenia with or without delusions. Results: Patients with psychotic features use more lax criteria in evaluating self-generated, but not perceived stimuli compared to patients without psychotic features. Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis of selective biases in reality monitoring as neuropsychological correlates of psychosis.
COGNITIVE AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS, WHILE THE FIRST EPISODE  [cached]
A EBRAHIMI,SEYED GHAFOUR MOUSAVI,R SAMOUEI
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: Introduction: It is assumed that the process of schizophrenia effect on patient"s cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to examine and to compare cognitive profile of patients with that of control group. Methods: 40 patients with schizophrenia were selected from Isfahan Noor Hospital. 40 non-patients as control group were selected and matched on the base of age, sex, education, economic status. Cognitive functions of two groups were assessed by WAlS-R. Results: Results show that schizophrenic patients appear at a lower level of IQ than control group. Nonverbal IQ was more impaired than the other kind of IQ in patients. Cognitive profile analysis reveals that patients had low scores on all of the WAlS-R subscles except information and word subscales. Discussion: These findings show that schizophrenic patients in the first episode of theire illness reveal a remarkable impairment on inteligence performance. Cognitive profile analysis indicates that schizophrenic patients performer significatly at a lower level in comparison with control group, in: abstraction, visual - special perception, verbal and non-verbal conceptualization, social judgment, attention, motor-visual organization and mental flexibility.
Methodology of Neuropsychological Assessment:Qualitative (Metasyndromal Analysis of Cognitive Deficit Structure) and Quantitative (Psychometric Estimate) Aspects  [PDF]
Yuri V. Mikadze
Psychology in Russia : State of Art , 2011,
Abstract: Neuropsychological evaluation is a necessary step that precedes neurorehabilitation. It implies both qualitative and quantitative assessment of patient's possible cognitive deficit. Qualitative approach aims to define the structure of the cognitive deficit while quantitative procedures give estimate of the magnitude of the deficit. Complex pathology affects multiple brain regions and reveals in a series of neuropsychological syndromes associated with these brain areas. Metasyndrome analysis is proposed as an approach to understanding the complex cognitive impairments. A new concept of metasyndrome is introduced in order to describe these repetitive patterns of observed cognitive deficits. Quantitative estimate allows to deter mine the degree of cognitive disorder and the dynamics of its change.
Motor speed predicts stability of cognitive deficits in both schizophrenic and bipolar I patients at one-year follow-up
Salazar-Fraile,J.; Balanzá-Martínez,V.; Selva-Vera,G.; Martínez-Aran,A.; Sánchez-Moreno,J.; Rubio,C.; Vieta,E.; Gómez-Beneyto,M.; Tabarés-Seisdedos,R.;
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2009, DOI: 10.4321/S0213-61632009000300007
Abstract: background: we examined whether motor speed assessed by the finger tapping test predicts generalized and specific stable deficits because of a common pathogenic process in bipolar and schizophrenic patients. methods: one hundred and two patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests. patients with a score of less than one standard deviation from their siblings', sample in two assessments with an interval of one year were defined as suffering from stable deficits because of a common pathogenic process. in addition to univariate analyses, factor analyses, ordinal logistic regression, and multiple linear regressions were used. a general score was also calculated. results: no differences were found between schizophrenic and bipolar patients in the deficits of verbal fluency, shift reasoning ability and executive attention. schizophrenic patients had greater persistent cognitive deficit because of a common pathogenic factor in the verbal memory dimension than bipolar patients. motor speed predicted the specific deficits of verbal fluency, shift reasoning, executive attention and the general deficit of both bipolar i and schizophrenic patients. bipolar patients suffered a lesser specific deficit in the verbal memory dimension than schizophrenic patients did, this domain not being predicted by motor speed. motor speed predicted the generalized deficit and the specific dimensions in which schizophrenic and bipolar patients showed no differences. conclusions: these results suggest the presence of general and specific stable cognitive deficits because of a common pathogenic factor related to psychomotor slowness. motor speed seems to be suitable endophenocognitype for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Motor speed predicts stability of cognitive deficits in both schizophrenic and bipolar I patients at one-year follow-up  [cached]
J. Salazar-Fraile,V. Balanzá-Martínez,G. Selva-Vera,A. Martínez-Aran
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2009,
Abstract: Background: We examined whether motor speed assessed by the finger tapping test predicts generalized and specific stable deficits because of a common pathogenic process in bipolar and schizophrenic patients. Methods: One hundred and two patients underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests. Patients with a score of less than one standard deviation from their siblings', sample in two assessments with an interval of one year were defined as suffering from stable deficits because of a common pathogenic process. In addition to univariate analyses, factor analyses, ordinal logistic regression, and multiple linear regressions were used. A general score was also calculated. Results: No differences were found between schizophrenic and bipolar patients in the deficits of verbal fluency, shift reasoning ability and executive attention. Schizophrenic patients had greater persistent cognitive deficit because of a common pathogenic factor in the verbal memory dimension than bipolar patients. Motor speed predicted the specific deficits of verbal fluency, shift reasoning, executive attention and the general deficit of both bipolar I and schizophrenic patients. Bipolar patients suffered a lesser specific deficit in the verbal memory dimension than schizophrenic patients did, this domain not being predicted by motor speed. Motor speed predicted the generalized deficit and the specific dimensions in which schizophrenic and bipolar patients showed no differences. Conclusions: These results suggest the presence of general and specific stable cognitive deficits because of a common pathogenic factor related to psychomotor slowness. Motor speed seems to be suitable endophenocognitype for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
COGNITIVE COMPLEXITY OF SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS  [PDF]
Sne?ana Manojlovi?,Julijana Nikoli?-Popovi?
Acta Medica Medianae , 2002,
Abstract: The aim of the paper is to determine precisely the conceptual organization characteristics expressed in cognitive complexity. This would provide for an application of specific therapeutic techniques for the sake of compensating for the primary cognitive deficit.The paper presents an examination of cognitive complexity in schizophrenic patients in comparison with a group of normal subjects by applying the test of role playing. The test is carried out in the phase of the presence of psychotic symptoms and after its withdrawal.The results show that there is neither in the first nor in the second measurement any significant difference in the cognitive complexity score between the schizophrenic and the normal subjects.The cognitive complexity reflects the formal potential of the conceptual organization to differentiate meanings. The schizophrenic patients' inability to achieve the real meaning along with the potential for the formally.differentiated conceptual organization point to the weakness of the conceptual organization that is manifested in inconsistency.
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE IN A SAMPLE OF INSTITUTIONALIZED CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS
Luis Maia
Cuadernos de Neuropsicologia , 2010,
Abstract: We study the results of a descriptive and exploratory study, with the intent to understand the results of a 21 male schizophrenic patients interned in a Portuguese Mental Health Care Centre, evaluated with neuropsychological test. We tried also to link these tests with variables such as schooling, family contact or lengh of internment. The assessment instruments were: Digits Series and Vocabulary Task, both from WAIS, Raven Progressive Matrices, Rey’s Complex Figures, Luria’s Series Neuropsychological Screening, Clock Task - Neuropsychological Screening and Visual Search and Attention Test. Results show that there is not an attention deficit clinically significant, even that data suggests light attention affection; also variables like family contact and schooling appear as protective factors of memory and also seems to be important for the planning / organization functions.
Mild cognitive impairment: cognitive screening or neuropsychological assessment?
Diniz, Breno Satler;Nunes, Paula Villela;Yassuda, Monica S;Pereira, Fernanda S;Flaks, Mariana K;Viola, Luciane F;Radanovic, Marcia;Abreu, Izabella Dutra de;Borelli, Danilo T;Gattaz, Wagner F;Forlenza, Orestes Vicente;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462008000400003
Abstract: objective: to describe the neuropsychological profile of mild cognitive impairment subtypes (amnestic, non-amnestic and multiple-domain) of a clinical sample. we further address the diagnostic properties of the mini-mental state examination and the cambridge cognitive examination for the identification of the different mild cognitive impairment subtypes in clinical practice. method: cross-sectional clinical and neuropsychological evaluation of 249 elderly patients attending a memory clinic at a university hospital in sao paulo, brazil. results: the performance of patients with mild cognitive impairment was heterogeneous across the different subtests of the neuropsychological battery, with a trend towards an overall worse performance for amnestic (particularly multiple domain) mild cognitive impairment as compared to non-amnestic subtypes. screening tests for dementia (mini-mental state examination and cambridge cognitive examination) adequately discriminated cases of mild alzheimer's disease from controls, but they were not accurate to discriminate patients with mild cognitive impairment (all subtypes) from control subjects. conclusions: the discrimination of mild cognitive impairment subtypes was possible only with the aid of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. it is necessary to develop new strategies for mild cognitive impairment screening in clinical practice.
Relationship between Cognitive Deficits and Self-care Instrumental Activities Daily Living in Schizophrenic Patients in Qom's Psychiatric Ward, 2010  [cached]
V Akbari
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Although schizophrenia disorder is not a cognitive dysfunction, it often results in cognitive deficit. Self-care is a life skill which weakens in neuro-cognitive disorders. Since relationship between cognitive deficits and self-care in schizophrenic patients is not yet known, the survey was done to clarify the relationship between cognitive deficits and self-care instrumental activities daily living in schizophrenic patients. Methods: The present study is of descriptive type, wherein 58 schizophrenic patients of psychiatric ward at Nekoo'ee hospital, Qom, were selected by population sampling. Data collection tools were PASS (for measuring the instrumental skills in daily living activities), and LOTCA-II (for measuring cognitive status). The analysis of the data was done by means of Spearman and Pearson correlation test, showing the significant level of p>0.05. Results: The results showed that between the seven cognitive domains(Orientation, Visual Perception, Spatial perception, Motor praxis, Visuomotor organization, Thinking operations, Attention and Concentration) and the aspects of self-care (independence, safety, quality and process of the task) there exists a significant relationship in schizophrenic patients, p=0.000 Conclusion: The present study displays a significant relationship between cognitive deficits and self-care instrumental activities in schizophrenic patients. Thus, by fortifying and improving the cognitive skills, we can effectively increase proper function in treatment planning of schizophrenic patients.
Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: implications for neuropsychological assessment
Valdez P,Ramírez C,García A
ChronoPhysiology and Therapy , 2012,
Abstract: Pablo Valdez, Candelaria Ramírez, Aída GarcíaLaboratory of Psychophysiology, School of Psychology, University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, MéxicoAbstract: Circadian variations have been found in human performance, including the efficiency to execute many tasks, such as sensory, motor, reaction time, time estimation, memory, verbal, arithmetic calculations, and simulated driving tasks. Performance increases during the day and decreases during the night. Circadian rhythms have been found in three basic neuropsychological processes (attention, working memory, and executive functions), which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. The time course of circadian rhythms in cognitive performance may be modified significantly in patients with brain disorders, due to chronotype, age, alterations of the circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation, type of disorder, and medication. This review analyzes the recent results on circadian rhythms in cognitive performance, as well as the implications of these rhythms for the neuropsychological assessment of patients with brain disorders such as traumatic head injury, stroke, dementia, developmental disorders, and psychiatric disorders.Keywords: human circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, neuropsychological assessment, attention, working memory, executive functions
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