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Smallpox and polio eradication in India: comparative histories and lessons for contemporary policy
Bhattacharya,Sanjoy; Dasgupta,Rajib;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232011000200007
Abstract: this article argues that a detailed examination of factors contributing to the development of complex structures and strategies for smallpox eradication in south asia in the 1970s can provide fruitful indications for the reformulation of the national chapters of the global polio eradication programme in this region. there is a magnificent archive in the who's geneva offices, which details how smallpox eradication outbreaks were located and then contained in cities, small towns and remote rural areas in this region, by teams of international workers working closely with local officials. a systematic assessment of the global smallpox eradication efforts indicates parallels between the early stages of the global smallpox eradication programme and the present situation of the polio campaign; as we will see here, it can also provide useful indicators for future action in south asia and beyond.
Preface  [cached]
editor support
International Journal of Science and Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.12777/ijse.v2i2.1309
Abstract: Preface
Following in the footsteps of smallpox: can we achieve the global eradication of measles?
Oliver WC Morgan
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-4-1
Abstract: Like smallpox, measles virus has several biological characteristics that favour eradication. Humans are the only reservoir for the virus, which causes a visible illness and infection leading to life-long immunity. As the measles virus has only one genetic serotype which is relatively stable over time, the same basic vaccine can be used world-wide. Vaccination provides protection against measles infection for at least 15 years, although efficacy may be reduced due to host factors such as nutritional status. Measles vaccination may also confer other non-specific health benefits leading to reduced mortality. Accurate laboratory identification of measles cases enables enhanced surveillance to support elimination programmes. The "catch-up, keep-up, follow-up" vaccination programme implemented in the Americas has shown that measles elimination is possible using existing technologies. On 17th October 2003 the "Cape Town Measles Declaration" by the World Health Organisation and the United Nations Childrens Fund called on governments to intensify efforts to reduce measles mortality by supporting universal vaccination coverage and the development of more effective vaccination.Although more difficult than for smallpox, recent experience in the Americas suggests that measles eradication is technically feasible. Growing international support to deliver these programmes means that measles, like smallpox, may very well become a curiosity of history.On the 26th October 1977, the last known case of naturally acquired smallpox occurred in Somalia [1]. This promised a new era in which many infectious diseases would be eradicated. However, nearly a quarter of a century later, 1.7 million children die each year from vaccine preventable diseases, nearly half due to measles (Figure. 1). Although an effective measles vaccine has been available for almost 40 years [2], in 2000 there were about 30 million measles infectious worldwide and 777,000 measles-related deaths [3]; measles is the 5th
Smallpox eradication, laboratory visits, and a touch of tourism: travel notes of a Canadian scientist in Brazil
Palmer, Steven;Hochman, Gilberto;Arbex, Danieli;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702010000300012
Abstract: the paper presents and discusses the travel notes diary of canadian scientist robert j. wilson when he visited brazil in april 1967 during the smallpox eradication programme run by the world health organisation. wilson's report makes it possible to reflect on the smallpox eradication campaign in brazil; on the canada-brazil cooperation to improve the quality of the smallpox vaccine; on his assessment by of scientists and brazilian laboratories; on the effects of intersections between scientific activity and social and cultural activities; on the role played by specialist communities of experts role in international scientific cooperation projects; and on a canadian traveller's concepts and prejudices about brazil at the end of the 1960s.
Preface  [cached]
Martin Paul Eve,Samuel Thomas,Doug Haynes,Simon de Bourcier
Orbit : Writing Around Pynchon , 2012,
Abstract: Preface to Orbit 1.1.
PREFACE  [cached]
Christa Van der Walt
Per Linguam : A Journal of Language Learning , 2012, DOI: 10.5785/28-1-115
Abstract: Preface to Per Linguam 28(1)
Struggling to a monumental triumph: re-assessing the final phases of the smallpox eradication program in India, 1960-1980
Bhattacharya, Sanjoy;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702007000400002
Abstract: the global smallpox program is generally presented as the brainchild of a handful of actors from the who headquarters in geneva and at the agency's regional offices. this article attempts to present a more complex description of the drive to eradicate smallpox. based on the example of india, a major focus of the campaign, it is argued that historians and public health officials should recognize the varying roles played by a much wider range of participants. highlighting the significance of both indian and international field officials, the author shows how bureaucrats and politicians at different levels of administration and society managed to strengthen-yet sometimes weaken-important program components. centrally dictated strategies developed at who offices in geneva and new delhi, often in association with indian federal authorities, were reinterpreted by many actors and sometimes changed beyond recognition.
Balmis y su humanitaria contribución para la eliminación de la viruela Balmis and his humanitarian contribution to eradication of smallpox  [cached]
Belkys María Galindo Santana,Denis Berdasquera Corcho,Lázara Alfonso Berrio,Raydel Martínez Sánchez
Revista Cubana de Salud Pública , 2005,
Abstract: El mundo de las vacunas es fascinante; y ellas, sin dudas, contribuyen al bienestar del género humano. Jenner quedará en los anales de la historia, como el pionero de la vacunación al realizar la primera inoculación contra la viruela y abrir el camino para el desarrollo futuro de otras, siendo este uno de los éxitos más importantes de la medicina preventiva. Por otra parte, la expedición de Balmis continuadora de la obra de Jenner, es considerada como un hecho singular, destinado a cumplir una misión humanitaria, que contribuyó en gran medida a la erradicación de la viruela, y que llevó a muchos países la única forma de inmunización presente en aquellos momentos. Por el impacto científico que para el desarrollo de la medicina ha tenido esta obra, se realizó una revisión sobre la historia de esta expedición y se exponen nuestras consideraciones y valoraciones The world of vaccines is fascinating and they undoubtedly contribute to the well-being of the human being. Jenner will remain in the annals of history as the pioneer of vaccination since he performed the first inoculation against smallpox, being this one of the most important successes in preventive medicine, and paved the way for the future development of other vaccines. On the other hand, Balms` expedition, the continuation of Jenner`s work, is considered an extraordinary event aimed at fulfiling a humanitarian mission that greatly contributed to eradication of smallpox, taking the only form of immunization existing at that time to many countries. Given the scientific impactof this work on medical development, we made a review of the history of this expedition and presented our considerations and assessment in this respect
Preface
eXPRESS Polymer Letters , 2010, DOI: 10.3144/expresspolymlett.2010.57
Abstract: Editorial, Preface of Special Issue devoted to 10th Brazilian Polymer Congress
Development of a Charting Method to Monitor the Individual Performance of Surgeons at the Beginning of Their Career  [PDF]
Antoine Duclos, Matthew J. Carty, Jean-Louis Peix, Cyrille Colin, Stuart R. Lipsitz, Jean-Louis Kraimps, Fabrice Menegaux, Fran?ois Pattou, Fréderic Sebag, Nicolas Voirin, Sandrine Touzet, Stéphanie Bourdy, Jean-Christophe Lifante, CATHY Study Group
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041944
Abstract: Background Efforts to provide a valid picture of surgeons’ individual performance evolution should frame their outcomes in relation to what is expected depending on their experience. We derived the learning curve of young thyroidectomy surgeons as a baseline to enable the accurate assessment of their individual outcomes and avoid erroneous conclusions that may derive from more traditional approaches. Methods Operative time and postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy of 2006 patients who underwent a thyroidectomy performed by 19 young surgeons in five academic hospitals were monitored from April 2008 to December 2009. The database was randomly divided into training and testing datasets. The training data served to determine the expected performance curve of surgeons during their career and factors influencing outcome variation using generalized estimating equations (GEEs). To simulate prospective monitoring of individual surgeon outcomes, the testing data were plotted on funnel plots and cumulative sum charts (CUSUM). Performance charting methods were utilized to present outcomes adjusted both for patient case-mix and surgeon experience. Results Generation of performance curves demonstrated a gradual reduction in operative time from 139 (95% CI, 137 to 141) to 75 (71 to 80) minutes, and from 15.7% (15.1% to 16.3%) to 3.3% (3.0% to 3.6%) regarding the nerve palsy rate. Charts interpretation revealed that a very young surgeon had better outcomes than expected, whereas a more experienced surgeon appeared to be a poor performer given the number of years that he had already spent in practice. Conclusions Not considering the initial learning curve of surgeons exposes them to biased measurement and to misinterpretation in assessing their individual performance for thyroidectomy. The performance chart represents a valuable tool to monitor the outcome of surgeons with the expectation to provide safe and efficient care to patients.
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