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MicroPayment based on Scrip
基于票据的微支付形式

WANG Hai-Yuan WANG Qian,
王海源
,王茜

计算机科学 , 2003,
Abstract: This paper describes two kinds of micropayment based on scrip-Millicent and MicroMint, especially analyzes their security, advantages and disadvantages, then prospects the development of micropayment.
Trapped modes for periodic structures in waveguides  [PDF]
Julian Edward
Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: The Laplace operator is considered for waveguides perturbed by a periodic structure consisting of N congruent obstacles spanning the waveguide. Neumann boundary conditions are imposed on the periodic structure, and either Neumann or Dirichlet conditions on the guide walls. It is proven that there are at least N (resp. N-1) trapped modes in the Neumann case (resp. Dirichlet case) under fairly general hypotheses, including the special case where the obstacles consist of line segments placed parallel to the waveguide walls. This work should be viewed as an extension of "Periodic structures on waveguides" by Linton and McIvor.
Arquitectura de un Billete Electrónico Anónimo: Medios Electrónicos de Pagos
García,M.E.; Vázquez,R.;
Información tecnológica , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-07642005000300010
Abstract: in this paper the structure of an organized sequence of bits that represents an electronic bill is proposed. two procedures were considered in this work: the comparison and analysis of the current systems of electronic payment (first virtual, cybercash, cybercoin, millicent, ecash, mondex and smart cards), and the analysis of the properties of a bank bill in mexico. the generated electronic bill is built with hash functions, digital signatures and mac codes, and it is demonstrated that it has good attributes of anonymity, integrity and authenticity, necessary conditions of an electronic payment system.
Arquitectura de un Billete Electrónico Anónimo: Medios Electrónicos de Pagos Architecture of an Anonymous Electronic Bill: Electronic Payments Systems  [cached]
M.E. García,R. Vázquez
Información Tecnológica , 2005,
Abstract: En este artículo se propone la estructura de una secuencia organizada de bits que representa un billete electrónico. Los procedimientos considerados en el trabajo fueron: la comparación y análisis de los sistemas de pago electrónico actuales (First Virtual, Cybercash, Cybercoin, Millicent, eCash, Mondex y Tarjetas Inteligentes), y el análisis de las propiedades de un billete bancario en México. El billete electrónico generado se construye con Funciones Hash, Firmas Digitales y Códigos MAC, y se demuestra que posee buenos atributos de anonimato, integridad y autenticidad, condiciones necesarias en un sistema de pago electrónico. In this paper the structure of an organized sequence of bits that represents an electronic bill is proposed. Two procedures were considered in this work: the comparison and analysis of the current systems of electronic payment (First Virtual, Cybercash, Cybercoin, Millicent, eCash, Mondex and Smart Cards), and the analysis of the properties of a bank bill in Mexico. The generated electronic bill is built with Hash Functions, Digital Signatures and MAC Codes, and it is demonstrated that it has good attributes of anonymity, integrity and authenticity, necessary conditions of an electronic payment system.
A Novel Peer-to-peer Payment Protocol  [cached]
Despoina Palaka,Petros Daras,Kosmas Petridis,Michael G. Strintzis
International Journal of Network Security , 2007,
Abstract: In this paper a novel electronic payment protocol suitable for ``peer-to-peer'' (P2P) networks is presented. It implements electronic cash-based transactions, between buyers and merchants. It is based on a bank account, though it can be easily extended and can be readily applied to other account payment models like debit cards. The proposed protocol is designed using Millicent's main concept (scrip) and the digital envelope cryptography technique. In this protocol, financial institutions become partners in the e-commerce transaction, conducted by their customers over the Internet. The innovation of the proposed protocol is the reduction of the involvement of the financial institutions to ancillary support services like helping on establishing trust between the parties and at the completion of the peer-to-peer payment transaction. Moreover, the proposed system can be characterized as distributed allocation of provinces to merchants, who are responsible for locally authorizing payments. Finally, it is optimized for repeated payments to the same merchants.
Retinopathy among type 2 diabetic patients seen at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria: a preliminary report  [cached]
Adeyinka Ashaye,Ayodeji Arije,Modupe Kuti,Bolutife Olusanya
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2008,
Abstract: Adeyinka Ashaye1, Ayodeji Arije2, Modupe Kuti3, Bolutife Olusanya1, Ezekiel Ayeni1, Adesoji Fasanmade4, Kehinde Akinlade3, Millicent Obajimi5, Jokotade Adeleye41Ophthalmology Department, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; 2Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; 3Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; 4Endocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; 5Radiology Department, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, NigeriaObjective: To determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among patients attending the diabetic clinics of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria.Methodology: We examined the eyes of 76 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus between July 2003 and January 2004 using dilated fundoscopy at the eye clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan. The results were compared with published figures.Results: Mean age of patients was 57.5 ± 10.4 years. Thirty–two patients (42.1%) had diabetic retinopathy. Of these, one patient had features of proliferative diabetic retinopathy while the other patients had non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Majority (53.1%) of those who had retinopathy had diabetes for more than 10 years, while 21.4% of patients without retinopathy had diabetes for more than 10 years (p = 0.005). The mean serial post-prandial plasma glucose of those who had retinopathy was higher when compared with the mean for those who did not have retinopathy (248.7 mg/dl vs 178.3 mg/dl; p = 0.003).Conclusion: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in our patients is higher than was previously reported in earlier studies. Patients with diabetes ought to be referred for ophthalmological evaluation and follow-up which they should be actively encouraged to attend.Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, tertiary hospital patients, Africans
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