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Vniversitas , 2008,
Abstract: this article describes one of the main problems of constitutionalism in colombia: the persistence of constitutional instability, and the way in which this instability, representing a very common tradition in latin american legal systems, is far from harmonizing with the basic tenets of constitutionalism, as with the institutional developments of societies showing better indicators of economic and democratic performance. this paper underscores the intimate connection existing between this fact and the technical inconsistencies of the 1991 colombian constitution, which did not create the adequate mechanisms needed to protect the country's constitutional pact. in this way, an opportunity was created for those judges deciding constitutional issues to establish limits on the power of constitutional reform, through the theory of the substitution of the constitution.
Eighteenth Amendment in the Constitution of Pakistan: Success and Controversies  [cached]
Mahboob Hussain,Rizwan Ullah Kokab
Asian Social Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n1p81
Abstract: The paper is a critical analysis of the 18th Amendment in the Constitution of Pakistan. The Amendment made after months of deliberations and consensus of a committee represented by all political parties in the parliament has, as claimed by its authors, cleaned the Constitution with the later undemocratic additions and deletions. The paper examines how the Amendment has undertaken different issues concerning to the strength of democracy, institutions and federation of Pakistan. The paper observes the concerns, purposes and impacts of not less than all changes made in the Constitution in the domains of democracy, civil rights, strength of parliament, provincial autonomy, decrease in the powers of President, political parties, and appointment of election commission and judiciary. Having observed its achievements an overview of the controversies, which arose in the result of the Amendment, has been taken.
Cross Burning as Hate Speech Under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution  [cached]
Wilson R. Huhn
Amsterdam Law Forum , 2009,
Abstract: Cross burning is a particularly vicious form of a€ hate speech.a€ Some American states and cities have enacted laws prohibiting cross burning, and in two cases (R.A.V. v. City of St. Paul (1992) and Virginia v. Black (2003)) the United States Supreme Court has issued decisions regarding the constitutionality of those laws.. These cases establish the principle that under the First Amendment hate speech is not punishable as a crime unless the speaker intended to threaten another person or the speaker intended to incite an imminent act of violence. Furthermore, the cases reinforce the principle that under the First Amendment a person may be convicted of a expressive crime only if the law under which the defendant was charged is narrowly drawn to prohibit only a€ unprotecteda€ speech.
Amendment of the Foreign lnvestment Juridical regime in Colombia
Cristina Vargas Guzman
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 1992,
Abstract: Colombia, integrated in the Andean Group, is now going through a period of economic and institutional modernization and has initiated a serie of modifications, specially of its international trade, finantial, tax, exchange and labour regimes. These have involved some changes which guarantee legislative stability to investors and thus set the grounds for the foreign participation in the economic modernization and internationalization process in Colombia. These facilities need the support of developed countries to achieve its aims.
Los derechos humanos y el nuevo artículo 1° constitucional Human Rights and the New Amendment to Article 1 of the Constitution  [cached]
José de Jesús Orozco Henríquez
Revista IUS , 2011,
Abstract: El trabajo aborda el alcance, sentido e implicaciones de la reciente reforma al artículo 1° constitucional en el ámbito de los derechos humanos. Al efecto, destaca la importancia de incorporar el lenguaje de los derechos humanos al texto constitucional y de reconocer expresamente la vigencia de los derechos humanos de fuente internacional. Al respecto, sostiene que, con la reforma, las normas internacionales que establezcan derechos humanos en que el Estado mexicano sea parte, se incorporan al bloque de constitucionalidad o coto vedado, según el cual ningún poder constituido está en posibilidad de restringirlos o suspenderlos, salvo en los casos de emergencia y los condicionamientos establecidos en la propia Constitución. This article addresses the extent, meaning and implications of the recent amendment to the Article 1 of the Constitution in the field of human rights. At the end it stresses the importance of incorporating human rights language to the Constitution and specifically recognizes the validity of human rights from international sources. In this regard, it argues that with the amendment, the international laws that establish human rights in which the Mexican State is a party to, will be incorporated into the block of constitutionality limits, according to which no power can restrict or suspend, except in cases of emergency and the conditions established in the Constitution.
Monuj Boruah
International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: People’s participation in PRI devotes to direct involvement of grass root level people in administration. The involvement is not only in policy formation or planning but also in implementation of the policies in the rural and remotes areas. In a predominantly agrarian country like India, any attempt aiming at a radical change in the socio-economic condition of the masses must be directed towards rural masses because they are the backbone of our existence. People’s participation in PRIs is very necessary for the survival of a democracy like India, where the rural peoples forms the base of our existence.This paper tries to examine the question of people’s participation in PRIs specially in Gaon Panchayat and how far the objectives of the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act; 1992 has executed in Assam with special reference to two Gaon Panchayats, viz., Tamulisiga and Bamunpukhuri Gaon Panchayat under East Jorhat Development Block, Kaliapani in Jorhat District.
Supremacy distribution in evolving networks  [PDF]
Janusz A. Holyst,Agata Fronczak,Piotr Fronczak
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.70.046119
Abstract: We study a supremacy distribution in evolving Barabasi-Albert networks. The supremacy $s_i$ of a node $i$ is defined as a total number of all nodes that are younger than $i$ and can be connected to it by a directed path. For a network with a characteristic parameter $m=1,2,3,...$ the supremacy of an individual node increases with the network age as $t^{(1+m)/2}$ in an appropriate scaling region. It follows that there is a relation $s(k) \sim k^{m+1}$ between a node degree $k$ and its supremacy $s$ and the supremacy distribution $P(s)$ scales as $s^{-1-2/(1+m)}$. Analytic calculations basing on a continuum theory of supremacy evolution and on a corresponding rate equation have been confirmed by numerical simulations.
Reaching Quantum Supremacy with a Boson Sampling Experiment  [PDF]
Ludovico Latmiral
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Boson Sampling represents a promising witness of the supremacy of quantum systems as a resource for the solution of computational problems. The classical hardness of Boson Sampling has been related to the so called Permanent-of-Gaussians Conjecture and has been extended to some generalizations such as scattershot Boson Sampling, approximate and lossy sampling under some reasonable constraints. However, it is still unclear how demanding these bounds are for a quantum experimental sampler. Starting from a state of the art analysis and focusing on the foreseeable practical conditions needed to reach quantum supremacy, we look at different techniques and present a more general and effective solution. We apply our approach to both the experimental suggestions presented to date and we eventually find in both cases a new threshold that is less error sensitive and experimentally more feasible.
Melanoma lentiginoso acral: una variante de melanoma maligno de especial interés en Colombia
Colmenares Roldán,Lina María; Velásquez Lopera,Margarita; Vargas Suaza,Gloria Andrea;
Iatreia , 2008,
Abstract: acral lentiginous melanoma (alm) is a rapidly progressive variant of malignant melanoma (mm). it constitutes 5-10% of all cases of mm and its prevalence is higher in blacks, asians and latin americans. in colombia, the incidence of mm is increasing and alm is one of its most common variants (14.7% of all melanoma cases). the mean age at presentation of the disease is 58 years, and the survival rate is lower in black people, partly due to delayed diagnoses. alm is located in the soles, palms and subungual regions. mutations in several genes have been described in the pathogenesis of alm, namely: 9p21 (p16: 67%), 11q13 (ccnd1) (47%), 22q11-q13 (40%) and 5p15 (20%). the diagnosis of alm has been traditionally based on histopathology; however, other diagnostic tools such as dermoscopy, evaluation of the sentinel lymph node and detection of alterations in proteins that control the cell cycle, may contribute to earlier diagnoses and, consequently, improve the prognosis of both alm and mm.
Constitutional Amendment—The Proposal Stage  [PDF]
Dag Anckar
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2017.81004
Abstract: Studies of the rigidity of constitutional amendment often focus on formulas that are applied in the final stages of amendment, stating that amendments must be decided by a two-thirds parliamentary majority, by a three-fourths majority, by referendum, by a combination of several such prescriptions, and so forth. However, much can probably be added to our knowledge of rigidity causes and consequences by expanding research to cover other decision stages, like the proposal stage, which conveys the right of constitutional amendment initiative on specified actors and institutions. While several countries do not in their current constitutions regulate the constitutional amendment proposal stage, initiative prescriptions are in fact given in a majority of the constitutions of the countries of the world, the precise number being 111. The number is impressive and certainly suggests that the proposal stage merits comparative study and examination. Initiating such examination, a preliminary empirical investigation of initiative clauses in 40 selected countries suggests that accounting for initiative rigidity makes in many cases a difference that alters the rigidity profiles that emanate from more traditional approaches to rigidity; in consequence, measurements of constitutional rigidity should preferably observe not only the decisive amendment stage but also include methods that are used for proposing amendments.
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