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Comparative of feeding behaviors of Sitobion avenae, Sitobion graminum and Rhopalosiphum padi (Homoptera: Aphididae) using electrical penetration graph (EPG)
基于EPG的麦长管蚜、麦二叉蚜和禾谷缢管蚜取食行为比较

MIAO Jin,WU Yuqing,YU Zhenxing,DUAN Yun,JIANG Yueli,LI Guoping,
苗进
,武予清,郁振兴,段云,蒋月丽,李国平

生态学报 , 2011,
Abstract: 麦长管蚜Sitobion avenae (Fabricius),麦二叉蚜Schizaphis graminum (Rondani)和禾谷缢管蚜Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus)虽然都取食小麦,但其取食部位、传毒能力均有差异。利用EPG研究了3种麦蚜在同一寄主植物上的取食行为,结果显示:(1)禾谷缢管蚜在取食过程中G波出现的时间最早,G波总的持续时间和每次刺探G波的平均持续时间都明显长于麦长管蚜和麦二叉蚜。麦长管蚜第1次E1波的时间、E1波总的持续时间和每次刺探E1波的平均持续时间都明显比麦二叉蚜和禾谷缢管蚜要长。麦二叉蚜E2波总的持续时间和每次刺探E2波的平均持续时间都明显长于麦长管蚜和禾谷缢管蚜。表明3种蚜虫各自拥有不同取食策略。禾谷缢管蚜比其它两种蚜虫需要更多的水分和无机盐,麦长管蚜通过分泌大量唾液增大对食物的利用率,麦二叉蚜通过增加韧皮部取食时间以满足对营养的需要。(2)刺探过程中麦二叉蚜pd波出现的次数为(51.97±7.82)次,高于麦长管蚜的(44.73±4.52)次和禾谷缢管蚜的(32.99±4.22)次。麦二叉蚜pd波Ⅱ-2和Ⅱ-3亚波的时间最长,禾谷缢管蚜最短,三者之间差异达显著水平。表明与其它两种麦蚜相比,麦二叉蚜在取食过程中口针与细胞间的接触频率更高,与细胞内获毒和传毒相关的Ⅱ-3波和Ⅱ-2波持续时间更长,增加了获毒和传毒的几率,是其传毒能力最强的机理。
Evaluación de la resistencia a Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) en cebada Assessment of resistance against Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in barley  [cached]
Erica F. Tocho,Ana M. Marino de Remes Lenicov,Ana M. Castro
Revista de la Sociedad Entomol?3gica Argentina , 2012,
Abstract: El pulgón verde de los cereales, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), es una de las principales plagas de estos cultivos en el mundo y también presente en Argentina. Si bien el control químico es la práctica más utilizada, el uso de variedades resistentes (uno de los componentes principales del MIP) es la estrategia más efectiva y ambientalmente más amigable para el control de plagas. Dado que las plantas presentan distintos mecanismos que les permiten defenderse de los insectos, el objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la resistencia a Schizaphis graminum en una población de líneas recombinantes de cebada, e identificar aquellas con mejores características, portadoras de genes de resistencia a este insecto. La antixenosis fue analizada por la prueba de libre selección de hospederos. La antibiosis se evaluó por los parámetros del ciclo y el desarrollo del áfido y la tolerancia por características de crecimiento de las plantas bajo infestación. Al menos ocho líneas antibióticas fueron más tolerantes que sus testigos, presentando similares pesos secos, área foliar y contenido de clorofila bajo infestación. Estas líneas portadoras de genes de resistencia pueden ser de utilidad en los planes de mejora de la cebada. Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is one of the major pests of cereals around the world that is present in Argentina. Chemical control is the most widely used practice; however, the use of resistant varieties, one of the main components in IPM, is the most effective and environmentally sustainable strategy of control. Since plants have different types of insect resistance that allow them to defend against pests, the aim of the current study was to characterize the resistance to Schizaphis graminum in a population of recombinant inbred lines of barley and to identify lines with improved characteristics that enable the development of commercial cultivars. Antixenosis was studied by the host free choice test. Antibiosis was assessed by means of aphid life cycle and developmental traits. Tolerance mechanism was analyzed by plant growth parameters. At least eight lines carrying antibiosis were more tolerant than their controls, with similar dry weight, leaf area and chlorophyll contents, under infestation. These lines could provide resistance genes against this aphid pest and would be useful in plant breeding programs.
Microclimatic Morphs and Plant Distribution Analysis of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) on Wheat  [PDF]
Ibrar-ul-Hassan Akhtar,Humayun Javed,Abdul Khaliq
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Research was conducted at the experimental fields of the Crop Science Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad during winter 2003. Inqilab-91 wheat variety was sown under Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Data were collected through visual count method weekly. Overall aphid morphs distribution of both aphid species was significantly different during season 2003. Population of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) nymphs peaked to 5.508 1.22 nymphs/plant during mid March. Apterous and alates population peaked 1.293 0.486 and 1.114 0.278/plant, respectively. Morphs population of Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) including nymphs, apterous and alates peaked to 20.853 2.35, 3.516 0.771 and 0.375 0.077/plant, respectively. Corn leaf aphid mean population distribution on leaf, stem and spike was significantly different (F12,103=4.555, P=0.000; F12,103=5.367, P=0.000; F12,103=3.224, P=0.001) and non significant on flag leaf (F12,103=1.138, P=0.340) during crop season. Greenbug mean population distribution on leaf, stem, flag leaf and spike was significantly different (F12,103=12.659, P=0.000; F12,103=4.902, P=0.000; F12,103=7.147, P=0.000; F12,103=3.254, P=0.001) during 2003, respectively.
Effect of silicon applied to wheat plants on the biology and probing behaviour of the greenbug Schizaphis graminum (Rond.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Goussain, Marcio M.;Prado, Ernesto;Moraes, Jair C.;
Neotropical Entomology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2005000500013
Abstract: the effect of silicon-treated wheat plants (triticum aestivum l.) on the greenbug, schizaphis graminum (rond.) (hemiptera: aphididae) was evaluated. plants were treated with silicon incorporated to the soil and by foliar spraying. aphid development was evaluated by observing the duration of the pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive periods, as well as fecundity and longevity. probing behaviour was investigated by using the dc electrical penetration graphs (epg) technique and a "honeydew clock". silica treated plants had a clear adverse effect on aphid development. stylet penetration was not affected by treatments showing no physical barriers by the plant tissue. however, stylet was withdrawn more often on plants treated with silica, resulting in reduction of probing time. sieve elements were reached equally by aphids in all treatments and the insects remained ingesting phloem sap for similar periods. however, honeydew excretion was highly reduced indicating lower sap ingestion rate or higher sap retention inside the body. chemical changes and induced resistance are possibly related to the reduction of aphid performance.
Population Growth of Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Different Cereal Crops from the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina under Laboratory Conditions Crecimiento Poblacional de Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) sobre Diferentes Cereales de la Pampas Semiárida de Argentina en Condiciones de Laboratorio  [cached]
Lilian R Descamps,Carolina Sánchez Chopa
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2011,
Abstract: The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) is one of the main pests in a number of crops in the semiarid Pampas of Argentina. In the present study, the effect of different host plants, including Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L., and Secale cereale L. on biological parameters of R. padi L. was studied in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 photoperiod. Longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m), net reproductive rate (R0), mean generation time (T), doubling time (DT), and finite rate of increase (λ) of the bird cherry-oat aphid on the different cereal crops were estimated. Differences in fertility life table parameters of R. padi among host plants were analyzed using pseudo-values, which were produced by Jackknife re-sampling. Results indicated that beer barley might be the most suitable food for R. padi due to greater adult longevity (20.88 d), higher fecundity (41 nymphs female-1), higher intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.309 females female-1 d-1), lower doubling time (2.24), and lower nymphal mortality (22.2%). Therefore, it can be concluded from the present study that R. padi prefers beer barley for fast and healthy development over other cereal crops. El áfido Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) es una de las principales plagas de numerosos cultivos de la región semiárida pampeana de Argentina. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de diferentes cereales incluidos Triticum aestivum L., ×Triticosecale Wittm., Hordeum vulgare L., Hordeum distichum L., Avena sativa L. and Secale cereale L. sobre los parámetros biológicos de R. padi en laboratorio. Se estimaron longevidad, tasa intrínseca de crecimiento natural (r m), tasa neta de reproducción (R0), tiempo generacional medio (T), tiempo de duplicación (TD), y tasa finita de incremento (λ) del pulgón de la avena en diferentes cereales. Las diferencias de los parámetros biológicos de R. padi entre los distintos cultivos fueron analizadas utilizando pseudovalores con la técnica de Jackknife. Los resultados indican que la cebada cervecera podría ser el cultivo más preferido por este áfido debido a la larga longevidad (20,88 d), la alta fecundidad (41 ninfas hembra-1), la alta tasa de incremento natural (0,309 hembras hembra-1 d-1), el corto tiempo de duplicación (2,24 d) y la baja mortalidad ninfal (22,2%). De los resultados obtenidos podemos inferir que R. padi tiene una mejor performance sobre la cebada cervecera que sobre el resto de cereales utilizados en este tr
Population Growth of Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Different Cereal Crops from the Semiarid Pampas of Argentina under Laboratory Conditions
Descamps,Lilian R; Sánchez Chopa,Carolina;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392011000300007
Abstract: the bird cherry-oat aphid rhopalosiphum padi l. (homoptera: aphididae) is one of the main pests in a number of crops in the semiarid pampas of argentina. in the present study, the effect of different host plants, including triticum aestivum l., ×triticosecale wittm., hordeum vulgare l., hordeum distichum l., avena sativa l., and secale cereale l. on biological parameters of r. padi l. was studied in the laboratory at 24 ± 1 °c, 65 ± 10% rh and a 14:10 photoperiod. longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), net reproductive rate (r0), mean generation time (t), doubling time (dt), and finite rate of increase (λ) of the bird cherry-oat aphid on the different cereal crops were estimated. differences in fertility life table parameters of r. padi among host plants were analyzed using pseudo-values, which were produced by jackknife re-sampling. results indicated that beer barley might be the most suitable food for r. padi due to greater adult longevity (20.88 d), higher fecundity (41 nymphs female-1), higher intrinsic rate of natural increase (0.309 females female-1 d-1), lower doubling time (2.24), and lower nymphal mortality (22.2%). therefore, it can be concluded from the present study that r. padi prefers beer barley for fast and healthy development over other cereal crops.
Parasitism Rates of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hym.: Aphidiidae) on Schizaphis graminum (Rond.) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hem.: Aphididae)
RODRIGUES, SANDRA M.M.;BUENO, VANDA H.P.;
Neotropical Entomology , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2001000400017
Abstract: the objective of the present study was to estimate the rates of parasitism of lysiphlebus testaceipes (cresson) on schizaphis graminum (rond.) and aphis gossypii glover under choice and no-choice condition tests. the experiments were carried out in a controlled environmental chamber at 25±1oc temperature, 70±10% rh, and 12h photophase. second and third instar aphid nymphs were used as hosts and for each colony one less than a day old l. testaceipes female was used. the previously mated and oviposition inexperienced female remained in contact with the hosts for 24 h. in the choice test 10 colonies of s. graminum and 10 colonies of a. gossypii having sections of sorghum leaves as substrate were used. for the no-choice test 10 colonies of s. graminum maintained on sections of sorghum leaves and 10 colonies of a. gossypii maintained on pepper leaves were used. in the choice test the parasitism was 67% and 46% for s. graminum and a. gossypii, respectively whereas in the no-choice test the parasitism was 76% for s. graminum and 56% for a. gossypii. superparasitism was not observed for s. graminum. the aphid s. graminum was the most suitable for multiplication of the parasitoid l. testaceipes under laboratory conditions.
Intera??o silício-imidacloprid no comportamento biológico e alimentar de Schizaphis Graminum (Rond.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em plantas de trigo
Costa, Rosane Rodrigues;Moraes, Jair Campos;Costa, Ronelza Rodrigues da;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542009000200014
Abstract: the greenbug schizaphis graminum (rond.) (hemiptera: aphididae) is one of the main pest insects on wheat crop, being capable of leading a plant to death by sap suction and toxin injection, in addition to transmitting viruses. a strategy recommended to the management of aphids on wheat is the use of selective insecticides, mainly in the seed treatment. this way, in this research, the objective was to monitor the feeding behavior of s. graminum on wheat plants treated with silicon and/or imidachloprid, in addition to evaluate some biological features of the insect. the experiment was carried out at the entomology department, ufla, on wheat cultivar embrapa 22, s. graminum, 1% silicic acid, and imidachloprid seed treatment. the biology assay was conduced, starting at 15, 30, and 45 days after the seed germination, and the honeydew excretion was evaluated. the treatments were distributed in factorial scheme 2 (with silicon and without silicon) x 2 (with imidachloprid and without imidachloprid), with 10 replicates. it was observed that the systemic insecticide imidachloprid acts as a deterrent on adults and it is lethal on nymphs of s. graminum up to 45 days after seed treatment. furthermore, the plants treated with silicon showed resistance to s. graminum.
Chromosome studies in southern Brazilian wheat pest aphids Sitobion avenae, Schizaphis graminum, and Methopolophium dirhodum (Homoptera: Aphididae)
Celis, Verónica E. Rubín de;Gassen, Dirceu N.;Santos-Colares, Marisa C.;Oliveira, Alice K.;Valente, Vera L.S.;
Brazilian Journal of Genetics , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-84551997000300010
Abstract: we examined the chromosome set of the aphid species sitobion avenae, schizaphis graminum and methopolophium dirhodum by means of conventional staining and c, nor, alui and haeiii banding methods. these species are considered important pests to several plants of economic interest in brazil. no variation was observed in the number of chromosomes of s. avenae, whereas there was intraspecific variation in the other two species. interspecific differences in the response to the banding treatments were observed. whereas these techniques allowed the identification of several s. graminum chromosome pairs, only the alui treatment was capable of inducing differential staining in the m. dirhodum chromosomes and no clear patterns emerged when the s. avenae preparations were treated
Temporal genotypic diversity of Schizaphis graminum (Rondani 1852) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a black oats (Avena strigosa) field
Lopes-da-Silva, Marcelo;Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132010000400021
Abstract: the aim of this work was to analyze the clonal diversity variation in schizaphis graminum during a complete phenological cycle of black oats (avena strigosa). rapd markers were used for detection of dna polymorphisms of each clonal lineage, derived from a single clone collected weekly during a period of four months, in a crop field of black oats, londrina, paraná, brazil. the monthly genotypic diversity was estimated by shannon information index (h). only four genotypes were distinguished from 122 specimens, with one of them overly predominant in all sampling dates (>60%). another genotype, apparently a later colonizer, rapidly reached greater frequency than other genotypes on the second and third month. the results of this work suggested that temporal genotypic diversity of s. graminum assessed by rapd markers was small and less variable than the genetic variation found at geographical scale.
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