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Dilemmas of Warfare in Densely Populated Civilian Areas
Moshe Tamir
Military and Strategic Affairs , 2012,
Abstract: This essay attempts to present operational perspectives on conducting warfare in densely populated areas. It also distinguishes between three types of combat within this general category, with the goal of shedding light on this complex type of warfare.
Principles of Warfare in the Densely Populated Areas of Arab Non-State Entities
Shaul Mishal
Military and Strategic Affairs , 2012,
Abstract: In Israeli research there are two types of discourse regarding how to asses and judge warfare in densely populated areas: the normative discourse and the operative discourse. In Israel, the two types of discourse, the normative and operative, limit the value of feedback and trial and error mechanisms that allow for learning in real time about the enemy's multifaceted conduct and responses. Conspicuously absent is the interactive discourse with the non-state enemy, i.e, the willingness to look at oneself through the eyes of the enemy in the course of the fighting. This discourse exists among non-state organizations such as Hizbollah and Hamas. This essay discusses three articles dealing with Operation Defensive Shield and Operation Cast Lead that reflect the normative and operative discourses common in Israel. It will also discuss statements made by Hizbollah and Hamas leader that reflect the interactive discourse.
Lawfare: The Legal Front of the IDF
Avihai Mandelblit
Military and Strategic Affairs , 2012,
Abstract: Lawfare is closely linked to the theme of this issue of Military and Strategic Affairs: the challenges facing the regular armies of law-abiding nations engaged in asymmetrical confrontations in densely populated civilian urban areas. Therefore, as part of its preparations for the challenges it may have to face in the future, particularly in this type of fighting, the IDF must give the proper weight to the legal front that is likely to develop as an integral part of the same confrontation.
The Challenges of Fighting in Densely Populated Areas: The Israeli Case
Arnon Soffer
Military and Strategic Affairs , 2012,
Abstract: Since the middle of the twentieth century there has been a process of dramatic change in the history of warfare. The change in the landscape, i.e., natural landscapes turning into urban areas, requires a change in the nature of war, both on the part of the defense and on the part of the attacker. Longstanding rules among military experts to avoid entering cities unless absolutely necessary are no longer relevant given the changing reality. Today, areas that in the past were open have become urban, thereby not leaving the attacker any choice but to conduct urban warfare. Moreover, decisions are no longer taken on the open battlefield, rather in the offices of the decision makers, relatively few in number, who are generally tucked away in city centers (often near TV studios and other communications centers shielded by massive numbers of hostages).
Operation Unified Protector: Targeting Densely Populated Areas in Libya
Christian de Cock
Military and Strategic Affairs , 2012,
Abstract: Although at rst sight many issues related to targeting densely populated areas seem similar, regardless of the type of con ict and the area where hostilities take place, it should be recalled that what works in the framework of one operation does not necessarily work in another operational context. This can be illustrated by two contemporary con icts in which air assets play or played a major role: Afghanistan and Libya. Air operations conducted in the framework of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) are similar but not identical (and thus different) from those conducted during Operation Uni ed Protector (OUP). This is based on the fact that different criteria impact on the execution of air operations, including: the strategic end state, the nature of the enemy forces, the classi cation of the con ict, the mission-speci c air operations, the presence of ground forces, and the rules of engagement. It is crucial to be aware of those differences, because otherwise there is a risk of applying the wrong standards or the wrong rules of engagement to the wrong con ict. What worked for Operation Uni ed Protector worked in Libya (at that time) but doesn’t necessarily work in Afghanistan, and vice versa. This is a logical consequence of the differing surrounding conditions in which the air crews had to operate in Afghanistan and Libya. In sum: every con ict is characterized by its own dynamics, despite the similarities to other con icts.
Characterization of Road Traffic Emissions in a Densely Populated Residential Area of Kuwait  [cached]
Karim N. Jallad,Cyntia Espada-Jallad
Environment and Natural Resources Research (ENRR) , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/enrr.v2n2p2
Abstract: Analysis of road traffic emissions in the Salmiyah residential area of Kuwait was conducted over a period of 12 months, from March 2008 to February 2009. Salmiyah is a densely populated area, mainly by expatriates. Apartment buildings are the dominant type of dwellings available in Salmiyah. Major highways surround this residential area where heavy traffic congestion occurs during rush hours. The objectives of this work were: to monitor ambient tropospheric levels of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and ozone (O3), to understand their diurnal behaviors, and to study their seasonal trends. The results of this study indicated that (i) CO, NO2, SO2, NMHC and O3 exceeded the ambient air quality standards during specific times of the year; (ii) the diurnal patterns for CO, SO2, NO2, and NMHC showed three peaks which were directly dependent on high traffic density, while only two daily maxima were observed in the case of O3; (iii) O3 compared to the other gaseous pollutants exhibited a completely opposite monthly mean distribution since the highest concentration levels were detected during the summer season (July and August).
Tsunami inundation modelling based on detailed roughness maps of densely populated areas  [PDF]
G. Gayer,S. Leschka,I. N?hren,O. Larsen
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-10-1679-2010
Abstract: An important part within the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) project was the detailed numerical investigation of the impact of tsunamis in densely populated coastal areas of Indonesia. This work, carried out by the German Research Centre Geesthacht (GKSS), in co-operation with DHI-WASY, also provides the basis for the preparation of high resolution hazard and risk maps by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). In this paper a method is described of how to prepare very detailed roughness maps for scenario computations performed with the MIKE 21 Flow Model FM in three highly resolved (~10 m) priority regions, namely Kuta (Bali), Padang (West-Sumatra), and Cilacap (southern coast of Java). Roughness values are assigned to 43 land use classes, e.g. different types of buildings, rural and urban sub-areas, by using equivalent coefficients found in literature or by performing numerical experiments. Comparisons of simulations using differentiated roughness maps with simulations using constant values (a widely used approach) are presented and it is demonstrated that roughness takes considerable influence on run-up and inundation. Out of all simulations, the results of the worst case scenarios for each of the three priority areas are discussed. Earthquakes with magnitudes of MW=8.5 or higher lead to considerable inundation in all study sites. A spatially distinguished consideration of roughness has been found to be necessary for detailed modelling onshore.
Summer ammonia measurements in a densely populated Mediterranean city
M. Pandolfi, F. Amato, C. Reche, A. Alastuey, R. P. Otjes, M. J. Blom,X. Querol
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: Real-time measurements of ambient concentrations of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) were performed in Barcelona (NE Spain) in summer between May and September 2011. Two measurement sites were selected: one in an urban background traffic-influenced area (UB) and the other in the historical city centre (CC). Levels of NH3 were higher at CC (5.6 ± 2.1 μg m 3 or 7.5 ± 2.8 ppbv) compared with UB (2.2 ± 1.0 μg m 3 or 2.9 ± 1.3 ppbv). This difference is attributed to the contribution from non-traffic sources such as waste containers, sewage systems, humans and open markets more dense in the densely populated historical city centre. Under high temperatures in summer these sources had the potential to increase the ambient levels of NH3 well above the urban-background-traffic-influenced UB measurement station. Measurements were used to assess major local emissions, sinks and diurnal evolution of NH3. The measured levels of NH3, especially high in the old city, may contribute to the high mean annual concentrations of secondary sulfate and nitrate measured in Barcelona compared with other cities in Spain affected by high traffic intensity. Ancillary measurements, including PM10, PM2.5, PM1 levels (Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm, 2.5 μm, and 1 μm), gases and black carbon concentrations and meteorological data, were performed during the measurement campaign. The analysis of specific periods (3 special cases) during the campaign revealed that road traffic was a significant source of NH3. However, its effect was more evident at UB compared with CC where it was masked given the high levels of NH3 from non-traffic sources measured in the old city. The relationship between SO42 daily concentrations and gas-fraction ammonia (NH3/(NH3 + NH4+)) revealed that the gas-to-particle phase partitioning (volatilization or ammonium salts formation) also played an important role in the evolution of NH3 concentration in summer in Barcelona.
A System for Household Enumeration and Re-identification in Densely Populated Slums to Facilitate Community Research, Education, and Advocacy  [PDF]
Dana R. Thomson, Shrutika Shitole, Tejal Shitole, Kiran Sawant, Ramnath Subbaraman, David E. Bloom, Anita Patil-Deshmukh
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093925
Abstract: Background We devised and implemented an innovative Location-Based Household Coding System (LBHCS) appropriate to a densely populated informal settlement in Mumbai, India. Methods and Findings LBHCS codes were designed to double as unique household identifiers and as walking directions; when an entire community is enumerated, LBHCS codes can be used to identify the number of households located per road (or lane) segment. LBHCS was used in community-wide biometric, mental health, diarrheal disease, and water poverty studies. It also facilitated targeted health interventions by a research team of youth from Mumbai, including intensive door-to-door education of residents, targeted follow-up meetings, and a full census. In addition, LBHCS permitted rapid and low-cost preparation of GIS mapping of all households in the slum, and spatial summation and spatial analysis of survey data. Conclusion LBHCS was an effective, easy-to-use, affordable approach to household enumeration and re-identification in a densely populated informal settlement where alternative satellite imagery and GPS technologies could not be used.
Sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) antigen in three densely populated communities in Kumasi, Ghana
N Amidu, A Alhassan, C Obirikorang, P Feglo, SF Majeed, E Timmy-Donkoh, D Afful
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Hepatitis B infection is endemic in many developing countries including Ghana. It is also known that there are differences in the prevalence in communities of different socioeconomic levels. Re-ports are scanty on the seroprevalence of hepatitis B-virus in densely populated suburbs in Kumasi, Ghana. This study was conducted in three densely populated communities in Kumasi to determine the relative seroprevalence of hepatitis B. Serum samples were collected in 2009 during a cross-sectional survey of individuals from Aboabo, Tafo and Garrison and tested for HBsAg using a commercial test kit (One Step HBsAg Test Device, InTEC Products, INC, China) after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 783 subjects (mean age: 37.93 ± 0.62) had their samples collected for testing. There were 376 females and 407 males. A higher prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity was detected among the males (11.79%) as compared to the females (5.33%). Prevalence of sero-positivity was highest among adolescents (19-24 years, 14.14%; 25-34 years, 13.10%) and children (<19 years, 12.26%) and lowest among the aged >54 years old. Of all the three sub-populations sampled, only Garrison was determined to be in the intermediate endemicity class for HBsAg (6.78%); both Aboabo (9.02%) and Tafo (10.0%) are in the high endemicity class. However, overall prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity was 8.68%. Our study suggests that in Ghana, local prevalence of the disease may vary widely, possibly as a consequence of lifestyle and socioeconomic variations even in closely related settlements.
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