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Crowdsourcing Gaze Data Collection  [PDF]
Dmitry Rudoy,Dan B. Goldman,Eli Shechtman,Lihi Zelnik-Manor
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Knowing where people look is a useful tool in many various image and video applications. However, traditional gaze tracking hardware is expensive and requires local study participants, so acquiring gaze location data from a large number of participants is very problematic. In this work we propose a crowdsourced method for acquisition of gaze direction data from a virtually unlimited number of participants, using a robust self-reporting mechanism (see Figure 1). Our system collects temporally sparse but spatially dense points-of-attention in any visual information. We apply our approach to an existing video data set and demonstrate that we obtain results similar to traditional gaze tracking. We also explore the parameter ranges of our method, and collect gaze tracking data for a large set of YouTube videos.
Gaze Holding in Healthy Subjects  [PDF]
Giovanni Bertolini, Alexander A. Tarnutzer, Itsaso Olasagasti, Elham Khojasteh, Konrad P. Weber, Christopher J. Bockisch, Dominik Straumann, Sarah Marti
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061389
Abstract: Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 s)that was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s) between ±40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ±0?20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ±20?40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities.
Beloved as an Oppositional Gaze  [cached]
Weiqiang Mao,Mingquan Zhang
English Language Teaching , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v2n3p26
Abstract: This paper studies the strategy Morrison adopts in Beloved to give voice to black Americans long silenced by the dominant white American culture. Instead of being objects passively accepting their aphasia, black Americans become speaking subjects that are able to cast an oppositional gaze to avert the objectifying gaze of white Americans. Further, the novel as a whole becomes a voicing artifact that constitutes an oppositional gaze toward the silencing tendency upheld by the dominant white American culture. In this way, the black Americans manage to work out a strategy of collective coexistence in a white supremacist society.
Trends and Techniques in Visual Gaze Analysis  [PDF]
Sophie Stellmach,Lennart E. Nacke,Raimund Dachselt,Craig A. Lindley
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: Visualizing gaze data is an effective way for the quick interpretation of eye tracking results. This paper presents a study investigation benefits and limitations of visual gaze analysis among eye tracking professionals and researchers. The results were used to create a tool for visual gaze analysis within a Master's project.
Follow My Eyes: The Gaze of Politicians Reflexively Captures the Gaze of Ingroup Voters  [PDF]
Marco Tullio Liuzza, Valentina Cazzato, Michele Vecchione, Filippo Crostella, Gian Vittorio Caprara, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025117
Abstract: Studies in human and non-human primates indicate that basic socio-cognitive operations are inherently linked to the power of gaze in capturing reflexively the attention of an observer. Although monkey studies indicate that the automatic tendency to follow the gaze of a conspecific is modulated by the leader-follower social status, evidence for such effects in humans is meager. Here, we used a gaze following paradigm where the directional gaze of right- or left-wing Italian political characters could influence the oculomotor behavior of ingroup or outgroup voters. We show that the gaze of Berlusconi, the right-wing leader currently dominating the Italian political landscape, potentiates and inhibits gaze following behavior in ingroup and outgroup voters, respectively. Importantly, the higher the perceived similarity in personality traits between voters and Berlusconi, the stronger the gaze interference effect. Thus, higher-order social variables such as political leadership and affiliation prepotently affect reflexive shifts of attention.
The Gaze as constituent and annihilator  [cached]
Mats Carlsson
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/jac.v4i0.19481
Abstract: This article aims to join the contemporary effort to promote a psychoanalytic renaissance within cinema studies, post Post-Theory. In trying to shake off the burden of the 1970s film theory's distortion of the Lacanian Gaze, rejuvenating it with the strength of the Real and fusing it with Freudian thoughts on the uncanny, hopefully this new dawn can be reached. I aspire to conceptualize the Gaze in a straightforward manner. This in order to obtain an instrument for the identification of certain strategies within the filmic realm aimed at depicting the subjective destabilizing of diegetic characters as well as thwarting techniques directed at the spectorial subject. In setting this capricious Gaze against the uncanny phenomena described by Freud, we find that these two ideas easily intertwine into a draft description of a powerful, potentially reconstitutive force worth being highlighted.
TRANSNATIONAL COMPANIES AND THEIR ROLE IN GLOBALIZATION
Liviu RADU
Lex et Scientia , 2009,
Abstract: This work attempts to prove the correlation between the globalization phenomenon and transnational companies, starting from the following assessment: “globalization is the economic phenomenon which has caused the occurrence of transnational companies and subsequently, they have become the grounds for the preservation and expansion of this process on global level”. In other words, transnational companies represent today the main globalization initiator, player and beneficiary. The demonstration of the above said will be supported by several factors such as: the development of the financial-banking system, international trade, services and technology sectors. These factors are the means by which transnational companies interfere with the integration of each state in the environment of the economic activity’s globalization, even this is accomplished with large compromises detrimental to national economies.
Visions of transnational memory  [cached]
John Sundholm
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/jac.v3i0.7208
Abstract: The paper is a short introduction to the “global turn” in memory studies and to transnational memory in particular. Both culturalist and normative positions are presented. After the conceptual overview, there follows an analysis of two films, Auf der anderen Seite (2007) and Caché (2005), with special focus on the two notions “translocal” and “inclusive distinction”, and on the theme of an ethics and morality of memory. This is in order to explicate the usefulness and importance of the notion of transnational memory. Finally, the concluding remark is made that research into transnational memory is significant due to its recognising of small-scale trajectories and memory practices beyond the framework of the nation, and because of the subtle dialectics between an ethics and morality of memory—thus leading to a persistent “transnational monitoring” of the national as well.
Transnational archives: the Canadian case  [cached]
Julia Creet
Journal of Aesthetics & Culture , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/jac.v3i0.7216
Abstract: This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.
The Powerful Map of Transnational Families
Garbi Schmidt
Nordic Journal of Migration Research , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10202-011-0010-4
Abstract: Transnational families are, as the term suggests, social structures existing across national borders. Thus, individuals belonging to these families are in geographical terms separated by space. However, the practices of transnational families often provide a sense of proximity and emotional attachment. This article, by seeing space as inherently relational, discusses the fields within which families establish themselves and move transnationally. Transnational family spaces are, for example, arenas where young people meet and where marriages are arranged. This article includes the life and marriage stories of two individuals who have married transnationally, based on their family relationships, and further analyses how these marriages are element in the practices that families engage in to uphold a sense of closeness - an endeavour that is sometimes successful, sometimes not. Finally, the article discusses some elements that challenge the relational spaces that transnational families engage in, particularly the impact of nation states and their regulations.
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