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Production of cheese goat milk, “Camponês” kind, with different levels of lactic ferment Produ o de queijo de leite de cabra, tipo "Camponês", com diferentes níveis de fermento lático
Vera Lúcia Ferreira de Souza,Rejane Machado Cardozo,Maria José Baptista Barbosa
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produ??o Animal , 2008,
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of addiction of different levels of lactic ferment (Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris) in processing of “Camponês” cheese, was done with goat milk. In the cheese process 100 liters of goat milk were pasteurized, cooled at 36-38°C and added 25 g of CaCl2. Then the 100 l were divided in 4 batches of 25 L and received 0, 1, 2 and 3% of lactic ferment. Before curdle addition on 2,5g/100L, each batch of the 25 L were divided in 3 batches of 5 L. When the milk curdled the dough was disintegrate and separate of whey, it was distribute in cheese press and pressed, salted and matured for 15 days. Microbiological and physics-chemistry analyses of goat milk and cheese were done, and the coagulation time and whey volume were measures. When the amount of lactic ferment increased the coagulation time and the whey volume decreased, and the moisture and yield increased. The goat milk and the cheese exhibit excellent health conditions, and the Sensorial analyses showed the preference by cheeses maked with 1,0 and 2,0 of latic ferment. The goat milk showed fat 3,6%, protein 3,3%, density 1,0338 g/cm3 and acidity 19°D. The cheese showed fat 29,90% and protein 21,60%. O objetivo do estudo foi o de avaliar a influência da adi o de diferentes teores de fermento lático (Streptococcus lactis e Streptococcus cremoris), no processo de fabrica o do queijo tipo Camponês feito com leite de cabra. Durante o processamento foram pasteurizados 100 l de leite de cabra, resfriados a 36-38°C de temperatura, e adicionados 25 g de CaCl2. Em seguida, os 100 litros foram divididos em 4 lotes de 25 litros, recebendo as seguintes quantidades de fermento lático 0, 1, 2 e 3%. Antes da adi o do coalho na propor o de 2,5g/100l, cada lote foi dividido em triplicatas de 5 litros, e quando atingiu o ponto de corte, a massa foi dessorada, distribuída em formas, prensada, salgada e maturada durante 15 dias. Foram feitas análises microbiológicas e físico-químicas do leite e do queijo, s foram medidos os tempos de coagula o e volume de soro. à medida que se aumenta o teor de fermento lático diminui o tempo de coagula o e o volume de soro, e aumentou o rendimento e o teor de umidade. Tanto o leite de cabra como o queijo apresentaram ótima qualidade sanitária, e a Análise Sensorial mostrou uma preferência pelos queijos feitos com 1,0 e 2,0% de fermento lático. O leite de cabra apresentou 3,6% de gordura, 3,3% de proteína, 1,0338 g/cm3 de densidade e 19°D de acidez. O queijo apresentou de gordura, de proteína. Palavras-chave: St
Manufacture and Some Properties of Turkish Fresh Goat Cheese  [PDF]
Sevda Kili?,Harun Uysal,G?khan Kavas,Necati Akbulut
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Manufacturing and compositional characteristics were studied for Turkish fresh goat cheese using controlled processes. Although heat treatment and lactic acid bacteria addition are not applied in conventional production, pasteurization and starter bacteria were used during controlled manufacturing. Some physico-chemical characteristics and microbiological properties were evaluated at the 1st, 15th and 30th days of storage. Average total solid, fat, protein and salt contents were found, respectively, 38.83, 16.66, 15.42 and 3.56% at the end of 30 days storage. The number of lipolytic and proteolytic bacteria reached maximum value at 15th day and Staphylococci and coliforms were not enumerated at the end of storage period. According to sensory evaluation a weak goat milk flavor was detected in cheeses by panelists and the most acceptable cheese was at 30th day of storage from flavor point of view.
Evaluación bacteriológica de la leche y queso de cabra distribuidos en el Area Metropolitana de San José, Costa Rica
Araya,Viviana; Gallo,Leslie; Quesada,Carlos; Chaves,Carolina; Arias,María Laura;
Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición , 2008,
Abstract: bacteriological evaluation of goat milk and cheese distributed in the metropolitan area of san josé, costa rica. in the last years, there has been an increase in the production, industrialization and consumption of goat?s milk and derivate products, including cheese, worldwide. nevertheless, in costa rica there is no study of these products, reason why the objective of this work was to determine the microbiological characteristics of goat?s milk and fresh cheese distributed in the metropolitan area of san josé, costa rica, in order to evaluate its impact in the economical field and as a potential risk for public health. a total of 25 raw goat?s milk samples, obtained by manual milking from 5 different producers tested in five different dates and 15 cheese samples, elaborated with pasteurized milk, commercially available and coming from three different producers were analyzed. the study included the analysis of spoilage bacteria (total aeobic count and lactic bacteria count), indicators of hygiene (total coliforms), fecal contamination (fecal coliforms), manipulation (staphylococcus aureus) and pathogens (listeria monocytogenes and salmonella spp). high results were obtained for the total aerobic count and lactic bacteria count of the milk and cheese samples, showing a reduced shelf life. total coliforms, in limits beyond the established ones by the costa rican legislation for human consumption raw milk, were found in 100% of milk samples, as well as for fecal coliforms in 76% of them. all cheese samples, except one, were negative for these indicators, suggesting good manufacturing practices. s. aureus counts were low and both salmonella spp. and l. monocytogenes were not isolated from samples analyzed.
Effect of curd freezing and packaging methods on the organic acid contents of goat cheeses during storage  [cached]
A. Kemal Se?kin,?zlem Kizilirmak Esmer,P?nar Balkir,Pelin Gün? Erg?nül
Mljekarstvo , 2011,
Abstract: Effects of freezing and packaging methods on organic acid content of goat cheese during 12 weeks of storage were determined. Goat cheese milk curds were divided into two batches; one of the batches was directly processed in to goat cheese while the other was frozen at -18 °C and stored for six months and processed into cheese after being thawed. Cheese samples were packed in three parts and stored at 4 °C refrigerated control sample and at -18 °C for six months frozen experimental samples. Cheese samples were packed in three different packaging methods: aerobic, vacuum or modified atmosphere. Citric, malic, fumaric, acetic, lactic, pyruvic and propionic acids were analyzed using HPLC method after 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th week of storage period. Lactic acid was the main organic acids while pyruvic acid had the lowest content in all cheese samples. Citric and fumaric acid levels of frozen samples increased during storage whereas malic, acetic, pyruvic and propionic acid amounts were decreased compared to the beginning of storage. Packaging methods and freezing process also effected lactic acid levels statistically (p<0.05). Fumaric, acetic and lactic acid concentration of refrigerated samples were increased but citric, malic and propionic acids decreased during storage. Pyruvic acid level did not change significantly. It was determined that organic acid concentrations were effected by freezing process, storage time and packaging methods significantly (p<0.05).
Ripening-induced changes in microbial groups of artisanal Sicilian goats’ milk cheese  [cached]
Ambra Rita Di Rosa,Biagina Billone,Domenico Carminati,Paolo Girgenti
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2009.s2.450
Abstract: Changes in the microbial flora of “Caprino dei Nebrodi”, a raw goat’s milk cheese produced in Sicily, were studied during ripening. From 2 batches of cheese, 4 samples were taken at day 0, 2, 15, and 30 of ripening. Also, samples of curd and milk used in the manufacturing process were analyzed. By the end of the ripening process (day 30), high log10 cfu/g were found for Lactobacilli (7.20), Lattococci (7.10), and Enterococci (7.00), whereas counts of Enterobacteriaceae (3.91), Escherichia coli (3.30), and Staphylococcus (3.89) were found to be lower. The study provides useful information on the microbiological properties of “Caprino dei Nebrodi” cheese, and the results obtained suggest that in order to increase the quality of this artisanal product, it is necessary to improve the sanitary conditions of milking and cheese-making. The study was intended as a preliminary step towards the isolation and identification of bacterial species found in this type of goat’s cheese.
Changes in the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of Serrano cheese during manufacture and ripening
Souza, Claucia Fernanda Volken de;Dalla ?Rosa, Tiziano;Ayub, Marco Ant?nio Zachia;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822003000300016
Abstract: changes in the microbial flora present in six serrano cheese batches (3 ripened in summer and 3 in winter) were studied during production and ripening, to microbiologically characterize this cheese, which is traditionally manufactured by farmers in the south of brazil, using raw cow milk, without the addition of starter cultures. the levels of several microbial groups were enumerated in the milk, curd and different stages of the 60-day long ripening period. values of some physicochemical parameters, such as ph, titratable acidity, water activity, moisture and nacl content were also determined. the correlation coefficients between these parameters and the microbial groups throughout ripening were determined. the influence of the season of the year was also studied. results demonstrated that the microflora and the physicochemical characteristics of serrano cheese changed significantly during the 60-day ripening period, especially in summer. almost all microbial groups reached their highest counts after the 7th day of maturation, steadily decreasing towards the end of the process. higher microbial counts during the first week of ripening was accompanied by lactic acid production and, as a consequence, a sharp drop in the ph of cheese was observed. lactic acid bacteria comprised the main microbial group present in serrano cheese and their counts were similar to the total viable counts at all sampling points. the abundance of lactobacilli during the manufacture and ripening suggests that these microorganisms may play an important role in the production of serrano cheese. in conclusion, this work shows the importance of ripening time being longer than 30 days to allow for microbiological stabilization of this artisanal product. also, except for halotolerants and moulds counts, and for moisture content, there were no significant differences observed either for microbial counting or for physicochemical characteristics of the cheese concerning the season of the year in which
Comparison between two hay based diets in buffalo nutrition: microbiological characteristics of milk, curd and mozzarella cheese
S. Puppo,F. Grandoni,B. Ferri,S. Antonelli
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.s2.524
Abstract: Two groups of twenty milking Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed two diets, with the same energy and protein content, based on Italian ryegrass hay (diet G1) and Italian ryegrass hay silage (diet G2). Presumptive lactobacilli and lactococci were determined on milk, curd and mozzarella cheese, collected at 30, 60, 90 days from the beginning of the trial. Milk and mozzarella cheese at 30, 60, 90 days showed significantly higher microbial counts in diet G2 with respect to diet G1, apart from lactococci in milk at 90 days. For curd at 30, 60, 90 days the numbers of lactobacilli and lactococci in diet G1 were significantly higher with respect to diet G2, apart from lactococci at 30 days. Genetic analysis by 16S rDNA characterization of colonies, randomly isolated, showed in diet G2 also the presence of not lactic species. Probably Italian ryegrass hay silage, present in diet G2, could bring bacteria in the environment and consequently in the milk that are detrimental for the proper growing of lactic microflora in the curd and that are resistant to the high temperature used in the mozzarella cheese making process.
Hygienic quality of goat's milk cheese produced in rural household  [cached]
?eljka Cvrtila,Lidija Koza?inski,Alemka Koleti?
Mljekarstvo , 2001,
Abstract: An increasing number of small-scale goat breeders produce goat's milk cheese that is sold on markets. In this study we determined the chemical composition and microbiological quality of goat's milk cheese samples. It has been found that the chemical composition of the samples were not standardised. Water content varied from 42,20 to 51,20 %, milk fat content in dry matter from 32,85 to 50,28%, while acidity varied from 15,08 to 39,36 oSH. Only two samples (20%) met the microbiological standards. In 2 samples Escherichia coli in the quantities larger than 102/g was found, whereas in all 8 samples yeasts and moulds were found in quantities larger than 102/g. The results of our study have shown that the hygienic conditions of goat's milk cheese production are often inadequate. Also, the hygienic conditions of goat keeping and milking hygiene are questionable.
Production optimization of probiotic soft cheese made from goat's and cow's milk  [cached]
Ida Drgali?,Ljubica Tratnik,Rajka Bo?ani?,Sandra Koruga
Mljekarstvo , 2006,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine optimal rennet share and fat content in milk for probiotic soft cheeseproduction made from goat's and cow's milk using DVS mixed probiotic culture ABT-4 (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus), with desirable sensory properties, which will be acceptable by consumers. The best sensory scores had samples of probiotic soft cheese produced in laboratory conditions from milk with 1% of milk fat, pasteurized at 65°C/30 min., fermented at 38°C with 2% culture. To achieve characteristic consistency of traditional soft cheese, 0.01% of rennet was added to goat's milk. Probiotic soft cheese made from cow's and goat's milk, produced under optimal conditions, were 100% acceptable by the tested consumers.
Production system and seasonal effects on textural properties of two-month ripened goat’s cheese  [cached]
S. Bovolenta,N. Di Bernardo,R. Valusso,W. Ventura
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.1s.608
Abstract: Since the 1990s, there has been a revival in goat rearing and a resumption in the making of goat’s cheeses in the Province of Trento. Given this, and the local interest in maintaining the production and its traditions, a qualitative description of the goat’s cheeses is desirable. In this study, texture profile analysis, TPA, was used to examine the variability of the rheological properties, depending on production system and season, in raw milk semicooked paste goat’s cheese, ripened for two months, as the Trento Goat Cheese of Traditional Agrifood Products (D.M. n. 350, 1999).
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