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Human papillomavirus and genital cancer
Rapose Alwyn
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2009,
Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections world-wide. Low-risk HPV-types are associated with genital warts. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV-types is associated with genital cancers. Smoking and HIV infection have consistently been associated with longer duration of HPV infection and risk for genital cancer. There is an increasing incidence of anal cancers, and a close association with HPV infection has been demonstrated. Receptive anal sex and HIV-positive status are associated with a high risk for anal cancer. Two HPV vaccines are now available and offer protection from infection by the HPV-types included in the vaccine. This benefit is maximally seen in young women who were uninfected prior to vaccination.
Evaluation of the Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus DNA Test with Liquid-Based Cytology in Primary Cervical Cancer Screening and the Importance of the ASC/SIL Ratio: A Belgian Study  [PDF]
Xavier Catteau,Philippe Simon,Jean-Christophe No?l
ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/536495
Abstract: Objectives. In Belgium, very few studies have focused on cervical high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) prevalence and the relationship between HPV and cervical cytological abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate hrHPV prevalence and its relationship with cytological screening and histological results in the French-speaking community in Belgium (Brussels and Wallonia). Methods. A total of 58,265 liquid-based cytology tests were performed during this period. All cases of ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, and HSIL were tested by Hybrid Capture 2 for hrHPV screening. Results. The prevalence of cytological abnormalities was 3.1% for ASC-US, 0.3% for ASC-H, 1.5% for LSIL, and 0.3% for HSIL. The frequency of hrHPV infection was 47% in ASC-US, 90% in ASC-H, 86% in LSIL, and 98.4% in HSIL. CIN 2+ lesions were found in 12.2% of smears with an ASC-US result, in 54% of smears with an ASC-H result, in 12.5% of smears with a LSIL result, and in 89.3% of smears with a HSIL result. The ASC/SIL ratio was 1.9%. Conclusions. This study provides a good representation of cytological abnormalities and HPV status in patients living in Belgium’s French-speaking community. The prevalence in our study was similar to that derived from meta-analyses of European studies. Our ASC/SIL ratio was 1.9%, being within the lower and upper limits proposed in the literature, which tends to prove the good quality diagnosis of cervical smears in our laboratory. 1. Introduction Invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is the second most common female cancer worldwide and the third most common in Belgium [1, 2]. In Belgium, the incidence is 14.1 (Truncated age-standardised incidence rate using World Standard Population (TWSR) = 11.8) per 100,000 women per annum, while the mortality rate is 4.1 (TWSR = 2.6) per 100,000 women per annum [2]. The highest incidence of ICC in Belgium has been observed in the Brussels Capital Region. The mean age at diagnosis is 54 years. However, cervical cancer remains a rare cause of death in Belgium (1.6%) [2]. The identification of a strong causal relationship between persistent infection of the genital tract with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types and the occurrence of cervical cancer precursors and cervical cancer has resulted in the development of tests for HPV nucleic acid detection [3, 4]. ICC incidence and mortality rates have dramatically declined over the past five decades in developed countries, largely thanks to screening programs and HPV detection [5, 6]. In Belgium, very few studies have focused on cervical high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV)
Oral squamous papilloma and condyloma acuminatum as manifestations of buccal-genital infection by human papillomavirus  [cached]
dos Reis Helena Lucia,Rabelo Priscila,de Santana Maria Rubia,Ferreira Dennis
Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases , 2009,
Abstract: Genital infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease (STD), has increased considerably due to the changes in sexual behaviour and an increase in the practice of oral sex. HPV, in a parallel manner, has been closely studied due to its oncogenic potential. We present the case of a 27-year-old patient, with a multi-partner sexual history and frequent practice of oral sex, who suffered from warts lesions on the genitalia and tongue. Squamous papilloma was diagnosed from a tongue biopsy. The treatment of the oral lesion was by way of surgery, without relapse in the first two years. Our discussion in this report is regarding the HPV infection in the oral cavity.
Human papillomavirus detection in genital lesions by in situ hybridization and ultrastructural observations
Oliveira, L. H. S.;Frugulhetti, I. C. P. P.;Passos, M. R. L.;Cavalcanti, S. M. B.;Fonseca, M. E. F.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1994, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761994000200013
Abstract: detection of papillomavirus dna in sity hybridization technique was perfomed in 29 symptomatic patients (6 males and 23 females) during the period of 1989-1991 at the clinic for sexually transmitted diseases, universidade federal fluminense, state of rio de janeiro. all the male patients had condyloma acuminata. only hpv 6/11 were found in these lesions. clinical features inthe female patients included vulvar condyloma acuminata, bowenoid populosis, flat cervical condyloma, cervical condyloma acuminatum and cervical intraepithelialneoplasia grade ii (cin ii). we also found cases of condyloma acuminata associated to vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia grade iii (vin iii), as well as to vaginal invasive carcinoma. hpv 6/11 and 16/18 were found in vulvar condyloma acuminata. mixed infection by 6/11-16/18 hpv were also seen in these lesions as well as in the patient who had cervical condyloma acuminatum. hpv 16/18 were found in the condyloma acuminatum plus vin iii and in the cin ii lesions. we have found hpv31/33/51 in the specimen of condyloma acuminatum plus invasive carcinoma. in order to investigate the ultrastructural aspects of hpv infection in genital tissue, the biopsies of three female patients were observed under electron microscope.mature virus particles were found in the cells of a condyloma acuminatum as wellas in the condyloma acuminatum plus invasive carcinoma case. in another sample, chromosome breakages were found in the nuclei of the infected cells although no viral particles were observed.
Conserved Region Analysis of Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Genome  [PDF]
Usman Sumo Friend Tambunan,Herbert Wybert Butar-Butar,Radya Umbas,Zulfa Hidayah
Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the conserved regions of late genes from sequenced HPV types. HPV genome sequences were collected from the Los Alamos National Laboratory papillomavirus database. There are 74 types of HPV in the database which have completely documented genome sequences as well as their translation product. Specific types of HPV which may cause cervical cancer are grouped into high risk or low risk, according to their risk potential. This classification may differ from one research methodology to another. In order to access a representative classification, three sets of classification were studied for this research. HPV type 16 and 18 are consistently grouped as high risk, while other types of HPV varied randomly. Sequence alignment was taken and the result shows 62 conserved regions as a primer template for L1 and L2 genes. These conserved regions were then subjected to BLASTn operation in order to search the conserved region with least similarity to low risk HPV and human genome. Finally, 7 selected conserved regions were examined for secondary structures using NetPrimer program. From this operation, only region 52 (5’-ACAGGCTATGGTGCTATGGA-3’) met the criteria to be used as an oligonucleotide primer.
Canadian oncogenic human papillomavirus cervical infection prevalence: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Andrea C Tricco, Carmen H Ng, Vladimir Gilca, Andrea Anonychuk, Ba' Pham, Shirra Berliner
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-235
Abstract: We included studies reporting DNA-confirmed oncogenic HPV prevalence estimates among Canadian females identified through searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE) and public health websites. Two independent reviewers screened literature results, abstracted data and appraised study quality. Prevalence estimates were meta-analyzed among routine screening populations, HPV-positive, and by cytology/histology results.Thirty studies plus 21 companion reports were included after screening 837 citations and 120 full-text articles. Many of the studies did not address non-response bias (74%) or use a representative sampling strategy (53%).Age-specific prevalence was highest among females aged < 20 years and slowly declined with increasing age. Across all populations, the highest prevalence estimates from the meta-analyses were observed for HPV types 16 (routine screening populations, 8 studies: 8.6% [95% confidence interval 6.5-10.7%]; HPV-infected, 9 studies: 43.5% [28.7-58.2%]; confirmed cervical cancer, 3 studies: 48.8% [34.0-63.6%]) and 18 (routine screening populations, 8 studies: 3.3% [1.5-5.1%]; HPV-infected, 9 studies: 13.6% [6.1-21.1%], confirmed cervical cancer, 4 studies: 17.1% [6.4-27.9%].Our results support vaccinating females < 20 years of age, along with targeted vaccination of some groups (e.g., under-screened populations). The highest prevalence occurred among HPV types 16 and 18, contributing a combined cervical cancer prevalence of 65.9%. Further cancer protection is expected from cross-protection of non-vaccine HPV types. Poor study quality and heterogeneity suggests that high-quality studies are needed.Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in the world [1]. Over 100 virus genotypes have been identified and at least 13 are classified as oncogenic or "high-risk" (HR) because they are known to cause cervical cancer or other genital cancers [2,3]. The association between HR HPV infection and cervical canc
Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract  [PDF]
Kevin A. Ault
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/idog/2006/40470
Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.
Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2006,
Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.
Human papillomavirus infection and its association with cervical dysplasia in Ecuadorian women attending a private cancer screening clinic
Brown, C.R.;Leon, M.L.;Mu?oz, K.;Fagioni, A.;Amador, L.G.;Frain, B.;Tu, W.;Qadadri, B.;Brown, D.R.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2009000700007
Abstract: women living in latin american countries bear a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer, a condition caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (hpv). we performed a study in santa elena, guayas (currently santa elena province), ecuador, to determine how often hpv could be detected in women attending a private cancer screening clinic. participants underwent a pap test, and vaginal and cervical swabs were performed for hpv testing by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). each participant completed a verbally administered survey. the mean age of 302 participants was 37.7 years (range 18 to 78 years). the majority of cervical and vaginal specimens contained sufficient dna to perform pcr. overall, 24.2% of the participants had either a cervical or vaginal swab that tested positive for hpv. in general, there was a good correlation between the hpv types detected in the cervical and vaginal swabs from the participants, but vaginal swabs were more likely to contain hpv dna than were cervical swabs. the high-risk hpv types 16, 52, 58, and 59 and the low-risk hpv types 62, 71, 72, and 83 were the most frequently detected hpv types. the number of lifetime sexual partners was positively associated with detection of any hpv type, detection of oncogenic hpv, and abnormal pap smears. further studies are needed to determine if these results are representative of all ecuadorian women and to determine if cervical cancers in ecuadorian women are caused by the same hpv types found in the swab specimens obtained in this study.
Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study  [cached]
Albero Ginesa,Villa Luisa L,Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo,Fulp William
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-18
Abstract: Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC) may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70 years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95), in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC.
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