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Aislamiento de Yersinia enterocolitica y de Yersinia kristensenii en fecas de ovinos Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia kristensenii from ovine faeces  [cached]
J. ZAMORA,G. REINHARDT,M. POLETTE,P. MACIAS
Archivos de medicina veterinaria , 1997,
Abstract: Se analizaron 237 muestras de contenido intestinal de ovinos, de las cuales 147 correspondían a corderos muertos que habían presentado un cuadro diarreico, 48 a corderos vivos sin trastornos entéricos y 42 ovejas sanas. Las muestras se mantuvieron en PBS a 4° C durante un mes, sembrándolas semanalmente en medio para Yersinia, incubándolas a 25° C por 48 h. Unicamente de los corderos que habían presentado diarrea se aislaron 3 cepas de Y. enterocolitica, dos de las cuales pertenecían al biotipo 1 y una al biotipo 2, no se detectó fenotípicamente plásmido de virulencia y no reaccionaron con los antisueros utilizados para su serotipificación. Además, se aislaron 2 cepas de Y. kristensenii. Se discute la eventual importancia que podían tener en patologías entéricas y la conveniencia de investigar la presencia de Y. enterocolitica en casos de aborto ovino Two-hundred and thirty seven samples obtained from sheep bowel contents were examined. One hundred and fourty seven samples belonged to diarrhoeic lambs with neonatal death, 40 to clinically healthy lambs and 42 to clinically healthy ewes. Samples were kept in PBS at 4° C during one month and cultured weekly in a Yersinia medium, incubating at 25° C for 48 hours. Three strains of Y. enterocolitica, two of the biotype 1 and one of the biotype 2 were isolated from sick lamb samples. Phenotipically it was not possible to identify the virulent plasmids and no positive reaction to the antiseras used was observed. Two strains of Y. kristensenii were isolated. The importance of Y. enterocolitica in causing enteric pathologies and its importance as a cause of ovine abortion is discussed
Bacteriemia y absceso hepático causado por Yersinia enterocolitica Bacteremia and hepatic abscess caused by Yersinia enterocolitica  [cached]
A. Navascués,C. Gastesi,Y. Salicio,J.J. García-Irure
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra , 2004,
Abstract: Yersinia enterocolitica es un cocobacilo gram negativo de amplia distribución mundial cuyo reservorio natural se encuentra en una gran variedad de animales. La transmisión a los humanos se realiza principalmente a través de la vía fecal-oral aunque también se han descrito casos de transmisión a través de transfusiones sanguíneas. Su aislamiento se realiza habitualmente dentro de un cuadro gastrointestinal y rara vez produce trastornos extraintestinales como bacteriemia, abscesos, manifestaciones cutáneas, etc. éstos se han asociado a diferentes enfermedades de base como alteraciones del metabolismo del hierro, diabetes mellitus, alcoholismo, malnutrición, tumores, terapia inmunosupresora y cirrosis. Presentamos el caso de un paciente diabético que desarrolló bacteriemia asociada a abscesso hepático por Yersinia enterocolitica. Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that is distributed world-wide and whose natural reservoire is found in a great variety of animals. Transmission to humans mainly occurs through the faecal-oral path although cases have been described of transmission through blood transfusions. It is isolated within a gastro-intestinal clinical picture and it rarely produces extra-intestinal disorders such as bacteraemia, abscesses, cutaneous signs, etc. The latter have been associated with different underlying diseases such as alterations of the iron metabolism, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, malnutrition, tumours, immunosuppressant therapy and cirrhosis. We present the case of a diabetic patient who developed bacteraemia associated with hepatic abscess due to Yersinia enterocolitica.
Aislamiento de Yersinia enterocolitica y de Yersinia kristensenii en fecas de ovinos
ZAMORA,J.; REINHARDT,G.; POLETTE,M.; MACIAS,P.; ENGLISH,J.;
Archivos de medicina veterinaria , 1997, DOI: 10.4067/S0301-732X1997000200016
Abstract: two-hundred and thirty seven samples obtained from sheep bowel contents were examined. one hundred and fourty seven samples belonged to diarrhoeic lambs with neonatal death, 40 to clinically healthy lambs and 42 to clinically healthy ewes. samples were kept in pbs at 4° c during one month and cultured weekly in a yersinia medium, incubating at 25° c for 48 hours. three strains of y. enterocolitica, two of the biotype 1 and one of the biotype 2 were isolated from sick lamb samples. phenotipically it was not possible to identify the virulent plasmids and no positive reaction to the antiseras used was observed. two strains of y. kristensenii were isolated. the importance of y. enterocolitica in causing enteric pathologies and its importance as a cause of ovine abortion is discussed
A Selective Chromogenic Plate, YECA, for the Detection of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica: Specificity, Sensitivity, and Capacity to Detect Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from Pig Tonsils  [PDF]
M. Denis,E. Houard,A. Labbé,M. Fondrevez,G. Salvat
Journal of Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/296275
Abstract: A new selective chromogenic plate, YECA, was tested for its specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy to detect pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils. We tested a panel of 26 bacterial strains on YECA and compared it to PCA, CIN, and YeCM media. Detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was carried out on 50 pig tonsils collected in one slaughter house. Enrichment was done in PSB and ITC broths. Streaking on YECA and CIN was done in direct, after 24H incubation of ITC, after 48H incubation of PSB and ITC. All the plates were incubated at during 24 hours. Presence of typical colonies on CIN and YECA was checked, and isolates were biotyped. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains showed an important growth on YECA with small and red fuchsia colonies while biotype 1A exhibited very few violet colonies. Enrichment in ITC during 48H gave the best performance for detecting positive samples in pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, and YECA could detect directly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains (2, 3, and 4). Use of YECA in combination with ITC generates a time-saver by giving a positive test in 72H. 1. Introduction Y. enterocolitica is a common cause of acute enteritis in temperate and cold countries worldwide, including France. The main symptoms of human yersiniosis are diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain. Bacteria usually remain in the intestinal tract, but may also invade their host, causing abscesses in deep organs and septicemia in patients with underlying conditions [1]. In 2009, yersiniosis was, for the sixth consecutive year, the third most frequently reported human zoonosis in the Europe, with a total of 8,354 confirmed cases [2]. Y. enterocolitica was the most common Yersinia species reported in human cases in European countries, accounting for 93.8% of all confirmed cases of yersiniosis [3]. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains belong to biotypes 1B, 2, 3, 4, and 5, whereas biotype 1A strains are nonpathogenic and widespread in the environment [4]. In France and most other countries worldwide, biotype 4 is the most prevalent biotype isolated from humans (69%), followed by biotype 2 (30%) and biotype 3 (1%) [1]. Human infections most frequently occur as sporadic cases or small family-centered outbreaks [1]. Y. enterocolitica is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, and its principal reservoirs are animals. Pigs are considered the principal reservoir for the types of Y. enterocolitica pathogenic to humans, although other animal species, such as cattle, sheep, poultry, fish, deer, small rodents, cats, and dogs, may also carry pathogenic biotypes [4–9].
Análisis de una cepa de Yersinia enterocolitica aislada de heces diarreicas humanas en Argentina Analysis of a Yersinia enterocoliticaisolated from human diarreic feces in Argentina  [cached]
M. Paz,H. Muzio,S. Teves,P. Santini
Revista argentina de microbiolog?-a , 2004,
Abstract: Algunos serotipos de Yersinia enterocolitica ocasionan desde diarreas hasta infecciones invasivas. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar factores de virulencia y marcadores asociados en una cepa de Y. enterocolitica aislada de heces diarreicas humanas. El aislamiento deY. enterocolitica analizado fue incluído dentro del sub-grupo 1A.La determinación de resistencia al suero humano normal e hidrofobicidad de superficie, así como la búsqueda de los genes vir F y ail, resultaron negativos. Se demostró sin embargo producción de enterotoxina a 20 °C y también a 37 °C en condiciones de osmolaridad y pH similares a las del intestino humano. La enterotoxina, presentó reactividadpor la prueba del ratón lactante, aunque no se pudo comprobarpor PCR la presencia del gen yst. Los resultados obtenidos por nosotros, coincidentes con los de otros investigadores, indican que ciertos aislamientos clínicos de Y. enterocolitica del biotipo 1A (“avirulentas”), son capaces de causar enfermedad, probablemente a través de otros mecanismos, distintos a los caracterizados en especies de Yersinia enteropatógenas. Some serotypes of Yersinia enterocoliticamight causediarrheas and/or invasive infections. The aim of this work was to analyze virulence factors and associated markers in a strain of Y. enterocolitica isolated from human diarrheic feces. The strain analyzed was included in the biotype 1A. The virulence markers determinationas well as the search of the genes vir F and ail,were negatives. However, it was demonstratedenterotoxin production at 20 °C, andat 37 °C in osmolarity conditions and pH similar to the human intestine. The enterotoxin presented reactivity for the infant mouse test, although it could not be proven the presence of yst gene by PCR. The results obtained by us, coincident with those of other investigators,indicated that certain clinical isolates of Y. enterocolitica of the biotype 1A (“avirulent”), could be the etiological agent of the illness trhough other mechanisms of virulence, that would differ from those previously characterized in species of enteropathogenic Yersinia.
Bacteriemia y absceso hepático causado por Yersinia enterocolitica
Navascués,A.; Gastesi,C.; Salicio,Y.; García-Irure,J.J.;
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra , 2004, DOI: 10.4321/S1137-66272004000300011
Abstract: yersinia enterocolitica is a gram-negative coccobacillus that is distributed world-wide and whose natural reservoire is found in a great variety of animals. transmission to humans mainly occurs through the faecal-oral path although cases have been described of transmission through blood transfusions. it is isolated within a gastro-intestinal clinical picture and it rarely produces extra-intestinal disorders such as bacteraemia, abscesses, cutaneous signs, etc. the latter have been associated with different underlying diseases such as alterations of the iron metabolism, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, malnutrition, tumours, immunosuppressant therapy and cirrhosis. we present the case of a diabetic patient who developed bacteraemia associated with hepatic abscess due to yersinia enterocolitica.
Behavior of Yersinia enterocolitica in Foods  [PDF]
Md. Latiful Bari,M. Anwar Hossain,Kenji Isshiki,Dike Ukuku
Journal of Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/420732
Abstract: Yersinia enterocolitica are ubiquitous, being isolated frequently from soil, water, animals, and a variety of foods. They comprise a biochemically heterogeneous group that can survive and grow at refrigeration temperatures. The ability to propagate at refrigeration temperatures is of considerable significance in food hygiene. Virulent strains of Yersinia invade mammalian cells such as HeLa cells in tissue culture. Two chromosomal genes, inv and ail, were identified for cell invasion of mammalian. The pathogen can cause diarrhoea, appendicitis and post-infection arthritis may occur in a small proportion of cases. The most common transmission route of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica is thought to be fecal-oral via contaminated food. Direct person-to-person contact is rare. Occasionally, pathogenic Y. enterocolitica has been detected in vegetables and environmental water; thus, vegetables and untreated water are also potential sources of human yersiniosis. However, the isolation rates of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica have been low, which may be due to the limited sensitivity of the detection methods. To identify other possible transmission vehicles, different food items should be studied more extensively. Many factors related to the epidemiology of Y. enterocolitica, such as sources, transmission routes, and predominating genotypes remain obscure because of the low sensitivity of detection methods. 1. Introduction Yersinia enterocolitica is a psychotropic zoonotic pathogen which causes acute gastroenteritis [1] and occasionally more serious disease in humans. In some countries it rivals Salmonella as a foodborne pathogen, and, because it can grow at refrigeration temperature [2], it is an increasing concern in terms of food safety. Infection with Y. enterocolitica can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the age of the person infected. Infection with Y. enterocolitica occurs most often in young children under 5 years old [3]. Most cases of yersiniosis occur sporadically in children [4]. The predominant symptoms in humans, particularly in young children, are fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which is often bloody [5]. In older children and adults, the consequences of yersiniosis are severe and include acute infections, pseudoappendicitis, and extraintestinal long-term sequelae such as reactive arthritis and erythema nodosum [6, 7]. Secondary immunological sequelae, such as reactive arthritis, are not uncommon, especially in HLA-B27-positive individuals. Yersinia enterocolitica is thought to be a significant food-borne pathogen, even though pathogenic
Evaluation of Yersinia Enterocolitica Diagnostic Approaches
MM Soltan Dallal,MR Khorramizadeh,F Matin,S Eshraghi
Payavard Salamat , 2008,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative bacterium which its strains are involved in human diseases. To differentiate among pathogenic and non-pathogenic types, tests such as Congo Red absorption, Crystal Violet, and Calcium Dependency test are used. These tests are based on existence of 70-75 kb plasmids and sometimes, with respect to plasmids instability, we will face false negative results. Therefore, by setting up a methodology based on stable chromosomal genes of pathogenic agent we can overcome this hurdle. The goal of this survey was comparison among routine and molecular diagnostic approaches in the identification of Y. enterocolitica pathogenic strains.Materials and Methods: Some Gram-negative bacteria from family Enterobacteriacea and some Y. enterocolitica strains isolated of human beings and environment were evaluated.Results: Obtained results showed that 4 Y. enterocolitica strains isolated of human beings were PCR positive while PCR results of environmental strains, one human strain and non-Yersinia strains were negative.Conclusion: The mentioned approach can be used as a method to differentiate among pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Y. enterocolitica.
Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Detection in Foods  [PDF]
H. Fukushima,S. Shimizu,Y. Inatsu
Journal of Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/735308
Abstract: Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis which can cause yersiniosis in humans and animals are thought to be significant food-borne pathogens and be important as hygiene indicator in food safety. The pathogenic Y. enterocolitica serotypes/biotypes are O:3/4 and 3 variant VP negative, O:5, 27/2, O:8/1b, and O:9/2, have been reported worldwide. Y. pseudotuberculosis is distributed less widely than Y. enterocolitica. Isolation methods usually involve selective and recovery enrichment of the food sample followed by plating onto selective media, confirmation of typical colonies and testing for virulence properties of isolated strains. Recently, DNA-based methods, such as PCR assays, have been developed to detect pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in foods more rapidly, and sensitivity than can be achieved by conventional culture methods. This paper reviews commercially available conventional and PCR-based procedures for the detection of pathogenic Yersinia in food. These methods are effective as the isolation and detection methods to target pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in foods. 1. Overview Food-borne pathogenic Yersinia (Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis) is facultative anaerobic, gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and is isolated frequently from soil, water, animals, and foods [1–4]. Y. enterocolitica causes human infections whose symptoms include diarrhea, terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, arthritis, and septicemia. Y. pseudotuberculosis causes mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and septicemia in humans. As a psychrophilic organism, Yersinia is able to grow at 4°C, and cold chain food products could offer a potential food safety hazard [3, 5, 6]. The pathogenic Y. enterocolitica serotypes/biotypes are O:3/4 and 3 variant VP negative, O:5, 27/2, O:8/1b, and O:9/2 have been reported worldwide [7, 8]. In Japan, O:3/3 variant VP negative is the most frequent cause of human yersiniosis [8]. In the United States, despite declining incidences of serotype O:8/1b infections, O:3/4 and O:5, 27/2 infections are on the increase [7]. In Europe, Serotype O:3 and O:9 infections account for over 90% of Y. enterocolitica infections. Y. pseudotuberculosis is distributed less widely than Y. enterocolitica and, although frequently isolated from animals, is rarely isolated from soil, water, and food [9–12]. A large outbreak of Y. pseudotuberculosis infection has been reported in Japan [13, 14]. In the Far East including Japan, Y. pseudotuberculosis various serotypes (1b, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b,
Yersinia enterocolitica: Epidemiological Studies and Outbreaks  [PDF]
Atiqur Rahman,Tania S. Bonny,Siriporn Stonsaovapak,Chiraporn Ananchaipattana
Journal of Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/239391
Abstract: Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common bacteriological cause of gastrointestinal disease in many developed and developing countries. Although contaminated food is the main source of human infection due to Y. enterocolitica, animal reservoir and contaminated environment are also considered as other possible infection sources for human in epidemiological studies. Molecular based epidemiological studies are found to be more efficient in investigating the occurrence of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in natural samples, in addition to conventional culture based studies. 1. Introduction Foodborne diseases are a widespread and growing public health problem in developed and developing countries [1]. Amongst those, yersiniosis due to infection with the bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica is the frequently reported zoonotic gastrointestinal disease after campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis in many developed countries, especially in temperate zones [2]. Within developed countries, incidences of yersiniosis and foodborne outbreaks are appeared to be lower in the United States than many European countries [3–5]. In European countries, numbers of reported cases of human in England and Wales are lower than those in other European countries where fewer than 0.1 cases of yersiniosis per 100,000 individuals were reported in the United Kingdom in 2005, in contrast to 12.2 in Finland and 6.8 in Germany [6]. On the other hand, the high prevalence of gastrointestinal illness including fatal cases due to yersiniosis is also observed in many developing countries like Bangladesh [7], Iraq [8], Iran [9], and Nigeria [10], which indicates major underlying food safety problems in low- and middle-income countries. Worldwide, infection with Y. enterocolitica occurs most often in infants and young children with common symptoms like fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which is often bloody. Older children and young adults are not out of risk. The predominant symptoms within these age groups are right-sided abdominal pain and fever, sometimes confused with appendicitis. Occasionally, the Y. enterocolitica associated complications such as skin rash, joint pains, or spread of bacteria to the bloodstream can also occur. Although Y. enterocolitica is a ubiquitous microorganism, the majority of isolates recovered from asymptomatic carriers, infected animals, contaminated food, untreated water, and contaminated environmental samples are nonpathogenic having no clinical importance [11]. At the same time, the epidemiology of Y. enterocolitica infections is complex and remains poorly
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