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First Record of Pyramica epinotalis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for the United States  [PDF]
Xuan Chen,Joe A. MacGown,Benjamin J. Adams,Katherine A. Parys,Rachel M. Strecker,Linda Hooper-Bui
Psyche , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/850893
Abstract: Pyramica epinotalis is an arboreal dacetine ant previously known only from Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and southern Mexico. Here we report the first records of P. epinotalis for the United States. Collections were made in three parishes across southern Louisiana in cypress-tupelo swamps using floating pitfall traps placed in floating vegetation and arboreal pitfall traps placed on trunks and limbs of three wetland tree species. One additional specimen of this species was collected in Highlands County, Florida. Based on collections of specimens in Louisiana, including multiple dealate females at different localities, P. epinotalis appears to be well established in this state. We discuss the design and implementation of modified arboreal pitfall traps that were instrumental in this discovery. 1. Introduction The tribe Dacetini (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is composed of small, cryptic, predatory ants that typically occur in soil and/or leaf litter where they feed on various minute arthropods [1, 2]. Species in this group show great diversity in predatory strategies, which is reflected in the marked differentiation between species groups. With their unique-looking body types and head shapes that are variously adorned with bizarre station, elongate mandibles with uniquely arrayed dentition, and as-yet-unexplained cuticular outgrowths called spongiform tissue, members of this group are among the most unusual in the ant world. This large and diverse tribe includes more than 900 described species worldwide, of which 327 are in the genus Pyramica [3]. Primarily considered a tropical group, only 41 species of Pyramica have been reported from the USA. Thirty-seven of these species occur in the southeastern United States [4]. Five species of the related Strumigenys are known from the same region [5]. The relatively high density of dacetine species in the Southeast is likely due to the humid, subtropical climate and mild winters typical of the region and the availability of large continuous tracts of forested habitats, which appear to facilitate establishment of these species’ colonies. Currently, nine introduced dacetine species are known from the southeastern USA including Pyramica eggersi (Emery) (Florida), P. gundlachi (Roger) (Florida), P. hexamera (Brown) (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi), P. margaritae (Emery) (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Mississippi), P. membranifera (Emery) (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina), Strumigenys emmae (Emery) (Florida), S. lanuginosa Wheeler
The Dacetine Ant Genus Pentastruma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  [cached]
William L. Brown,Ronald G. Boisvert
Psyche , 1978, DOI: 10.1155/1978/92724
Abstract:
Nest Relocation and Colony Founding in the Australian Desert Ant, Melophorus bagoti Lubbock (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  [PDF]
Patrick Schultheiss,Sebastian Schwarz,Antoine Wystrach
Psyche , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/435838
Abstract: Even after years of research on navigation in the Red Honey Ant, Melophorus bagoti, much of its life history remains elusive. Here, we present observations on nest relocation and the reproductive and founding stages of colonies. Nest relocation is possibly aided by trail laying behaviour, which is highly unusual for solitary foraging desert ants. Reproduction occurs in synchronised mating flights, which are probably triggered by rain. Queens may engage in multiple matings, and there is circumstantial evidence that males are chemically attracted to queens. After the mating flight, the queens found new colonies independently and singly. Excavation of these founding colonies reveals first insights into their structure. 1. Introduction The Australian desert ant, Melophorus bagoti Lubbock, is a widespread species of arid Central Australia. It inhabits low-shrub and grassland deserts, where it builds fairly large underground nests [1]. The outdoor activity is mainly restricted to the hotter summer months, when the ants are active during the heat of the day. Foragers usually begin their activity at soil surface temperatures of about 5 0 ° C and continue to forage at temperatures above 7 0 ° C [2]. They forage solitarily for food such as dead insects, seeds, and sugary plant exudates ([3], personal observations) and are well known for their ability to store liquids in the abdomens of specialised workers, the so-called repletes or “honey pots” (hence their common name “Red Honey Ant” and indeed the genus name Melophorus, meaning “honey carrier”). This method of food storage is also adopted by several other seasonally active ants, for example, Cataglyphis [4] of North Africa, Camponotus [5] of Australia, and Myrmecocystus [6] and Prenolepis [7] of North America (the latter store fat, not sugar). In the recent years, M. bagoti has attracted increasing attention for its navigational abilities (e.g., [8–13]; for a review see [14]), thus making a broader understanding of its behaviour and life history desirable. 2. Materials and Methods The study site is located 10?km south of Alice Springs, NT, Australia, on the grounds of CSIRO Alice Springs. The area is characterised by an arid climate, with an average annual rainfall of 279.4?mm [15]. The soil consists of sandy flood plain alluvium [16], and the vegetation is a mosaic of Acacia low open woodland and Triodia low open hummock grassland [17], although much of the latter has been replaced by the invasive Buffel Grass Cenchrus ciliaris. M. bagoti is common in the area, and their nests occur at a density of ~ 3/ha,
Hsc-FA and NOR bandings on chromosomes of the giant ant Dinoponera lucida Emery, 1901 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  [cached]
Luísa Barros,C Mariano,S Pompolo,J Delabie
Comparative Cytogenetics , 2009, DOI: 10.3897/compcytogen.v3i2.16
Abstract: The distribution of the threatened ant Dinoponera lucida is limited to the south of the State of Bahia, farthest east of Minas Gerais and north of Espirito Santo, Brazil. Recent cytogenetic studies carried out in 15 sites distributed along the range of the ant indicated high chromosome number variation in the populations of Bahia, 2n=106 to 120 chromosomes, while the populations of Espirito Santo presented a constant number, with 2n=118 chromosomes. This study aimed at describing the banding pattern of D. lucida chromosomes, in some populations of Espirito Santo and Bahia, applying the Hsc-FA technique (secondary constriction heterochromatin-associated bands by fluorescence using acridine) and identifying the nucleolar organizing region (active NORs) impregnated with AgNO 3 which is especially important for the cytogenetic characterization of a species. The utilization of these two techniques showed positive interstitial markings on the region of the long arm of the pair AMt, similar to those obtained with the CMA 3 fluorochrome and with the FISH technique complementing the cytogenetic data of this species.
Unusual Ant Hosts of the Socially Parasitic Ant Anergates atratulus (Schenck, 1852) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)
Albena Lapeva-Gjonova,Kadri Kiran,Volkan Aksoy
Psyche , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/391525
Abstract: The extreme inquiline ant Anergates atratulus (Schenck, 1852) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) was collected in ant nests of Tetramorium moravicum Kratochvil, 1941 in Bulgaria and of T. chefketi Forel, 1911 in Bulgaria and Turkey. The reported ant hosts belong to the Tetramorium chefketi species complex in contrast with the typical hosts from Tetramorium caespitum/impurum complex. This finding confirms the assumption that a broader range of host species for the socially parasitic species A. atratulus may be expected. Present data on the new host species expand knowledge about biology of this rare ant species, included in the IUCN Red List of threatened species.
A Revision of the Neotropical Dacetine Ant Genus Acanthognathus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae  [cached]
William L. Brown, Jr.,Walter W. Kempf
Psyche , 1969, DOI: 10.1155/1969/19387
Abstract:
Catalogue of " poneromorph" ant type specimens (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de S?o Paulo, Brazil
Scott-Santos, Cristiane P.;Esteves, Flávia A.;Brand?o, Carlos Roberto F.;
Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (S?o Paulo) , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0031-10492008001100001
Abstract: the present catalogue lists the type specimes of 112 nominal " poneromorph" ant species housed in the formicidae collection of the hymenoptera laboratory, museu de zoologia da universidade de s?o paulo (mzsp). the catalogue includes types of amblyoponinae, ectatomminae, heteroponerinae, ponerinae, and proceratiinae, that is, all poneromorph (sensu bolton, 2003) but for the monotypic paraponerinae, of which the collection bears no type specimens. we present here information on type categories (holotype, paratype, syntype, lectotype, and paralectotype), label data, nomenclatural changes since the original description and type specimens conservation status. at last we present indexes for the taxa names presented.
Medical Importnace of Fire Ant Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Iranshahr and Sarbaz Counties, Southeastern of Iran
K. Akbarzadeh,M. Nateghpour,S. Tirgari,M.R. Abaei
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The newest public health problem in Iran is biting and stinging of newly reported fire ant Pachycondyla sennaarensis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in south and southeast of the country. They annoy the residents by invasion into home and human premises. This study was conducted to determine the incidences of their biting and their effects on routine life of people in Iranshahr and Sarbaz counties. The questionnaire, prepared for this reason, was completed in random cluster manner. Effects of biting was surveyed and also photographed in a healthy volunteer. The results revealed that biting of the ant is mild and none of bitten individuals had systematic reactions. At least 92.5% of questioned individuals had bitten at least one time with this ant. Incidence of biting had no differ between men and women (50.9 and 49.1%) (p>0.05). The majority of people (69.2%) were bitten on limbs (hands and legs) (p<0.01). The sore of biting was tolerable for majority of individuals (89.2%) while 38% of them was suffered pain for a few hours (p<0.01). Its ecological requirements such as temperature range and humidity of soil can be found in other parts of Iran therefore it is the subject of spreading to other parts of the country.
Updated list of ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) recorded in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, with a discussion of research advances and priorities
Ulysséa, M?nica A.;Cereto, Carlos E.;Rosumek, Félix B.;Silva, Rogério R.;Lopes, Benedito C.;
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0085-56262011000400018
Abstract: updated list of ant species (hymenoptera, formicidae) recorded in santa catarina state, southern brazil, with a discussion of research advances and priorities. a first working list of ant species registered in santa catarina state, southern brazil was published recently. since then, many studies with ants have been conducted in the state. with data compiled from published studies and collections in various regions of the state, we present here an updated list of 366 species (and 17 subspecies) in 70 ant genera in santa catarina, along with their geographical distribution in the seven state mesoregions. two hundred and seven species are recorded in the oeste mesoregion, followed by vale do itajaí (175), grande florianópolis (150), norte (60), sul (41), meio oeste (23) and planalto serrano (12). the increase in the number of records since 1999 results from the use of recently adopted sampling methods and techniques in regions and ecosystems poorly known before, and from the availability of new tools for the identification of ants. our study highlights the meio oeste, planalto serrano, sul and norte mesoregions, as well as the deciduous forest, mangrove, grassland and coastal sand dune ecosystems as priority study areas in order to attain a more complete knowledge of the ant fauna in santa catarina state.
Colony Structure and Nest Location of Two Species of Dacetine Ants: Pyramica ohioensis (Kennedy & Schramm) and Pyramica rostrata (Emery) in Maryland (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  [PDF]
Richard M. Duffield,Gary D. Alpert
Psyche , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/526175
Abstract: The discovery of numerous Pyramica ohioensis and P. rostrata colonies living in acorns, as well as the efficient recovery of colonies from artificial nests placed in suitable habitats, opens a new stage in the study of North American dacetine ants. Here we present detailed information, based on 42 nest collections, on the colony structure of these two species. P. ohioensis colonies are smaller than those of P. rostrata. Both species are polygynous, but nests of P. ohioensis contain fewer dealate queens than those of P. rostrata. This is the first report of multiple collections of Pyramica colonies nesting in fallen acorns, and of the use of artificial nesting cavities to sample for dacetines in the soil and leaf litter. We describe an artificial cavity nest design that may prove useful in future investigations. 1. Introduction The ants of the genus Pyramica are distributed worldwide and are diverse and abundant in both warm temperate and tropical forest communities (Bolton lists 350 valid species) [1]. In the United States, Pyramica is represented by 32 native species and 9 introduced species [2–5]. Two additional undescribed species from the Southwest have been discovered recently (Cover and Alpert, [6]). Pyramica species are widely known as specialist predators of Collembola [3, 7–16], however, little is known about other aspects of their biology. These diminutive, cryptobiotic ants forage in leaf litter and rotten wood and are most frequently collected by litter sifting, Berlese funnel extraction, or Winkler samples. Collections of colonies are comparatively infrequent and thus our understanding of Pyramica colony demographics and life histories is limited. This study began as a trial of the use of artificial nests to sample soil and leaf litter ants in a Maryland oak-hickory forest. Sets of artificial nests designed to evaluate preferences for cavity volume and diameter of the nest entrance were placed at the study site in the spring and retrieved at the end of the summer. Although a variety of ant species colonized the artificial nests, the most interesting result was the recovery of several colonies of dacetine ants belonging to the genus Pyramica. Based on this finding, it was assumed that Pyramica was nesting in natural preformed cavities in the same general area where the artificial nests were placed. Pyramica ohioensis and P. rostrata were eventually discovered colonizing acorns. Once the appropriate conditions were recognized, several Pyramica colonies were consistently recovered on each collecting trip. Pyramica ohioensis (Kennedy & Schramm)
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