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Chelated minerals for poultry
Vieira, SL;
Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-635X2008000200001
Abstract: organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. these compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. on the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (cu, fe, zn, and mn) can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. after absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.
Recent Advances in Minerals and Vitamins on Nutrition of Lactating Cows  [PDF]
Lee R. McDowell
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2002,
Abstract: Highly productive lactating cows have much greater needs for minerals and vitamins than low-producing animals. The antioxidant vitamins, vitamin E and β-carotene are beneficial in reducing mastitis. Vitamins (D, E, C and β-carotene) and minerals (Cu, Zn, and Se) are needed for an optimum immune response. Vitamin E is effective in counteracting gossypol toxicity. New research suggests the need for supplemental biotin for dairy cattle. Milk fever is best prevented with anionic diets. There is environmental concern from use of excess P. Grazing lactating cows should have access to high quality free-choice mineral mixtures.
Effect of Premix and Seaweed additives on minerals status of Lactating Friesian Cows  [PDF]
M. I. Bassiouni, M. F. Ali, H. M. Bendary, M. M. Gaafar and A. Sh. Shamas
International Journal of Advanced Research , 2013,
Abstract: Eighteen lactating Friesian cows with average body weight of 534.44±13.04 kg, ranging from 450 to 660 kg, average milk production of 12.16±0.10 kg/day, ranging from 9.52 to 14.80 kg/day and average parity of 2.22±0.33; ranging from 1 to 5 were used during summer season 2011, for 150 days starting with one week after parturition, from June to November. Animals were divided into three similar groups with six cows in each group based on body weight, milk production and parity. All animals were fed the basal ration consisted of 40% concentrate feed mixture + 40% corn silage + 20% rice straw (on DM basis) without additive served as a control (group 1) or with 25 g premix / head / day (group 2) or with 50 g seaweed / head / day (group 3). The obtained results showed that the contents of calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc and manganese in basal ration were lower than the recommended requirements of dairy cows. Minerals intake expressed as g or mg per day was nearly similar for the different groups except potassium and manganese. Seaweed group showed significantly (P<0.05) the highest apparent absorption and retention of different minerals followed by premix group, while the control group had the lowest values. Seaweed group showed significantly (P<0.05) the highest minerals concentrations in hair, blood plasma and milk followed by premix group, while the control group had the lowest contents.
Effect of supplementation of minerals and enzymes on service period and postpartum plasma minerals profile in crossbred cows  [cached]
K. K. Hadiya,H. J. Derashri,B. R. Devalia,R. G. Jani
Veterinary World , 2010,
Abstract: Twenty recently calved healthy triple crossbred (HF x J x K) cows were divided randomly into four groups each of five animals from the day of calving to observe the effect of supplementation of minerals + proteins-vitamins (Nutri-sacc power pack, Vetcare) and enzymes (Neozyme RU, Biocon India Ltd) on service period and fortnightly plasma profile of macro-micro minerals up to 105 days postpartum. The animals of Group-I (T0) served as control; of Group-II (T1) were given nutri-sacc powder @100 g/d/h; while animals of Group III (T2) and Group IV (T3) received neozyme supplementation @ 750 and 1000 g per ton of concentrate mixture, which was fed @ 1 kg for every 3 kg milk. The supplementation of minerals and enzymes did not influence service period significantly (147±13.69 days). The pooled plasma calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium concentrations were 10.29±0.11, 4.43±0.10 and 3.40±0.09 mg %, respectively. Significant (P<0.05) differences were observed between groups and between periods for all the three traits. Calcium level was significantly higher in enzyme treatment (T3) as compared to the control group, while phosphorus showed inverse trend. The calcium level was 8.15±0.61 mg % on the day of calving, which increased significantly by day 15 postpartum and again by day 60 postpartum and remained more or less static thereafter. The level of phosphorus and magnesium increased significantly by day 30-45 postpartum. Highly significant differences (P<0.01) were observed between periods for plasma zinc, iron, copper and manganese concentrations with pooled values of 1.19±0.03, 1.53±0.04, 0.85±0.02 and 0.09±0.01 ppm, respectively. The zinc and iron levels increased from day 45 postpartum and remained high till day 105 postpartum, while the copper increased significantly by day 15 postpartum. Nutri-saac and/or Neozyme supplementation did not influence the plasma trace minerals profile, except of copper. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000): 173-176]
A REVIEW ON ACID BASE STATUS IN DAIRY COWS: IMPLICATIONS OF DIETARY CATION-ANION BALANCE  [PDF]
D. Afzaal, M. Nisa, M. A. Khan and M. Sarwar
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2004,
Abstract: The acid base status of a dairy cow is maintained within a narrow range. The key mechanisms involving blood, cells and lungs, perform this function. Although other minerals have an impact on acid base metabolism, the minerals used in dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB) namely sodium (Na), potassium (K) and chloride (Cl) have the greatest effect. Hence, acid base status implicates other biological functions of dairy cows. Low DCAB prepartum reduces the incidence of milk fever and increases the productivity by simmering down the severity of hypocalcaemia. High DCAB diets have proved to increase dry mater and water intake and production and to mitigate the effects of heat stress.
Trace minerals profile of blood serum and estrual mucus in repeat breeder Kankrej cows  [cached]
L C Modi,B N Suthar,C F Chaudhari,N F Chaudhari
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.143-146
Abstract: Aim: The study was carried out with an idea to ascertain involvement of trace minerals in failure of conception in Knakrej cow. Materials and Methods: The animals under study were comprised of 10 normal (Group-I) and 20 repeat breeder (Group-II) Kankrej cows. Blood samples of each repeat breeding and normally cycling cows was collected before Artificial insemination. The mucus samples were collected aseptically before breeding. The cervical mucus was diluted with triple glass distilled water at the rate of 1: 3 using vertex machine. The diluted mucus and serum was used for the trace minerals estimation. Results: The values observed for copper, iron, zinc and manganese in blood serum of normal and repeat breeding animals was 2.27 ± 0.05 vs 0.87 ± 0.02, 1.41 ± 0.02 vs 0.65 ± 0.01, 1.94 ± 0.01 vs 1.78 ± 0.02 and 0.43 ± 0.02 vs 0.18 ± 0.01 ppm, respectively and in estrual mucus it was 1.37 ± 0.10 vs 0.44 ± 0.06, 0.74 ± 0.07 vs 0.33 ± 0.05, 1.47 ± 0.10 vs 0.82 ± 0.06 and 0.29 ± 0.04 vs 0.23 ± 0.03 ppm, respectively. All the values in blood serum and estrual mucus were significantly (p<0.01) higher in normal than repeat breeder cows except manganese in estrual mucus, which was non significantly higher in normal as compared to repeat breeder Kankrej cows. Conclusion: All trace minerals was higher in blood serum of normal animals as compared to repeat breeder. In estrual mucus except manganese, all trace minerals was higher in normal cows than repeat breeder. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000): 143-146]
Effect of Feeding a Combination of Zinc, Manganese and Copper Methionine Chelates of Early Lactation High Producing Dairy Cow  [PDF]
Ghada Mostafa El Ashry, Ayman Abdel Mohsen Hassan, Soliman Mohamed Soliman
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.38144
Abstract: The objective of the study was to compare the effect of feeding mixed chelated minerals (Mn, Cu and Zn) methionine on dairy cow productive performance and milk yield and its components. The trial was conducted with dairy cows across various stage of lactation. The experimental treatments include chelated minerals (15 mg Zn as Zn Met, 20 mg Mn as Mn Met, 10 mg Cu as Cu Met). Inorganic mixture contains (15 mg Zn as ZnSO4, 20 mg Mn as MnSO4, 10 mg Cu as CuSO4) in sulphate forms. The experiment was commenced in the dry period of cows, 6 weeks before calving, and after calving the first three months of lactation was taken into consideration. Milk samples were collected from each cow evening and morning for estimation of milk yield production. The inorganic metals caused a significant decline (P < 0.05) in digestibility coefficients, nutritive value, nitrogen utilization, Cell wall constituents, total VFA’s, rumen volume, microbial and nitrogen synthesis compared to the organic metals. The treated group (chelated minerals) improved the milk yield, and the milk fat percentage of animals across various stages of lactation as compared to inorganic minerals treated group of animals, and no significant differences were observed among groups concerning the entire blood constituent.
Assessment of pasture and plasma minerals of cows: A case study in Pakistan  [PDF]
Zafar Iqbal Khan, Kafeel Ahmad, Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar, Farhad Mirzaei, Ghulam Hussain
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.42009
Abstract:

An investigation was conducted to evaluate the nutrient level of grazing livestock as influenced by the sampling periods in Punjab state districtSargodha,Pakistan. Twenty composite soil and pasture and twenty five blood samples were collected at two different sampling periods dur ing December 2010 to March, 2011, respectively. Higher soil content of all elements except iron was observed during December than those found in Mach at the 2nd harvest during this pe riod but all mean values were above the critical levels investigated for soil for the requirements of forage crops. Forage, potassium, magnesium and copper levels did not differ between samplings. Calcium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cobalt and selenium were higher during December, while reverse was true for forage iron reflecting the soil iron contents. The sodium, manganese, iron and selenium in forage were found to be deficient than the requirements of livestock during both sampling times in this investigation. From the four minerals assessed in the serum calcium, magnesium and zinc levels were high after the December in March. The macro mineral which were found to be moderately deficient at this animal farm are sodium and magnesium. Micro elements most likely to limit livestock production efficiency are copper, zinc, manganese and cobalt. Specific mineral supplementation should be supplied containing copper and zinc, as both pasture and blood plasma samples exhibited their deficiency. The present investigation suggests the requirement and provision of an appropriate specificity tailored mineral mixture to ruminants in this specific studied area. The objective of this study was to determine deficiency or excess of various minerals to have the knowledge of the status of different minerl elements for supplementation if necessary.

Prediction of Second Parity Milk Yield and Fat Percentage of Dairy Cows Based on First Parity Information Using Neural Network System
P. Hosseinia,M. Edrisi,M.A. Edriss,M.A. Nilforooshan
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Neural network system can be used as a decision making support system in dairy industry as well as other industries. It can help breeders to predict future yield of dairy cows based on uncorrelated and orthogonalized available information and making selection decisions. Data from 4 medium to large sized dairy farms in Isfahan, Iran, were used. From 1880 available records of first and second parities, 1850 records were used for training a back propagation artificial neural network system and 30 randomly chosen records (not used in the system training step) were introduced to the trained neural network system for its evaluation. The results of the simulation showed that there was no significant difference between the observed and the predicted second parity milk yield and fat percentage (p>0.05). The major use of this predictive process is to make accurate selection decisions which are based on prior knowledge of the outcomes.
Supplementing transition cows with calcium propionate-propylene glycol drenching or organic trace minerals: implications on reproductive and lactation performances
Peralta,OA; Monardes,D; Duchens,M; Moraga,L; Nebel,RL;
Archivos de medicina veterinaria , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0301-732X2011000100009
Abstract: the aim of this study was to estimate the effect of the supplementation of a calcium propionate-propylene glycol drenching and a commercial organic trace mineral formulation (4-plex) on reproductive and lactation performances in cows during the post-partum period. in trial 1, lactating dairy cows (n = 37) were randomly assigned either to a calcium propionate-propylene glycol drenching (dr) or to a control (codr). both groups were treated at 12 h post-partum and at 30 dim. in trial 2, (n = 33) cows were treated with either a trace mineral (tm) formula or a placebo (cotm) daily from 12 h post-partum until 60 dim. blood samples were collected to evaluate calcium, phosphorus and non-esterified fatty acids serum levels. milk samples were obtained for fat, protein, somatic cell, and ketone bodies composition. liver biopsies were taken for zinc and copper content. estruses were detected using a heatwatch system and ovulations were estimated by detecting progesterone concentrations in milk samples. supplementation with dr resulted in higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of calcium compared to the control group. there were no differences in nefa, ketone bodies, milk yield, protein, fat and somatic cell count between treatment groups. supplementation of tm resulted in less (p < 0.0001) services per conception compared to cotm. thus, dr supplementation during post-partum was effective in increasing calcium in serum shortly after treatment; however, was not sufficient to induce other metabolic, reproductive or productive responses. daily trace mineral supplementation resulted in lower services required per conception; however, this supplementation showed no effect on other reproductive or productive variables.
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