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Common Diseases of Poultry in Kaduna State: Perspective of a Private Clinic
JI Barde, A Garba, MM Gashua, MA Talba, VT Gugong, I Saádatu, AH Owada, L Konzing, SJ Awulu, MN Mohammed
Nigerian Veterinary Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Several reports on prevailing poultry diseases across some states in Nigeria have been documented. The common prevailing poultry diseases in Kaduna Sate were investigated. The records of poultry diseases as presented to and diagnosed at the ECWA Veterinary Clinic, Kaduna during a 10-year (January1997 and December2006) period was retrieved and analyzed retrospectively using descriptive statistics. The diagnosis at the clinic was based on clinical and post mortem findings. The results indicate that a total of 5131 poultry disease conditions were presented, diagnosed and treated over the study period. A total of 21 different poultry diseases were diagnosed, the most common being bacterial infections with 2082(40.6%) of all cases, then Coccidiosis 1750(34.1%), Gumboro 465(9.1%), Helminthosis 197(3.8%), Omphilitis 193(%), New castle disease 135(2.6%), stampede 114(2.2%), tumor 65(1.3%), cannibalism 44(0.9%). The less occurring included drug toxicity 23(0.45%) cases, chronic respiratory diseases 20(0.4%), Pullorum 12(0.2%), malnutrition 8(0.16%), lousiness 8(0.16%), Aspergillosis 6(0.12%) and Mareks 2(0.04%). Other, occurring only once totaling 5(0.1%) included aortic rupture, snake bite (on Ostrich), congenital malformation, air sacculitis and traumatic peritonitis. As a single entity, Coccidiosis appeared to be the most occurring disease condition in Kaduna metropolis, followed by Gumboro. Poor management practices and lack of proper vaccination may have been responsible for these findings. Good management practices enhance flock hygiene and adequate vaccination schedules is key to effective and efficient poultry production in the state and Nigeria at large. Private Veterinary Clinics have pivotal role to play in disease reporting in the country
Poultry Diseases at Rajshahi in Bangladesh
M. K. Hossain,M. Ahmed,H. Kabir,M. R. R Sarker,M. A. Jalil,G. N. Adhikary
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: A pathological study was conducted on the poultry diseases occurring at Rajshahi region of Bangladesh during the period January,2001 to February,2002. A total of 327 cases were studied of which some are sick birds and others are dead. Diagnosis of different disease conditions were made on the basis of history, clinical findings, pathological findings, age(IBD) (12.53%),Infectious laryngo-tracheitis (ILT) (0.61%), Avian leucosis complex (3.36) , Mareks disease (0.61%), Duck plague(2.14%),Pullorum disease(5.81%), of birds, isolation of the organisms ,serology and response to treatment. The diseases thus diagnosed are Newcastle disease (ND) (14.37%), Infectious bursal disease Colibacillosis(5.19%), Fowl cholera(1.83%) , Fowl typhoid (3.66%), Necrotic enteritis (0.91%), Pneumonia (non specific )( 7.03%), Enteritis (non specific) (3.97%), Infectious coryza (1.22%), Aspergillogis (2.44), Chronic respiratory disease(CRD) (8.56%), Coccidiosis (10.70%), Helminthiasis , Deficiency disorders (3.66%) and Miscellaneuos diseases (4028%). Young birds were mostly affected by Colibacillosis, Pullorum disease,ND , IBD etc. Adult birsds were mostly affected by Mycoplasmosis, Fowl typhoid, ND etc. Vaccination failure was common in case of IB. CRD was commonly found as mixed infection with ND.
Prevalence of Poultry Diseases in Bangladesh
M. Giasuddin,B. K. Sil,J. Alam,I. Koike
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: The postmortem and serological investigations of poultry diseases were conducted in different farms of Bangladesh. A total numbers of 1653 either dead or sick birds were examined. The incidence of aflatoxicosis was highest (27.59%) followed by nutritional deficiency (12.40%), infectious bursal disease (11.80%), chronic respiratory disease (8.11%) newcastle disease (7.50%) salmonellosis (5.56%) colibacillosis (4.42%), fowl cholera (3.08%) were found. 5.32% cases remain undiagnosed due to lack of diagnostic facilities or autolysis of the bird. In sero-evaluation, commercial and native birds were found 93-97, 80 -55, 56-12, 60-73, 67-61 and 22-3% sero-positive for newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease, pullorum, M. galisepticum, M. synovie and chicken infectious anemia respectively.
Common infection and allergy induced biomarkers status in respiratory diseases among Iranian Hajj pilgrims  [PDF]
Seyed Mansour Razavi, Ahmad Masoud, Hosein Ziaee Ardakani, Soheila Dabiran
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.61021
Abstract: Background: The sources of respiratory disorders commonly occurred during the Hajj ceremony are now challenging and its infectious or allergic nature remained unknown. The present comprehensive study was conducted to assess sources of respiratory disorders in Hajj pilgrims. Method: In this prospective observational study, blood samples of 130 pilgrims were taken for assessment of serum levels of infectious and allergic sources. The measurement of IgA, IgG, IgM was used for assessment of infectious reactions against microbial antigens, NBT test was employed to assess phagocytic functions, and the measurement of gamma interferon was used for assessing immunity status against infections. Also, measurement of IgE and IL-4 was applied as two markers for assessing allergic reactions. The ELISA test was also used to assess serum levels of immunoglobulin A, G, M, E, IL-4 and gamma interferon before and three weeks after returning from Hajj ceremony. All of the volunteers were followed up along the trip and the involved pilgrim’s characteristics were recorded. Results: The present study showed no significant change in the level of allergic biomarkers including IgE and IL-4, however the mean levels of IgM, gamma Interferon and NBT test were increased after the trip compared with before that. Conclusion: Infections play a major role in occurrence of respiratory disorders among Hajj pilgrims and thus the role of allergic sources is doubtful.
An aerobiological perspective of dust in cage-housed and floor-housed poultry operations
Natasha Just, Caroline Duchaine, Baljit Singh
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6673-4-13
Abstract: In 2007, chicken held the largest share (33.2%) of consumed meat by Canadians. The industry is nation-wide, with facilities in every province. The Canadian poultry industry contributes up to $9.5 billion to the Canadian economy, creates a total of 49,700 jobs and generates $1.78 billion in wages and personal income [1]. These facts highlight the importance of poultry production in Canada. Modern methods of poultry facility management require that workers spend a large proportion of the day in an atmosphere containing comparatively high levels of dust, gases and odors [2,3]. Poultry farmers have a high exposure to microbial products and components such as endotoxin, β-glucan and peptidoglycan [3-5]. Studies of different industries showed the highest prevalence of work-related lower and upper respiratory symptoms and lower baseline lung function in poultry workers [5,6]. Workers typically complain of chronic cough that may be accompanied by phlegm, eye irritation, dyspnea, fatigue, headache, nasal congestion, fever, throat irritation, chest tightness and wheezing [6-8]. Clinical diseases observed in poultry workers include allergic and non-allergic rhinitis, organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS), chronic bronchitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (Farmer's Lung), toxin fever and occupational asthma or asthma-like syndrome [3,5,9,10].Cage-housed and floor-housed operations are two common types of poultry housing facilities. In cage-housed operations birds are housed in cages for egg production and in floor-housed operations birds are housed on the floor for meat production. There are a number of differences in the two types of poultry operations including time spent by the workers in direct contact with birds, predominance of female poultry in cage-housed facilities, age of birds, length of time birds spend in housing and housing management practices. Previous data show that personal total dust exposures are significantly higher in floor-housed versus cage-housed operations
Obesity and respiratory diseases
Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, et al
International Journal of General Medicine , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S11926
Abstract: esity and respiratory diseases Review (10302) Total Article Views Authors: Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, et al Published Date October 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 335 - 343 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S11926 Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender Makker Sleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UK Abstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.
A Study on the Occurrence of Poultry Diseases in Sylhet Region of Bangladesh  [PDF]
M. R. Islam,B. C. Das,K. Hossain,N. S. Lucky
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2003,
Abstract: A pathological investigation on the occurrence of poultry diseases in Sylhet region of Bangladesh was conducted during the period from November 2001 to October 2002. A total of 1352 sample of either dead or sick birds were brought from different Upazillas of Sylhet region. Diagnosis of different disease conditions was made on the basis of the history, age of birds, clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions. The diagnosed diseases included Infectious Bursal disease (IBD) (24.26%), Newcastle Disease (ND) (6.73%), Infectious Bronchitis (0.29%), Omphalitis (2.81%), Fowl Cholera (0.44%), Salmonellosis (6.73%), Colibacillosis (5.17%), Necrotic enteritis (0.44%), Aspergillosis (17.53%), Infectious Coryza (0.37%), Chronic respiratory disease (CRD)/Mycoplasmosis (5.32%), Coccidiosis (9.46%) and deficiency disorders/stress condition (1.03%). In general, the highest number of cases were recorded in the age group of 8-21 days (42.60%), followed by 22-35 days age group (26.62%), 0-7 days age group (26.10%), 36-60 days age group (1.03%) and over 60 days age group (3.62%) of Poultry. Distribution and proportionate incidence of poultry disease of Bangladesh reveals that the poultry diseases occur mostly in rainy season (56.36%), followed by summer (28.11%) and the least in winter season (15.53%).
Nutrition in Relation to Diseases and Heat stress in Poultry
S Das,T K Palai,S R Mishra,D Das
Veterinary World , 2011,
Abstract: Different diseases conditions and stress factors are responsible for high morbidity and mortality of present day poultry. Nutritional strategy and proper feed formulation with specific dietary regimen can combat this up to a certain extent. The incidence of various infectious diseases, nervous disorders and metabolic disorders can be minimized through proper feed regimen. There is a stiff competition and restrictions in the global market of poultry products which can be addressed with proper management of emerging and important diseases with economic productions and quality poultry products free of elements detrimental to human health. Researchers have made efforts to prevent such damage to poultry and poultry product through dietary manipulations. Heat stress can lead to a reduction in the defense mechanisms of birds or to a relative state of immunosuppression. The health status of the poultry is facing new challenges today which can be suitably addressed by the right scientific and advanced nutritional manoeuvres and make the poultry farming more profitable and presentable in the global market. [Vet. World 2011; 4(9.000): 429-432]
Methodology in the epidemiological research of respiratory diseases and environmental pollution
Barquera,Simón; Rico-Méndez,Favio G; Tovar,Víctor;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102002000100017
Abstract: there are complex and diverse methodological problems involved in the clinical and epidemiological study of respiratory diseases and their etiological factors. the association of urban growth, industrialization and environmental deterioration with respiratory diseases makes it necessary to pay more attention to this research area with a multidisciplinary approach. appropriate study designs and statistical techniques to analyze and improve our understanding of the pathological events and their causes must be implemented to reduce the growing morbidity and mortality through better preventive actions and health programs. the objective of the article is to review the most common methodological problems in this research area and to present the most available statistical tools used.
Methodology in the epidemiological research of respiratory diseases and environmental pollution  [cached]
Barquera Simón,Rico-Méndez Favio G,Tovar Víctor
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2002,
Abstract: There are complex and diverse methodological problems involved in the clinical and epidemiological study of respiratory diseases and their etiological factors. The association of urban growth, industrialization and environmental deterioration with respiratory diseases makes it necessary to pay more attention to this research area with a multidisciplinary approach. Appropriate study designs and statistical techniques to analyze and improve our understanding of the pathological events and their causes must be implemented to reduce the growing morbidity and mortality through better preventive actions and health programs. The objective of the article is to review the most common methodological problems in this research area and to present the most available statistical tools used.
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