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Parteilisest tsensuurist N ukogude Eestis. Party Censorship in Soviet Estonia  [cached]
Tiiu Kreegipuu
Methis : Studia humaniora Estonica , 2011,
Abstract: During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front ) and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws). One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them. Journalists’ attempts at rather making ’real journalism’ than congenial propaganda work for Soviet ideologists are particularly telling – this was during the Khrushchev Thaw of the 1960s, when several Estonian publications headed by ‘ideologically less significant’ and thus also less controlled local papers, cultural and youth journalists looked for new means and opportunities of expression. Repeated discussions, admonitions and decisions within the party’s governing organs and disputes between the party and the Glavlit censors point to a Soviet censorship which up until the end couldn’t be used in an efficient manner i
Itaalia konstrueerimine n ukogude reisikirjas. The Construction of Italy in Soviet Travelogues  [cached]
Anneli K?vamees
Methis : Studia humaniora Estonica , 2011,
Abstract: The focus of the article is Aimée Beekman’s travelogue Plastmassist südamega madonna (Madonna With a Plastic Heart, 1963). It also covers Juhan Kahk’s travelogue Alpide taga on moonpunane Itaalia (Behind the Alps Lies Poppy-Red Italy, 1967), Artur Vader’s Itaalia p ikese all (Under Italy’s Sun, 1973), the chapters on Italy in Voldemar Panso’s travel novel Laevaga Leningradist Odessasse ehk Miks otse minna, kui ringi saab (From Leningrad to Odessa by Boat or: Why Go Straight When You Can Go Around, 1957), Max Laosson’s Nato-blokk turisti bloknoodis (Notebook of a Tourist in the Nato Bloc, 1962) and Debora Vaarandi’s V lja uest ja v ravast (From the Yard and the Gate, 1970). My aim is to analyse Soviet Estonian authors’ image of Italy in order to see what characterises the Soviet travelogue. The theoretical background of the article is the research field of imagology within literary studies. Imagology and image studies deal with the depiction of countries and peoples. With the basic concepts of imagology as a starting point, the typical topic developments of the Soviet travelogue are covered, such as the thematic features of the worker, Western society and its mechanics and idiosyncracies, faith and the church, the question of the so-called ’real Italy’ and the characteristic perspicacity of writers of Soviet travelogues. When it comes to Estonian travelogues, one can talk about a Tuglasesque travelogue tradition; Friedebert Tuglas is considered one of the pioneers behind the Estonian travelogue with his works Teekond Hispaania (A Journey to Spain, 1918) and Teekond P hja-Aafrika (A Journey to North Africa, I–III, 1928–1930). In the Tuglasesque travelogue, books of history and art, fiction and personal impressions are intertwined. The travelogue is educational and makes for good reading. The Soviet travelogue spans certain topics from a Soviet point of view and uses Soviet rhetorics and logics. The authors usually don’t even make it to the ’second level’: the travelogue remains a one-level description about things seen, and doesn’t catch any deeper train of thought or developments of the topic. The focus of the writing style is ’been there-seen that – went there, saw that.’ No intertwinement of books of history and art, fiction and personal impressions takes place; in that sense the travelogue does not belong in a Tuglasesque travelogue tradition. The Soviet travelogue is written from within the tradition of Soviet travelogues, which aims at pointing to the problems of life in capitalist countries and to the negative influence of faith. In this depiction
Esteetilise suhtumise m iste N ukogude Eesti esteetikas. The Concept of Aesthetic Approach in Soviet Estonian Aesthetics  [cached]
Marek Volt
Methis : Studia humaniora Estonica , 2011,
Abstract: This nostalgic yet analytic article discusses the topic of aesthetic approach in the aesthetic literature of Soviet Estonia (authors Borev, Kagan, Stolovich and others). Firstly, the aesthetic approach engages man’s creative/reshaping activities in relation to the world (following Marx’s slogan that ’man also produces in accordance with the laws of beauty’). Secondly, an artistic meaning can be distinguished, followed by a third, the subjective aesthetic meaning, which indicates the actual application of aesthetic categories (such as ’beauty’, ’sublimity’, etc.). Since the subjective aesthetic meaning is fundamental in relation to the other meanings, the article focuses on the specific characterisation of this category. The first important characteristic is the appraisability, which is born from the usage of the categories; the number of categories has been subject to historical change, reflecting the development of man’s aesthetic approach. Aesthetic approach was mainly defined through the five conditions (sensuousness, direct contact with the concrete object, selflessness, and the appraisal of the object in comparison with the ideal). Analysis of the aesthetic approach in a historical dialectic relation to theoretical, utilitarian and ethical approaches indicates that aesthetical feelings only arose towards the end of the Paleolithic era. Peoples on a lower developmental level didn’t know of aesthetic appraisal, or their aesthetic appraisals were still very closely connected with the utilitaristic. Even though all approaches at times are exhibited in their ‘pure’ forms, Soviet aesthetics generally held to the opinion that they arose simultaneously in daily practice and were intertwined with one another. The societal and practical meanings are what constitute the aesthetic approach – meaning that they define what man will begin to consider beautiful (in its more radical forms, this meant reducing the beauty of an object to its usefulness), but they also affect the nature of existing aesthetic objects. An example typical of that time: relations of private property transforms a beautiful object into its opposite (a beautiful pearl found by a poor fisherman can become an ugly grey nodule due to the afflictions caused by a world ruled by selfishness). In analysing the Soviet aesthetical concept of aesthetic approach and how it differs from the corresponding notion in the ’nations of Western capitalism’, I point to the neutral appraisal of aesthetic approach in Western ethics and the fact that the aesthetic approach has been relatively unaffected by individ
Idast l nde: ladina terminid kui iguskultuuri muutuse peegeldajad / From east to west: Latin terms as a reflection of the change in legal culture
Merike Ristikivi
?petatud Eesti Seltsi Aastaraamat/Yearbook of the Learned Estonian Society , 2011,
Abstract: The article focuses on the usage of Latin terms in legal texts in the Estonian language in the transition period before and after re-establishing Estonian independence on the basis of the journals N ukogude igus (Soviet Law) and Eesti Jurist (Estonian Lawyer). The period under the observation (1985–1994) is characterised by conceptual changes in the Estonian legal order, by radical reforms in legislation, and the legal system in general. The results of the study reveal that socio-political developments have had an impact on terminology and the principles of language usage. In the Soviet era the cultural influences changed, and the western legal tradition was replaced by the Soviet legal system and the dominance of the Russian language. The usage of Latin terminology in the journals N ukogude igus and Eesti Jurist at the end of the Soviet era and in the transition period, explored in the course of the present research, revealed that the number of Latin terms in the abovementioned two periodicals is significantly small. Besides infrequently used professional terms in juridical articles, a number of well-known Latin proverbs and expressions concerning academic affairs were employed. The analysis of the research material revealed that the terminological change and an increase in the usage of Latin terms came together with the transformation of the legal culture and policy at the end of the Soviet era. It is important to note that the quantitative and qualitative changes in language usage did not occur in 1991 – i.e., —the year when Estonia restored her independence. The most significant changes in terminology had begun already in 1989 and 1990, when the readiness to try to become again part of the European legal environment surfaced. The rearrangements in the Estonian legal system compelled the Estonian lawyers to include in their usage of legal language those Latin terms that have become rooted in the legal tradition of Europe.
Privaatne ja avalik n ukogude aja m istmises ühe keskastme juhi eluloo n itel. Private and Public in the Soviet Era: The Example of a Mid-Level Manager’s Life Story  [cached]
Ene K?resaar,Kristi J?esalu
Methis : Studia humaniora Estonica , 2011,
Abstract: The focus of our analysis is the question of how the complex world of Soviet everyday life – which was characterised by a tension between public and private – has manifested itself in the recounting of life stories. In the article we first take a look at the problem of public and private, and the possibilities of using this theoretical model when researching everyday life in the Soviet Union. In approaching the subject, we support ourselves with the approaches of Garcelon, Voronkov and Zdravomyslova. Garcelon has, in research on Soviet society, distinguished the official and private spheres as opposites, and an area between these two spheres which encompasses features of both; Garcelon calls this the social sphere of working life. Zdravomyslova and Voronkov distinguish a third sphere: an in-between, an informal official part of life in which, in their view, Soviet society never gained total control of the individual. In both approaches, a situation arose in the Soviet society of the 1960s where informal rules began to dominate over official ones, thereby enabling a flexible kind of manipulation. In the article, we analyse the relationship between official, informal and private in the sphere of work using an oral history perspective. Here, we used Alessandro Portelli’s tripartite mode of history-telling. Portelli treats lifestory narrative as a structurally complex text where changes in usage of language and definitions of time denote general changes in experience. The characters, space and grammar change depending on the perspective used in narration. Proceeding from this, Portelli distinguishes an institutional, societal and personal level in the narration of history. The life story analysed was written by a mid-level industrial manager and sent to the life writing campaign ’My Life and the Life of My Family in Soviet Estonia and in the Republic of Estonia’ in 2001. A characteristic feature of the industrial manager’s work biography was the, for Soviet working life typical, wangling between the official and the informal. Nothing could take place in the public sphere without it also taking place in the other, and the managers were the ones who by virtue of their profession could perform this exchange. In the life story, it becomes apparent just how differently relations between the public and private sphere (among which we also find the narrator’s own person) are perceived autobiographically in the 1940s through 1950s on one hand, and the 1960s to 1980s on the other hand. In the recollections from the totalitarian period, the official/public sphere exis
Macroscopic Car Condensation in a Parking Garage  [PDF]
Meesoon Ha,Marcel den Nijs
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.66.036118
Abstract: An asymmetric exclusion process type process, where cars move forward along a closed road that starts and terminates at a parking garage, displays dynamic phase transitions into two types of condensate phases where the garage becomes macroscopically occupied. The total car density $\rho_o$ and the exit probability $\alpha$ are the two control parameters. At the transition, the number of parked cars $N_p$ diverges in both cases, with the length of the road $N_s$, as $N_p\sim N_s^{y_p}$ with $y_p=1/2$. Towards the transition, the number of parked cars vanishes as $N_p\sim \epsilon^\beta$ with $\beta=1$, $\epsilon=|\alpha -\alpha^*|$ or $\epsilon=|\rho^*_o -\rho_o|$ being the distance from the transition. The transition into the normal phase represents also the onset of transmission of information through the garage. This gives rise to unusual parked car autocorrelations and car density profiles near the garage, which depend strongly on the group velocity of the fluctuations along the road.
Failure case of a garage door opener  [cached]
Habib, K.,Al-Hazzaa, A.
Revista de Metalurgia , 2005,
Abstract: A failure analysis of a garage door opener was conducted for determination of the cause of the failure. The analysis included visual inspections of broken parts as well as electron microscopy examinations of the fracture surface. The visual inspections showed that a bolt connected to the inner trolley of the garage opener assembly was initially fractured. Also, the results of electron microscopy examinations revealed that the broken bolt failed by fatigue damage phenomenon, due to alternating torsional stresses throughout 25 years of an operational life of the garage opener. In addition, a mathematical model corresponding to the failure mechanism was derived along the failure analysis. The model comprises of both design philosophy and fracture mechanics approaches. Se analizó el fallo del mecanismo de apertura de una puerta de garaje con el fin de determinar sus causas. El análisis incluyó una inspección visual de las piezas rotas así como un examen mediante microscopía de la superficie de fractura. La inspección visual reveló que primero se fracturó un perno conectado al carro interior del mecanismo de apertura. Los resultados del análisis por microscopía electrónica también mostraron que el perno roto falló debido a fenómenos de da o por fatiga, debido a los esfuerzos torsionales alternos a la largo de 25 a os de vida en servicio del mecanismo de apertura. Por otra parte, se construyó un modelo matemático correspondiente al mecanismo de rotura durante el análisis del mismo. Este modelo comprende enfoques, tanto de la filosofía de dise o como de la mecánica de fractura.
On the Disintegration of the Soviet Union - From the Perspective of Soft Power in Culture  [cached]
Yuzhi Zhang,Fengwei Xue
Asian Social Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v6n4p117
Abstract: The disintegration of the Soviet Union is widely discussed in academic circles. From the perspective of soft power in culture, stating the gradual loss of soft power in the publican and political culture, at last led to the disintegration of the Soviet Union.
Establishment of Festival Tradition in Soviet Village in the Epoch of New Economic Policy
Susanna D. Bagdasaryan
History and Historians in the Context of the Time , 2012,
Abstract: The article is focused on the problem of the establishment of Soviet new festival culture in South Russian peasant environment in 1920s.
Social and Cultural Displays in the South of Russia in 1920s: Interaction of Russian and Ukrainian Peasant Festive Traditions and Soviet Festival  [PDF]
Susanna D. Bagdasaryan
Bylye Gody , 2012,
Abstract: This article is focused on the aspects of Soviet social and cultural policy, concerning establishment of new Soviet festive culture in the environment of the southern Russia’s peasantry in 1920s and interaction of polyethnic cultures.
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