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 Tiiu Kreegipuu Methis : Studia humaniora Estonica , 2011, Abstract: During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front ) and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws). One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them. Journalists’ attempts at rather making ’real journalism’ than congenial propaganda work for Soviet ideologists are particularly telling – this was during the Khrushchev Thaw of the 1960s, when several Estonian publications headed by ‘ideologically less significant’ and thus also less controlled local papers, cultural and youth journalists looked for new means and opportunities of expression. Repeated discussions, admonitions and decisions within the party’s governing organs and disputes between the party and the Glavlit censors point to a Soviet censorship which up until the end couldn’t be used in an efficient manner i
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.66.036118 Abstract: An asymmetric exclusion process type process, where cars move forward along a closed road that starts and terminates at a parking garage, displays dynamic phase transitions into two types of condensate phases where the garage becomes macroscopically occupied. The total car density $\rho_o$ and the exit probability $\alpha$ are the two control parameters. At the transition, the number of parked cars $N_p$ diverges in both cases, with the length of the road $N_s$, as $N_p\sim N_s^{y_p}$ with $y_p=1/2$. Towards the transition, the number of parked cars vanishes as $N_p\sim \epsilon^\beta$ with $\beta=1$, $\epsilon=|\alpha -\alpha^*|$ or $\epsilon=|\rho^*_o -\rho_o|$ being the distance from the transition. The transition into the normal phase represents also the onset of transmission of information through the garage. This gives rise to unusual parked car autocorrelations and car density profiles near the garage, which depend strongly on the group velocity of the fluctuations along the road.