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Effect of Microbial Inoculants on the Nutritive Value of Corn Silage for Beef Cattle  [PDF]
M. Kamarloiy,A. Teimouri Yansari
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: This study investigated the effect of a new microbial inoculant product on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage in big silo over one year that used beef cattle. Six Holstein beef steer (BW = 225 ±17) were allotted to 2x2 repeated Latin square design at two 21 days periods (adaptation, 14 days and sample collection, 7 days) for evaluation the effect of microbial inoculation on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle. Two treatments, forages were untreated or treated at ensiling with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici silage inoculants. After 45 days from ensiling, the ration that contained 94.5 and 5, 0.2, 0.2, 0.1% of DM silage and ground barely, mineral-vitamin, dicalcium phosphate, salt, respectively, were offered for free choice consumption. Treatment with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici inoculant increased daily dry matter intake and subsequently NDF, ether extract, crude protein and ash. Apparent digestibility of DM and nutrients were significantly increased by microbial inoculation. Microbial inoculation can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle.
Use of maize silage in beef cattle feeding during the finishing period  [cached]
Giulio Cozzi,Alessandro Mazzenga,Barbara Contiero,Gabriele Burato
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2008.39
Abstract: The research investigated the use of maize silage (MS) in beef cattle diets during the finishing period by monitoring a sample of 406 commercial farms located in the Po Valley. Farms were selected in order to cover the most diverse rearing situations, in terms of farm size and cattle genotype, in which MS was fed to beef cattle during the finishing period. Each farm was visited to collect information about the feeding regimen and representative samples of total mixed ration (TMR) and MS were collected for chemical and physical analysis. Two specific classification factors of the farm population were created for statistical analysis of experimental data. The former considered the quantity of MS included in the TMR and the latter was based on the content of long particles of MS (>13 mm). Regardless of chop length, the quality of MS population was satisfactory both by a nutritional and a preservation standpoint, as indicated by the dry matter (DM) (350 ± 38 g/kg of fresh weight) and the high starch content (310 ± 28 g/kg DM) and lactic acid concentration (49 ± 12 g/kg DM). Physical analysis of MS samples showed a wide range of particle size, as result of the different chopping lengths during harvest. The average content of long particles retained by a 13-mm screen was 143 ± 73 g/kg of fresh weight. On average, MS accounted for 33.4% to the total dietary DM but a large standard deviation (11.4%) was observed across farms. The decision about the amount of MS to be included in the TMR has shown to be independent on both chemical composition and particle size of the roughage. In diets with a high quantity of MS the risk of occurrence of rumen acidosis due to the additional starch brought by this silage is balanced either by a significant reduction in the amount of other starch sources or by the higher NDF content and the coarser size of the dietary particles which should promote a prolonged rumination. The analysis of TMR particle size showed that in more than 30% of the farms MS was damaged during diet preparation with a loss of long particles. A logistic analysis demonstrated that the relative risk of MS damage was significantly increased either by a larger inclusion of the roughage in the TMR or by the use of silage with coarse particles.
Prediction of the nutritive value of maize silage using in vitro and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) techniques
L. Rapetti,G.M. Crovetto,N. Rizzi,D. Colombo
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2005.2s.144
Abstract: Maize silage is by far the most used forage in the diets for dairy cows and beef cattle in a large part of the Po plain, Italy. However, its chemical composition and its nutritive value range widely according to the genotype and to the climatic and agronomic conditions, particularly with regards to the plant maturity at harvest.
Performance of finishing beef cattle fed different diets containing whole-crop maize silage or sugarcane silage
Roman, Juliano;Jobim, Clóves Cabreira;Resende, Flávio Dutra de;Siqueira, Gustavo Rezende;Faria, Marcelo Henrique de;Oliveira Neto, Renato Alves de;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982011000300029
Abstract: the objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of beef cattle in feedlots fed diets containing either whole-crop maize silage or sugarcane silage, and with different formulations. five diets were evaluated: msf - diet containing whole-crop maize silage, with fixed formulation during feedlot period; msv- diet containing whole-crop maize silage, with variable formulation according to feedlot phase; scsf - diet containing sugarcane silage with fixed formulation; scsv- diet containing sugarcane silage, with variable formulation; scsv/msv- scsv diet in initial half of fedlot and msv diet in final half of feedlot period, respectively. it was used a complete random experimental design, with five treatments and three replicates (pens). it was used 285 steers at 36 months of age, with an initial body weight of 362.4 kg. diets with whole-crop maize silage promoted greater intake of dry matter (10.5 kg and 2.4% bw) compared with diets containing sugarcane silage (10.1 kg and 2.3% bw). there was no effect of the silages on average daily gain (1.348 kg/animal/day) and live weight at slaughter (481.2 kg bw). scsv/msv diet promoted the worst feed conversion (8.0 kg dm/kg bw). animals fed diets composed of whole-crop maize silage presented greater weight of hot carcass, of carcass yield and subcutaneous fat thickness (262.1 kg, 54.1% and 6.2 mm) compared with the animals fed sugarcane silage (252.5 kg, 52.7% and 4.8 mm). the use of sugarcane silage in diets for finishing beef cattle is feasible and the adjustment of formulation during confinement period does not influence performance of the animals. replacement of sugarcane silage by whole-crop maize silage during the feeding period affects negatively feed conversion.
The use of corn silage in diets for beef cattle of different genotype
A. Mazzenga,M. Brscic,G. Cozzi
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2007.1s.321
Abstract: The study was carried out in a sample of 406 commercial beef farms located in the Po Valley in which corn silage (CS) was included in the diet fed during the finishing period. Each farm was assigned to one class based on the cattle genotype and the results of this partition were the following: Charolaise (35%), Limousine (16%), French Crossbreds (35%) and Dual Purpose breeds (14%). Corn silage represented more than 33% of total dry matter of the diets of Charolaise, French Crossbreds and Dual Purpose cattle while its inclusion was significantly lower in the Limousine class (29.0% of total dietary dry matter). The decision about the amount of CS to be included in the diet has shown to be independent from the silage quality which, however, resulted satisfactory for all classes of cattle genotypes. The analysis of the chemical composition of the diets showed similar results for the four classes and therefore diet formulation seemed not to aim at the fulfilment of the real nutritive requirements of all the animals and of the Dual Purpose class ones in particular.
Characteristics of beef meat as influenced by diet based on hay or maize silage
L. Pianaccioli,A. Acciaioli,G. Campodoni,F. Sirtori
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2005.2s.266
Abstract: The maize silage is widely used in diet of beef cattle, particularly in areas where the maize culture is highly productive. With this cereal it is possible to reduce the feeding costs and to intensify the animal production.
The Feasibility of Feeding High Levels of Whey Silage and Effects on Production in Growing Cattle
D. R. ZoBell,E. K. Okine,K. C. Olson,R. D. Wiedmeier,L. A. Goonewardene,C. Stonecipher
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Two studies were conducted with the objective of evaluating the feasibility of using whey ensiled with wheat straw and wheat middlings (whey silage), fed at 98% of the diet and determine the levels of production that can be obtained by feeding it to growing cattle. In each study, the control diets contained a diet comprising of wheat middlings, alfalfa hay and corn silage and were isocaloric with the whey silage diets. The average daily gains and feed efficiencies of cattle fed on the whey silage diets were similar (P>0.05) to the control diets. However, in the second study, dry matter intake was reduced (P<0.05) in animals fed the whey silage diet compared to the control. Whey silage can be included at 98% of the total diet with no adverse effects on gain and feed efficiency. This study provides cattle producers with low cost feeding options that use crop residues and agricultural by products such as whey which can be ensiled and fed to growing cattle.
The Usage Possibility of Apple Pomace Silage Prepared with Poultry Manure Addition in the Nutrition of Beef Cattle
Ahmet Uzatici
Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/vr.2012.4.7
Abstract: This research was conducted to determine if there is a possibility of Poultry Manure (PM) ensiling with Apple Pomace (AP) and the possibility of the usage of produced silage as a nutritional stuff in the feeding of beef cattle. As a first step, PM, the weight of it was reference unit was blended with the AP at a ratio of 25 and 50%, ensilaged and the quality of the silage was examined. By the 60th day of the ensilaging process, pH values were 3.97 and 4.05 in the samples collected from 25 and 50% PM containing silage materials, respectively. The analyses of the same samples for the lactic, acetic and butyric acid ratios revealed as in 25% PM containing silage 1.727, 1.052 and 0.294% and in 50% containing silage 0.852, 0.693 and 0.877%, respectively. The second stage of the experiment was designed as 111 days of feeding trial and conducted with 8-10 months old Brown-Swiss male cattle with an average live weight of 333 kg and they were allocated into 3 groups, each of which composed of 8 animals. One of the groups was kept as a control. Silages containing 25 and 50% PM was provided as roughage to the remaining group, group I and II and they were used as trial groups. The control group was fed with a ration consisted of pelleted concentrate and wheat straw only. Lack of nutrients in the silages provided to the trial groups was completed with the similar concentrate and wheat straw given to the control group. At the end of the trial, the average live weight of the bulls in the control group, groups I and II were 452,456 and 461 kg and their daily weight gains were 1063,1108 and 1153 g, respectively. A statically significant difference with respect to daily weight gain was not observed among the groups. Throughout the experiment, the amount of dry matter for 1 kg weight gain in order of groups was 6.92, 6.74 and 6.27 kg and the cost of weight gain was 6578, 4775 and 4096 Turkish Liras, respectively. The examinations of rumen fluid for ammonium and urea nitrogen at the end of the feeding trial showed that the values were 10.6, 13.4 and 15.1 mg/100 mL and 12.3, 13.6 and 24.0 mg/100 mL in the groups, respectively and differences of these results were statistically significant (p<0.01). However, since the above values are below the toxic levels and toxic effects of these substances were not observed in the animals. Ammonia and urea nitrogen were also analyzed in the blood. At the end of the experiment while the blood ammonia values were 0.30, 0.34 and 0.52 mg/100 mL, respectively the respective urea nitrogen values were 5.75-9.30 mg/100 mL. The values for both parameters were higher in the animals of experimental groups compare to those of control group (p<0.01). Above results showed that preparation of silage by the addition of 25 and 50% PM to the AP is possible and the produced silages were consumed by the beef cattle without any negative effects on the weight gain and feed consumption and also provides an economic food supply.
The change of sowing structure as a strategy for improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle  [PDF]
Todorovi? Sa?a Z.,Brati? Sini?a V.,Filipovi? Nikola S.
Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/jas1002183t
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of sowing structure on family farm competiveness using the model of family farm directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle in the conditions of unchanged estate size. Applying a partial budget analysis, it was examined whether the decision on buying alfalfa hay or mercantile maize on the market and changing the sowing structure was economically justified and under what conditions using additional procedure of sensitive analysis. Applying this approach, it was investigated to what extent that decision contributed to improving the family farm profitability. The results of the conducted research show that the decision on buying mercantile maize mainly contributes to improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle compared with the decision on buying alfalfa hay. It is the consequence of the fact that buying mercantile maize on the market will enable sowing structure changes, that is, buying mercantile maize will make the area free, which according to some conservative estimations, can be used for the production of sufficient amounts of alfalfa and silage maize for fattening of additional 19 head, whereas buying alfalfa hay will make the area free, which can be used for production of sufficient amounts of mercantile and silage maize for fattening of additional 6 head. In addition, it is shown that more rational way of organizing family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle can additionally use available land resources and in that way increase profitability and improve competitiveness.
Effect of type of floor and space at the manger on growth performance and feeding behaviour of beef cattle  [cached]
F. Gottardo,G. Cozzi,S. Preciso,L. Ravarotto
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2003.s1.322
Abstract: There is no regulation in force concerning the welfare of beef cattle in Europe likely because of the large differences existing among the fattening systems adopted by different countries. The fattening system mainly adopted in Italy must be consider intensive due to the high cattle stocking rate and the indoor housing with lack of pasture. In these rearing conditions the main factors affecting beef cattle welfare are the space allowance, the number of animals/pen, the type of floor, and the space at the manger (EU-SCAHAW, 2001)...
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