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Maintenance of Pregnancy in Repeat Breeder Dairy Cows by CIDR Administration After Breeding  [PDF]
H. Ghasemzadeh-Nava,H. Kohsari,P. Tajik
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two periods of P4 therapy by CIDR on the 1st service Conception Rate (CR) of repeat breeder dairy cows. The cows were selected on the following basis: absence of dystocia, retained placenta and endometritis after the last parturition. They were inseminated according to the AM/PM rule relative to estrus onset and randomly assigned into 3 groups: (A) CIDR on day 5 after insemination that was removed on day 9 of the cycle (n = 40); (B) CIDR on day 5 after insemination that was removed on day 19 of the cycle (n = 36) and (C) untreated controls (n = 40). Pregnancy diagnosis was conducted by rectal palpation 45-55 days after AI in cows not observed in estrus. The difference in CR among the groups was analyzed by chi square analysis. The CR in groups A, B and C was 55, 41.7 and 30%, respectively and was greater (p<0.05) in treatment (A) cows than in control cows. In conclusion, repeat breeder cows in groups A and B benefited from progesterone supplementation, but significant effects of treatment for improvement of conception rate was seen in short treatment period (4 days treatment).
Basal levels and diurnal variations of some hormones and metabolites in blood of dairy cows treated daily with rbSTin early and late lactation  [cached]
Giuseppe Bertoni,Rosanna Lombardelli,Fiorenzo Piccioli-Cappelli,Jurgen Blum
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2002.127
Abstract: The variations of basal value (before morning feeding at 3-4 days interval) and daily pattern (on 4and 18day of treat- ment with 8 blood collections within 24h) of hormones and metabolites were studied in four dairy cows; 2 in early and 2 in late lactation, which were alternatively injected daily for a period of 21 days with 26.3 mg rbST or saline. The rbST injection significantly increased the basal and daily levels of GH, IGF-I in both stages of lactation. Daily levels of NEFA were significantly increased by rbST in both stages of lactation and their variations, due to the effect of meals, were coun- teracted by the rbST; the higher level of NEFA allowed a greater sparing of glucose, the blood level of which resulted higher (P<0.05) in late lactation (mainly for less lactose yield), as well as a sparing of amino acid that resulted in a lower blood urea level (P<0.05, only in late lactation). Moreover, these metabolic changes in late lactating cows, and in par- ticular the high availability of glucose, determined a significantly higher blood level of insulin and T3, and lower level of glucagon. Despite the similar GH, IGF-I and NEFA increases observed in the cows treated in early and late lactation, other metabolic and endocrine consequences resulted more evident in late lactation. Furthermore, some of these variations were affected by the forage meals. It can be concluded, therefore, that the changes occurring in the blood subsequent to a rbST treatment are not equal to those which occur at the start of lactation; moreover, they are affected by the daily feeding pattern and perhaps by the stage of lactation.
Optimal feeding and maintenance technology for dairy cows in intensive production conditions  [PDF]
Medi? Dragoljub,Veselinovi? Spasoje B.,Veselinovi? Sne?ana,?upi? ?eljko
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0304125m
Abstract: Over the past 50 years, milk production in our country was only partly based on economic principles, the social aspect being predominant, as for most strategic agricultural products. Only towards the end of 2000, when the key disparities in prices were somewhat corrected, it began to acquire characteristics of economically organized production. Nevertheless, some things remained, like the existence of state premiums for milk which are an effort to bridge the differences between real production costs, on the one hand, and the very low purchasing power of the wider strata of society, on the other. The objective of this work was to review several farm models typical for our country, and to point out the best solutions for developing industrial dairy farming in our very good geographic conditions and other natural resources, and all for the purpose of introducing optimal conditions for feeding and technology with economically justified production.
THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMPLETE RUMEN MODIFIER ON DAIRY COWS  [PDF]
A. Thalib,P. Situmorang,I. W. Mathius,Y. Widiawati
Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture , 2011,
Abstract: An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM) to improve dairy cow productivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairy cows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD). Group I (Control) fed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%), Group II (Pro. Woodii) fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae) fed by basal diet + probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae) fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurements were conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methane production. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg) and improved FCR (9.2 vs 15.6). Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and total solid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%; 11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination of CRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combination of CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. Probiotic Noterae improved milk quality.
The Effect of Feeding Different Levels of Potassium Iodide on Performance, T3 and T4 Concentrations and Iodine Excretion in Holstein Dairy Cows
M.A. Norouzian,R. Valizadeh,F. Azizi,M. Hedayati,A.A. Naserian,F. Eftekhari Shahroodi
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Sixteen Holstein dairy cows with the average live body weight of 652±43 and daily milk yield of 32.9±2.4 kg allocated to 4 treatments in a complete randomized design with 4 replications to evaluate the effect of iodine supplementation on performance of dairy cow and iodine excretions especially in milk. The treatments were: basal diet (without Potassium Iodide) as the control diet, 2, 3 and 4, the basal diet plus 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg kg-1 diet DM Potassium Iodide, respectively. There were no significant difference between treatments for dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions and the milk production efficiency. Iodine contents in blood, urine, raw and pasteurized milk were significantly (p<0.01) affected by the iodine supplementation. Blood T3 and T4 concentrations were not significantly affected by the treatments. No adverse effect of iodine supplementation on performance and health of dairy cow were detected in this study. It was concluded that iodine supplementation above of NRC recommendation (0.5 mg kg-1 diet DM) led to a desirable level of iodine in the milk ready for human consumption without adverse effects on dairy cows performance and health. This finding could be an excellent recommendation for the area with iodine deficiency mainly for children's.
Perfromance of Lactating Dairy Cows in Response to Supplementation of Rumen-Protected Choline
W. Suksombat,R. Mirattanaphrai,P. Paengsai
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.3321.3327
Abstract: Effects of rumen-protected choline supplementation on milk production and milk fatty acids in crossbred Holstein Friesian dairy cows were studied. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows, averaging 32±8 days in milk, 16.0±1.6 kg of milk and 426±27 kg body weight were blocked by milking days first and then stratified balanced milk yield and body weight into three groups of 8 cows. The first group (Control) received approximately 9 kg of concentrate. The second group was fed the same basal diet as the control group and supplemented with 20 g day-1 of Rumen-Protected Choline (RPC) and the third group was fed the same basal diet as the control group and supplemented with 40 g day-1 of RPC. All cows also received ad libitum grass silage (Brachiaria ruziziensis, 55 days cutting interval) had free access to clean water and were individually housed in a free-stall unit and individually fed according to treatments. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks with the 1st 2 weeks being considered as adaptation period and measurements were made during the last 8 weeks. Daily milk yields were recorded. Milk sample and dry matter intake were collected in 2 consecutive days weekly. Live weights were recorded at the start and at the end of the experiment. Milk choline and blood parameters were also analyzed. The results showed no statistical significant differences in intakes, live weight change, milk compositions and blood parameters (p>0.05) however, milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected-milk yield and milk choline were increased by rumen-protected choline supplementation. It is recommended in the present study that the addition of 20 g day-1 rumen-protected choline could be beneficial to lactating dairy cows in early lactation.
Effects of Sorghum Stover as Replacement Basal Diet on Milk Yield, Live Weight and Dry Matter Intake of Friesian Cows in Botswana
O. R. Madibela,W. Mahabile,W. Boitumelo
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Thirty-four lactating Friesian cows were allocated to two groups. At the beginning of lactation two cows were paired according to parity, weight and date of parturition. One group was randomly allocated to stover-based diet (SBD) and another to grass-based diet (GBD). The basal feeds (stover or grass) were given on ad lib basis. Lucerne and dried brewers grain were fed on group basis in the drylot. Dairy meal was given individually according to milk yield at rate of 500g/litre after the first 8 litres. Daily intake of Lucerne, brewers grain and the basal feeds were significantly different (P<0.001) between the treatments. SBD group consumed more of Lucerne and brewers grain while GBD consumed more of grass. However, no difference (P>0.05) in take of dairy meal was observed between the treatments. Stage of lactation was found to influence daily intake of Lucerne, brewers grain (P<0.001) and the basal feeds (P<0.05). Mean body weights and body condition score at the end of lactation were found to be similar (P>0.05) between the treatments. SBD cows produced more milk (P<0.001) than GBD cows (14.7 vs 13.7kg/d/cow respectively). Mean fat, protein and solid-not-fat content were also similar (P>0.05) between the treatments. Based on the similarities of body weight, body condition score and milk composition between the treatments and the high milk yield by SBD, sorghum stover can thus be used to feed fat cows during lactation. This will stimulate mobilization of body fat. However, since energy intake would limit milk yield in the long run, a high-energy feedstuff such as silage need to be introduced to maintain high milk yield. Too much reliance on body condition as a buffer to overcome nutrition shortcomings, such as the case with stover fed cows, would lead to reduced milk yield in cows with insufficient body reserves.
Effects of Post Insemination Flunixin Meglumine Injection on Corpus Luteum Maintenance, Plasma Progesterone Concentrations and Pregnancy Rate in Heat Stressed Holstein Dairy Cows
Kamran Kaveh,Md. Zuki Abu Bakar,Behrang Ekrami,Hamid Ghasemzadeh-Nava,Parviz Tajik,Mahmood Bolourchi,Amin Tamadon
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.2176.2180
Abstract: Aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of Flunixin Meglumine (FM) post insemination injection on Corpus Luteum (CL) function, its Progesterone (P4) secretion and pregnancy rate of dairy cows in heat stress condition. Estrus cycles of 120 Holstein cows were synchronized utilizing ovsynch protocol and cows were artificially inseminated. Environmental data indicated that the cows experienced medium heat stress during trials (mean daily temperature-humidity index = 79-84). They were randomly divided into three equal groups of 40. Two groups received FM injection between days 2-5 and 10-13 post inseminations once daily and the third group was selected as control. Blood samples were collected on days 7 and 14 post insemination for analysis of plasma P4 concentrations. Ultrasonography scanning was performed on these days for CL detection following which its volume was calculated. The pregnancy status of the cows was estimated at days 27-30 by ultrasonography and confirmed on day 42 by palpation per rectum. Plasma P4 concentrations showed no significant difference in groups receiving treatment compared by the control (p>0.05). However, CL volume was different between the treated groups on day 14 (p = 0.03). The pregnancy rate in group FM 10-13 (20%) was higher than that of group FM 2-5 (17.5%) and control (15%) but this improvement was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Treatment of heat stressed dairy cows with FM post insemination between days 2-5 or 10-13 led to CL maintenance but this treatment could neither increase the serum P4 concentrations nor improve the pregnancy rate.
A REVIEW ON ACID BASE STATUS IN DAIRY COWS: IMPLICATIONS OF DIETARY CATION-ANION BALANCE  [PDF]
D. Afzaal, M. Nisa, M. A. Khan and M. Sarwar
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2004,
Abstract: The acid base status of a dairy cow is maintained within a narrow range. The key mechanisms involving blood, cells and lungs, perform this function. Although other minerals have an impact on acid base metabolism, the minerals used in dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB) namely sodium (Na), potassium (K) and chloride (Cl) have the greatest effect. Hence, acid base status implicates other biological functions of dairy cows. Low DCAB prepartum reduces the incidence of milk fever and increases the productivity by simmering down the severity of hypocalcaemia. High DCAB diets have proved to increase dry mater and water intake and production and to mitigate the effects of heat stress.
Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk Fat of Grazing Dairy Cows Fed Fish Oil and Linseed Oil
W. Brown,A.A. AbuGhazaleh,S. Ibrahim
Research Journal of Dairy Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing grazing dairy cows diet with Fish Oil (FO) and Linseed Oil (LSO) on milk Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA). Sixteen Holstein cows (170 19 DIM) were divided into 2 groups (n = 8 per treatment) and fed a basal diet (7.2 kg d 1; DM basis) consisting of corn, soybean meal, molasses, vitamin/mineral premix plus 800 g saturated animal fat (CONT) or a basal diet plus 200 g FO and 600 g LSO (FOLSO). All cows grazed together on Sudan grass pasture for ad libitum and fed the treatment diets for 3 weeks. Cows were milked twice a day and milk samples were collected during the last 3 days of the trial. Milk production (24.89 and 22.45 kg d 1), milk protein percentages (2.76 and 2.82) and milk protein yield (0.68 and 0.64 kg d 1) for the CONT and FOLSO diets, respectively, were not affected (p>0.05) by treatment diets. Milk fat percentages (3.90 and 2.86) and milk fat yields (0.97 and 0.64 kg d 1) were lower (p< 0.05) with the FOLSO diet compared with the CONT diet. The concentration and yield of milk cis-9 trans-11 CLA were higher (p< 0.05) with the FOLSO diet (2.56% of total FA and 16.44 g d 1, respectively) than the CONT diet (0.66% of total FA and 6.44 g d 1, respectively). The concentrations of milk trans C18:1 and Vaacenic Acid (VA) were higher (p< 0.05) with the FOLSO diet (36.99 and 7.48% of total FA, respectively) than the CONT diet (28.8 and 2.27% of total FA, respectively). In conclusion, supplementing grazing cows diet with FO and LSO increased milk cis-9 trans-11 CLA content but reduced milk fat content and yield.
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