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Risk factors for domestic physical violence: national cross-sectional household surveys in eight southern African countries
Neil Andersson, Ari Ho-Foster, Steve Mitchell, Esca Scheepers, Sue Goldstein
BMC Women's Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-7-11
Abstract: In 2002, cross-sectional household surveys in a stratified urban/rural last-stage random sample of enumeration areas, based on latest national census in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Working door to door, interviewers contacted all adults aged 16–60 years present on the day of the visit, without sub-sampling. 20,639 adults were interviewed. The questionnaire in 29 languages measured domestic physical violence by the question "In the last year, have you and your partner had violent arguments where your partner beat, kicked or slapped you?" There was no measure of severity or frequency of physical violence.14% of men (weighted based on 1,294/8,113) and 18% of women (weighted based on 2,032/11,063) reported being a victim of partner physical violence in the last year. There was no convincing association with age, income, education, household size and remunerated occupation. Having multiple partners was strongly associated with partner physical violence. Other associations included the income gap within households, negative attitudes about sexuality (for example, men have the right to sex with their girlfriends if they buy them gifts) and negative attitudes about sexual violence (for example, forcing your partner to have sex is not rape). Particularly among men, experience of partner physical violence was associated with potentially dangerous attitudes to HIV infection.Having multiple partners was the most consistent risk factor for domestic physical violence across all countries. This could be relevant to domestic violence prevention strategies.Domestic violence – also known as intimate partner abuse, family violence, wife beating, battering, marital abuse, and partner abuse – is an international problem[1,2]. Domestic violence is not a single behaviour but a mix of assaulting and coercive physical, sexual, and psychological behaviours designed to manipulate and dominate the partner to achieve compliance and dependence.
Men’s Experiences of Family, Domestic and Honour-Related Violence in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India  [cached]
Alex Broom,David Sibbritt,K. R. Nayar,Assa Doron
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n6p3
Abstract: Background: Violence is a major problem in India with family, domestic and honour-related violence having significant impacts on the wellbeing of Indian families and communities. There has been little attention paid to men’s experiences, particularly in the Indian State’s of Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh. The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on Indian men’s experiences of violence and the key predictors such as age, income, education and religion. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of men from Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat. Data were obtained from a non-probability purposive sample of 1000 adult men over a two-month period in late 2009. The respondents were selected from public spaces in 10 cities or towns within these two provinces. Results: The results found a lifetime prevalence of experiencing family violence of 99.2% (15.6% often and 64.1% sometimes), domestic violence 92.2% (21.1% often and 44.9% sometimes), and honour-related violence 99.7% (45.1% often and 41.7% sometimes). Moreover, when we analysed the men’s responses across socio-demographic factors, age, income, religion, education and region were each shown to be important predictors of regular exposure to family, domestic and honour-related violence. Conclusions: The results of this survey provide much needed insight into the factors that predict experiences of violence. Such data can inform targeting by community development programs and Government policy in order to provide additional support to individuals and communities most likely to be exposed to these types of violence.
Violence against women: theoretical reflections
Casique Casique, Leticia;Furegato, Antonia Regina Ferreira;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692006000600018
Abstract: violence appears in different forms and circumstances and involves distinct kinds of violent acts against children, women, elderly and other defenseless persons. this serious problem, which degrades women's integrity, is denoted by terms like domestic violence, gender violence and violence against women. gender violence can appear as physical, psychological, sexual, economic violence, as well as violence at work. violence against women committed by their intimate partners can be analyzed through the ecological model, which explains the close relation between individuals and their environment. factors influencing people's behavior towards this violence should be analyzed with a view to establishing help programs.
Physical violence as educational practice
Carmo, Carolina Jacomini do;Harada, Maria de Jesus C. S.;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692006000600004
Abstract: this descriptive and correlational study, carried out at a teaching hospital in 2004, aimed to get to know if, in the context of domestic violence, parents use physical violence as an educational practice. semistructured interviews were used to characterize the population, and situations of daily family life to identify parents' attitude in the education process. results: the most vulnerable situation to use physical punishment was disobedience to parents' predetermined orders (40%), followed by the situation when the child steals something (31.7%). the use of physical violence as a disciplinary practice was significant (p=0.020), associated with unemployment. forty percent of the population reported they imposed their will on their child, and 57% mentioned they had been physically punished by their parents in limit-imposing situations. knowledge and reflection on factors involving domestic violence are very important to consolidate prevention programs and which could generate a collective consciousness.
VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN
AMBARAYA S. HAGARAGI
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Domestic violence is common in India and cuts across barriers of class, caste and religion. Women in India face discrimination at every stage of life In the first stage, a female foetus is often aborted and the girl child is not allowed to see the light of day. The second is female infanticide immediately after birth.
Social representations of family and violence
Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire;Santos, Maria de Fátima de Souza;Lopes, Regina Lúcia Mendon?a;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692007000600020
Abstract: the idea of family alludes to relations of protection. generally, the thought and idealized family connotes hegemony. in brazil, adopting the idea of families would be more appropriate considering the ethnic and cultural multiplicity. however, it is in this refuge that generally involves relations between adults, youth and children, that domestic violence occurs, which is a social phenomenon of alarming relevance. this review article aimed to discuss the relation between social representations of family and violence in a space of family relations, from studies performed with various social groups composed of women and/or men, children, health professionals and health managers. theses and dissertations, developed in the federal universities of pernambuco and bahia, brazil, were used as the study base. the studies full reading was followed by a registration form. the results pointed the family as a moral value that makes difficulty breaking relations of violence. the existent paradigms in social and health areas that influence and establish professional actions, do not answer to the consideration of the phenomenon family violence.
Violence in primary care: Prevalence and follow-up of victims
Claire Morier-Genoud, Patrick Bodenmann, Bernard Favrat, Marco Vannotti
BMC Family Practice , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-7-15
Abstract: We evaluated the prevalence of violence by use of a questionnaire in an interview, in an academic general internal medicine clinic in Switzerland. In a follow-up, we evaluated the consequences of the interview for positive patients. The participants were 38 residents and 446 consecutive patients. Questionnaires were presented in the principal language spoken by our patients. They addressed sociodemographics, present and past violence, the security or lack of security felt by victims of violence, and the patients' own violence. Between 3 and 6 months after the first interview, we did a follow-up of all patients who had reported domestic violence in the last year.Of the 366 patients included in the study, 36 (9.8%) reported being victims of physical violence during the last year (physicians identified only 4 patients out of the 36), and 34/366 (9.3%) reported being victims of psychological violence. Domestic violence was responsible for 67.3% of the cases, and community violence for 21.8%. In 10.9% of the cases, both forms of violence were found.Of 29 patients who reported being victims of domestic violence, 22 were found in the follow-up. The frequency of violence had diminished (4/22) or the violence had ceased (17/22).The prevalence of violence is high; domestic violence is more frequent than community violence. There was no statistically significant difference between the Swiss and foreign patients' responses related to the rates of violence. Patients in a currently violent relationship stated that participating in the study helped them and that the violence decreased or ceased a few months later.Violence is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation." Violence can be divided into three broad ca
Intrafamiliar violence against the child: a reflexive analysis  [cached]
Simone Algeri,Luccas Melo de Souza
Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing , 2005,
Abstract: This is a review article that aims at reflecting the problem of domestic violence as a public health reality present in the professional context of nurses. It describes the violence in its various forms: physical, psychological, sexual and negligence. Characterizing the families whose children are submitted to violence as well as analyze the problem in the dynamic between members of the same family. It conclude presentation how a nurse can deal with cases where are evidences of abuse and his importance for the management and prevention of this problem.
Legal Awareness—Hubris for Women to Combat Violence  [PDF]
Pravabati Guru
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.39030
Abstract: Legal awareness is a sine qua non to combat violence against women. India is the first country to introduce the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act-2005 and a number of other laws to empower women. “Are women really legally aware” is a critical question. All the national news- papers are embedded with news about violence against women, which include both domestic and professional front. Though Government of India has enacted a number of laws to empower and protect women from violence, these laws are not that effective due to lack of awareness among women of the country. The present study explored the level of legal awareness among women of different professions, education, and income and its impact on their real life as it related to violence. The findings showed that a positive relationship existed between education, income, professional work and legal awareness. It was also observed that legal awareness and victimization of women were inversely related.
Prevalence of Children Witnessing Parental Violence  [cached]
Tuyen D. Nguyen,Susan Larsen
Review of European Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/res.v4n1p148
Abstract: This study examines the prevalence of children who witness domestic violence among their parents and the effects it has on their emotional health, specifically depression. A cross sectional survey design was used to identify the prevalence of children witnessing domestic violence in their homes. The study’s sample contained 150 children collected among churches, schools, social organizations in the Dallas/Fort Worth area. The results showed that out of 150 sampled children, 32% (n=48) had witnessed parental violence in the previous year. Among the sampled participants who had witnessed at least one episode of parental abuse, 25% (n=12) were identified as depressed as compared to 7% (n=7) of children who did not witness parental abuse over the past year. Based on the results obtained from conducting this present study, recommendations are provided for both parents and clinicians.
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