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Phytic acid: How far have we come?
M Ali, MN Shuja, M Zahoor, I Qadri
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Phytic acid is a major storage form of phosphorous. Obvious reasons are there to favor its reduced concentration in organisms. However, certain justifications can also be settled, in order to support its increased natural concentration. In both cases, there are questions to be answered to favor one side while alleviating the harm of neglecting the other. This article reviews our current state of understanding of phytic acid - focusing on the topics of current and future interests in the field.
Valida??o de métodos para determina??o dos ácidos fítico e oxálico em multimistura
Nappi, Giancarlo Ubaldo;Ribeiro-Cunha, Mariem Rodrigues;Coelho, José Virgílio;Jokl, Lieselotte;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612006000400016
Abstract: taking into account the composition of the "multimistura" distributed in belo horizonte/mg (wheat, corn meal, egg shell and cassava leave), the methods of detection and/or quantitation of phytates and oxalates were validated. the purification of phytic acid and its dephosphorylated derivatives extracted from the "multimistura" using a strong anionic exchange column presented low values of recovery (49%) at low concentrations of the added phytate, when related to the higher ones (101%), which suggests interference of minerals present in high levels, mainly calcium. from the methods evaluated for the determination of oxalic acid, the ionic exclusion chromatography was the one that presented the best results, with good recoveries at the highest addition levels (88%); presenting, however, decreased recovery in the lower levels of addition (61%). the levels of phytic acid in the samples varied from 1.61 g/100 g to 2.25 g/100 g and for the oxalic acid, from 0.044 g/100 g to 0.057 g/100 g. the validation criteria for the analytical methods by high performance liquid chromatography were considered satisfactory for selectivity and specificity, linearity, repetitivity and limits of detection and quantitation. however, the recovery was not satisfactory since the obtained percentages were lower than the expected one, taking into account the quantities added to the samples.
Investigation of Phytic Acid Contents of Wheat Flour, Dough and Lavash and Sangak Breads  [cached]
Z. Sheikh-ol-Eslami,J. Jamalian
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2003,
Abstract: Consumption of bread made from flours with high extraction rates is fairly common in western countries and has recently become widespread in Iran. Such breads contain relatively high levels of phytic acid. Phytic acid is present in the aleurone layer of wheat in the form of potassium-magnesium salts. It is carried over to wheat flour and to bread. Phytic acid is known to have chelating properties and to form complexes with bivalent cations (iron, calcium, zinc and so on), thus reducing their bioavailability in humans. In addition, phytate salts can form complexes with proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in the diet, making them unavailable too. In the present study, phytic acid contents of flours ( 3 individual extraction rates and 2 combinations), the dough and two types of popular breads of Khorasan (Lavash & Sangak) made from these flours were determined. The results showed that the flours had, on the average, 570.37 mg phytic acid per 100 g and that the phytic acid contents of breads were, on the average, 347.31 mg/100g. This indicates that the present baking procedures do not have an appreciable effect on the level of phytic acid recovered in bread.
Effect of Environmental Changes on Phytic Acid Content of Wheat (Triticum aestivum)  [PDF]
Talat Mahmood,Tabassum Hameed,Nouman Rashid Siddiqui,Amir Mumtaz
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important food grain crops in all South Asian countries especially in India and Pakistan. These countries have diversifying soil and climatic conditions inserting measurable effect on nutritional as well as anti-nutritional parameters of wheat. Wheat varieties included in this study are collected from different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. Myoinositol hexa-phosphate (phytic acid) one of major anti-nutritional factors wheat. Phytic acid of collected samples was determined to facilitate the crop breeders and agronomists, so that they would also consider this factor while conducting research works. It was observed that wheat varieties showed different levels of phytic acid at different locations. At one location (Islamabad), a variety (Pari-73) showed the highest value of Phytic acid (1.343%) and at other location (Faisalabad), same variety the showed lowest phytic acid (0.74%). This maximum variability (44%) also indicated that there was significant effect of change in location on phytic acid contents of wheat varieties. It is mainly due to presence of available phosphorus reserves in soil as phytate has direct relation to soil phosphorus.
Determination and inheritance of phytic acid as marker in diverse genetic group of bread wheat  [PDF]
Ijaz Ahmad, Fida Mohammad, Aurang Zeb, Ijaz Rasool Noorka,   Farhatullah, Sultan Akber Jadoon
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2013.33021

Phytic acid (Myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexa-kisphophate) is a storage form of phosphorus and can accumulate to the levels as high as 35% in the wheat kernel. Phytic acid acts as an inhibitor for macronutrients as well as micronutrients and located in the bran of wheat kernel. Due to its inhibitory role, a high concentration of phytic acid is undesirable as it hinders the bio-availability of some essential nutrients such as Fe, Mg, Ca, Zn and Cu, etc. In order to check the inheritance of phytic acid in wheat kernels, phytic acid concentration was initially determined in kernels of 10 wheat genotypes to identify two contrasting genetic groups for diallel analysis. Based on pre-screening results of 10 wheat genotypes, five wheat genotypes (3 with high and 2 with low phytic acid concentration) were crossed in all possible combinations during 2007-2008 by 5 × 5 full diallel mating fashion to insight the inheritance of phytic acid and other yield contributing traits. All 20 F1 hybrids and five parental genotypes revealed significant differences statistically, except plant maturity. The narrow and broad sense heritability estimates varied widely among traits for spike length (0.17, 0.62), spikelets spike-1 (0.35, 0.74), tillers plant-1 (0.05, 0.52) and phytic acid concentration (0.01, 0.86). The values for phytic acid concentration ranged from 0.56% to 3.43% among F1 hybrids and 1.06 to 3.67% for parental genotypes. F1 hybrids, Ps-2005 × Ghaznavi (0.56%), AUP-4006 × Ps-2004 (0.74%), Janbaz × Ps-2004 (0.89%) and Janbaz × Ps-2005 (1.01%), had the lowest concentration of phytic acid. The study concluded that F1 hybrids with low phytic acid concentration could yield desirable segregants.

Effect of Processing and Cooking Methods on the Chemical Composition, Sugars and Phytic Acid of Soybeans
Food and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.fph.20120201.03
Abstract: The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of processing (soaking and germination) and cooking methods (ordinary cooking and autoclaving) on the chemical composition, sugars and phytic of two varieties soybean seeds, Giza, 21 and Giza, 35. The processing and cooking methods caused increase in both protein and crude fiber contents. Meanwhile, crude oil and carbohydrates contents were decreased of the studied soybean seeds. Generally, the processing and cooking methods resulted in a decrease of raffinose, stachyose, verbascose, maltose and sucrose accompanied by an increase in glucose. These resulted revealed that the processing (soaking and germination) and cooking methods (ordinary cooking and autoclaving) was more effective in eliminating the contents of oligosaccharides and phytic acid in both varieties soybean seeds.
Inaccuracies in Phytic Acid Measurement: Implications for Mineral Biofortification and Bioavailability  [PDF]
Pushparajah Thavarajah, Dil Thavarajah
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.51005

Biofortification of commonly eaten staple food crops with essential mineral micronutrients is a potential sustainable solution to global micronutrient malnutrition. Because phytic acid (PA; 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis myo-inositol) reduces mineral micronutrient bioavailability, reduction of PA levels could increase the bioavailability of biofortified iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg). PA is viewed as an anti-nutrient, yet PA and other inositol phosphates have also demonstrated positive health benefits. Phytic acid analysis in the agricultural, food, and nutritional sciences is typically carried out by colorimetry and chromatographic techniques. In addition, advanced techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy have also been used in phytic acid analysis. The colorimetric analysis may overestimate PA levels and synchrotron X-ray absorption techniques may not detect very low levels of inositol phosphates. This short communication discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each widely used phytic acid analysis method, and suggests high performance anion exchange (HPAE) chromatography with conductivity detection (CD) based analysis can achieve greater accuracy for the identification and quantification of inositol phosphates. Accurate characterization and quantification of PA and inositol phosphates will inform PA reduction and biofortification efforts, allowing retention of the benefits of non-phytic inositol phosphates for both plants and humans.

Effect of Germination, Fermentation and Cooking on Phytic Acid and Tannin Contents and Hcl-extractability of Minerals of Sorghum (Sorghum biocolor) Cultivars
Wisal H. Idris,Samia M. AbdelRahman,Hagir B. ELMaki,Elfadil E. Babiker,Abdullahi H. EL Tinay
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Sorghum (Sorghum biocolor) also known as ‘Dura’ in Sudan is a source of carbohydrate, protein and mineral that is comparable to other common cereal grains. However, antinutrients like phytate and tannins reduce the nutrient bioavailability, which can be improved by suitable processing methods such as germination, fermentation and cooking. In our study, sorghum cultivars (Wad Ahmed and Tabat) were germinated for different periods (24, 48 and 96 h), fermented for different period of time up to 14 h (2 h interval) and then cooked. Major changes in phytate occurred during germination (96 h) and in tannin occurred after the germinated or fermented flour was cooked. The reduction in phytate content accompanied by increase in HCl-extractable minerals of more than 100%. The study revealed that germination or fermentation followed by cooking is a potential process for decreasing the antinutrient levels and enhancing availability of minerals.
Formation Process and Properties of Phytic Acid Conversion Coatings on Magnesium  [PDF]
Jian-Rui Liu, Yi-Na Guo, Wei-Dong Huang
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2011.11003
Abstract: A chromium-free conversion coating treatment for magnesium by phytic acid solution was studied. The formation process of phytic acid conversion coating was studied through measuring the open circuit potential (OCP) and weight change of the pure magnesium in the different conversion treatment time. The morphologies and compositions of the coatings were determined by SEM and EDS respectively. The conversion coating has the multideck structure with netlike morphology which is similar to the chromate conversion coating, and is mainly composed of Mg, P, O and C. The contents of C and P and the size of the cracks in different layers decrease from the external layer to the inner layer. The hydroxyl groups and phosphate carboxyl groups in the coating which have the similar properties to organic paintcoat are beneficial to the combination of substrate and organic paintcoat. The formation mechanism and thickness variation of the conversion coatings are also discussed.
Assessment of Phytic Acid Levels in Some Local Cereal Grains in Two Districts in the Upper East Region of Ghana
K.B. Pelig-Ba
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2009,
Abstract: Phytic acid levels of sorghum, pearl millet from two districts, Kasena-Nankana and Talensi-Nabdam and rice from Kasena-Nankana in the Upper East Region were analyzed together with some selected trace elements. This paper seeks to assess the phytic acid content of some cereals commonly consumed in the northern part of Ghana. Results indicated that phytic acid levels of the cereals were below that of dormant seeds. Trace element concentrations were significantly high. The cereals had high concentrations of total and phytic acid phosphorus which varied among them but they were generally low. The highest level of phytic acid was observed in pearl millet from Talensi-Nabdam District which suggested external sources of phosphorus or variation in soil types accounted for this difference. There was high correlation between phytic acid and two trace metals- Fe and Zn respectively in pearl millet in the two districts while no such correlation was observed with sorghum and rice. The low phytic acid level suggested that it will have little influence on the trace metals levels in such cereals and human nutrition.
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