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STATUS OF BRUGIAN FILARIASIS RESEARCH IN INDONESIA AND FUTURE STUDIES  [cached]
Lim Boo Liat,Kurniawan Liliana,Sudomo M.,Arbain Joesoef
Bulletin of Health Research , 2012,
Abstract: Penyebab penyakit filariasis di Indonesia adalah Brugia malayi dan B. timori. Penyebaran kedua jenis parasit tersebut, serta berbagai masalah perbedaan geografis dari B. malayi, baik pengobatannya dengan chemotherapy maupun immunodiagnosisnya telah diketahui. B. pahangi yang bersumber pada binatang juga telah dilaporkan. Nyamuk-nyamuk sebagai vector untuk B. malayi dan B. timori telah pula disebut. Binatang-binatang liar juga telah dilaporkan sebagai sumber penularan yang sangat potensial melalui subperiodic B. malayi.
Diagnosis of Brugian Filariasis by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  [PDF]
Catherine B. Poole,Nathan A. Tanner,Yinhua Zhang,Thomas C. Evans Jr.,Clotilde K. S. Carlow
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001948
Abstract: In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis.
Intravitreal live gnathostoma spinigerum  [cached]
Basak Samar,Sinha Tushar,Bhattacharya Debasish,Hazra Tushar
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2004,
Abstract: Intraocular infestation by live Gnathostoma spinigerum is a rare occurrence in humans. Most of the published reports are from South-East Asia. We report a case of intravitreal gnathostomiasis, where the worm was removed live and intact by pars plana vitrectomy.
Impact of Six Rounds of Mass Drug Administration on Brugian Filariasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Eastern Indonesia  [PDF]
Taniawati Supali,Yenny Djuardi,Mark Bradley,Rahmah Noordin,Paul Rückert,Peter U. Fischer
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002586
Abstract: Background The lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia timori occurs only in eastern Indonesia where it causes high morbidity. The absence of an animal reservoir, the inefficient transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes and the high sensitivity to DEC/albendazole treatment make this species a prime candidate for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the effect of MDA using DEC and albendazole on B. timori and soil transmitted helminths (STH) in a cross-sectional study of a sentinel village on Alor Island annually over a period of 10 years. Pre-MDA the microfilaria (MF) prevalence was 26% and 80% of the residents had filaria-specific IgG4 antibodies. In 2010, 34 months after the 6th round of MDA, MF and antibody rates were only 0.17% and 6.4%, respectively. The MDA campaign had also a beneficial effect on STH. Baseline prevalence rates for Ascaris, hookworm and Trichuris were 34%, 28%, and 11%, respectively; these rates were reduced to 27%, 4%, and 2% one year after the 5th round of MDA. Unfortunately, STH rates rebounded 34 months after cessation of MDA and approached pre-MDA rates. However, the intensity of STH infection in 2009 was still reduced, and no heavy infections were detected. Conclusions/Significance MDA with DEC/albendazole has had a major impact on B. timori MF and IgG4 antibody rates, providing a proof of principle that elimination is feasible. We also documented the value of annual DEC/albendazole as a mass de-worming intervention and the importance of continuing some form of STH control after cessation of MDA for filariasis.
Live male adult W. bancrofti in the anterior chamber-A case report  [cached]
Arora Yogesh,Das Ravin
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1990,
Abstract: A unique case of an adult, live, Filarial warm (W.Bancrofti) in the anterior chamber of an adult female is being reported.
Current Evidence on the Use of Antifilarial Agents in the Management of bancroftian Filariasis  [PDF]
Sumadhya Deepika Fernando,Chaturaka Rodrigo,Senaka Rajapakse
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/175941
Abstract: Many trials have explored the efficacy of individual drugs and drug combinations to treat bancroftian filariasis. This narrative review summarizes the current evidence for drug management of bancroftian filariasis. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) remains the prime antifilarial agent with a well-established microfilaricidal and some macrofilaricidal effects. Ivermectin (IVM) is highly microfilaricidal but minimally macrofilaricidal. The role of albendazole (ALB) in treatment regimens is not well established though the drug has a microfilaricidal effect. The combination of DEC+ALB has a better long-term impact than IVM+ALB. Recent trials have shown that doxycycline therapy against Wolbachia, an endosymbiotic bacterium of the parasite, is capable of reducing microfilaria rates and adult worm activity. Followup studies on mass drug administration (MDA) are yet to show a complete interruption of transmission, though the infection rates are reduced to a very low level. 1. Introduction There are nine filarial nematodes causing disease in humans. According to the location of the parasite and the pathogenesis, the disease can be classified as lymphatic, subcutaneous, and serous cavity filariasis. Two filarial worms, namely, Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi cause lymphatic filariasis. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers lymphatic filariasis to be a global health problem affecting approximately 120 million people in over 80 countries [1]. One-third of affected individuals are from South Asia and another one third is from Africa [1]. One sixth of the world population is at risk of infection [1]. The adult W. bancrofti worms live within the human lymphatic system. They have a long life span of 4–6 years. Females are viviparous and release thousands of microfilaria into the blood stream of the host after mating. These are taken up by vector mosquitoes during feeding, and the parasite undergoes several moults within the intermediate host to become the L3 larva which is the infective stage. During a feed, this larva enters the human blood stream and migrates to the lymphatics where it moults to become an adult worm [2]. There is a range of clinical manifestations in bancroftian filariasis with asymptomatic microfilaremics being at one end of the spectrum. Symptomatic patients may have acute (lymphangitis, lymphadenitis), chronic (elephantiasis, lymphoedema, hydrocoele, chyluria), or atypical (funiculitis, mastitis) manifestations [3]. Some may suffer from tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) due to the immunological hyperresponsiveness to the parasite [4].
Lymphatic Filariasis Disseminating to the Upper Extremity  [PDF]
Catherine Maldjian,Vineet Khanna,Bevan Tandon,Matthew Then,Mohamed Yassin,Richard Adam,Michael J. Klein
Case Reports in Radiology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/985680
Abstract: Lymphatic filariasis is the most common cause of acquired lymphedema worldwide (Szuba and Rockson, 1998). It is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions, and its effects are devastating. With over 100 million infected persons, it ranks second only to leprosy as the leading cause of permanent and long-term disability. Wuchereria bancrofti is the etiologic agent in 90% of cases. There is a dearth of published MRI findings with pathologically proven active infections, making this entity even more of a diagnostic dilemma. Imaging may provide the first clue that one is dealing with a parasite and may facilitate proper treatment and containment of this disease. This is the first report of pathologic correlation with MRI findings in the extremity in active filariasis. The magnetic resonance images demonstrate an enhancing, infiltrative, mass-like appearance with partial encasement of vasculature that has not been previously described in filariasis. Low signal strands in T2-hyperintense dilated lymphatic channels are seen and may depict live adult worms. We hypothesize that the low signal strands correspond to the collagen rich acellular cuticle. This, in combination with the surrounding hyperintense T2 signal, corresponding to a dilated lymphatic channel, may provide more specific MRI findings for active nematodal infection, which can prompt early biopsy, pathological correlation, and diagnosis. 1. Case Report A 33-year-old male from Nepal, who immigrated to the United States 3 years ago, presented to the Emergency Department with pain and redness at his right mid-arm for 10 days. He did not appear ill and had no fever or weight loss. The area was red, swollen, and tender. There was also enlargement of axillary lymph nodes. MRI demonstrated the presence of an enhancing soft tissue mass with infiltrative features, partially encasing the brachial vessels, in addition to the axillary lymphadenopathy (Figure 1). Foci of low signal intensity were also noted on both T2 and T1 weighted images (Figure 1). Figure 1: (a) Coronal STIR MR image of the right upper arm (TR = 3100; TE = 62.24; FOV = 38?cm). There is increased T2 signal extending from the axilla along the medial soft tissues of the upper arm following the lymphatic structures and paralleling the neurovascular bundle. (b) Axial T2 TSFSE (TR = 3000; TE = 42.816; FOV = 16) at the level of the mid to distal humerus where focal soft tissue swelling is present. There is an irregular area of increased T2 signal medially containing punctate low signal foci. (c) Coronal STIR MR image (TR = 3100; TE = 62.24; FOV =
Eliminating lymphatic filariasis
Ichimori, Kazuyo;Ottesen, Eric A.;
Boletín médico del Hospital Infantil de México , 2011,
Abstract: one of the oldest of the neglected tropical diseases, lymphatic filariasis, is caused by filarial worms transmitted by insect vectors that live in the lymphatic system and most commonly cause lymphedema, elephantiasis and hydrocele, which may lead to severe deformity, stigma and disability. similar to other neglected tropical diseases, lymphatic filariasis occurs mostly among the poor disenfranchised populations living in highly endemic settings perpetuating a cycle that traps people into further poverty and destitution. through the leadership of the world health organization, the global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis has reached substantial achievements in decreasing the transmission of lympahtic filariasis in multiple settings. the strategic plan for the next 10 years of the global programme, in addition to working within the new 'neglected tropical diseases environment,' lays out necessary mass drug administration implementation goals for the filariasis-endemic countries that have not yet started their elimination programs (principally in africa). the neglected tropical diseases programs-and the lymphatic filariasis program in particular-are among the very least expensive, most cost-effective tools to benefit needy populations of the developing world.
Filariasis of The Breast
Subhash Bhardwaj, Deepti Mahajan,MRAttri*
JK Science : Journal of Medical Education & Research , 2007,
Abstract: Filariasis of the breast presenting as a breast lump and clinically simulating a breast cancer is an unusualpresentation. The present case is of a 42 year old female whose breast lump was excised and histopathologyrevealed filariasis.
Studies on Fungal Cultural Filtrates against Adult Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) a Vector of Filariasis  [PDF]
Gavendra Singh,Soam Prakash
Journal of Parasitology Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/147373
Abstract: Entomopathogenic fungi have significant potential to control mosquito population. The culture filtrates of Fusarium oxysporum, Lagenidium giganteum, Trichophyton ajelloi, and Culicinomyces clavisporus were evaluated against adults of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The culture filtrates were obtained by filtering the broth through Whatman-1 filter paper. These culture filtrates of C. clavisporus have been found significantly pathogenic with LC50-2.5, LC90-7.24, and LC99-8.7?ML, respectively, after exposure of 24?h. However, the culture filtrates when were combined, in ratios 1?:?1?:?1 of Fusarium oxysporum, Lagenidium giganteum, Trichophyton ajelloi the mortalities were significantly increased. The LC50-3.71, LC90-8.12, and LC99-11.48 were significantly recorded after exposure of 10?hrs. Similarly, the culture filtrates of T. ajelloi, Culicinomyces clavisporus, and L. giganteum have been combined in ratios 1?:?1?:?1. Similarly the LC50-1.94, LC90-4, and LC99-6.16?ML Were recorded after exposure of 10?hrs. The results of present study show promise for the use of selected fungal metabolites for control of Cx. quinquefasciatus in the Laboratory. 1. Introduction Fungus entomopathogens show potential as alternative biological control agents against mosquitoes and used as currently developed fast action chemical insecticides [1]. The mosquito pathogenic fungi that target larval instars include the chytridiomycetes Coelomomyces [2, 3]. Only few studies have evaluated these pathogens against the adult stage of tropical disease vectors. In adults Ochlerotatus sierrensis infected with the deuteromycete Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, there was 100% mortality after ten days [4]. Scholte et al. [5] reported that also adults of An. gambiae were susceptible to B. bassiana, Fusarium spp., and Metarhizium anisopliae. So far the extracellular secondary metabolites from three hundred and fifty fungi and ninety four actinomycetes have been screened for larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi, and Ae. aegypti [6]. The metabolites of Chrysosporium tropicum have been found highly pathogenic as adulticides against An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Ae. aegypti [7]. Therefore, the fungi are weapons with great potential in mosquito vector control [8]. Recently, Paula et al. [9] investigated the combinated effect of M. anisopliae with the insecticide Imidacloprid increasing the virulence of the fungus against the dengue vector Ae. aegypti, whilst the use of entomopathogenic fungi against mosquitoes has provided encouraging results under controlled laboratory
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