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Choice of technological regimes of a blast furnace operation with injection of hot reducing gases  [cached]
Babich, A. I.,Gudenau, H. W.,Mavrommatis, K. T.,Froehling, C.
Revista de Metalurgia , 2002,
Abstract: Injection rate of fossil fuels is limited because of drop in the flame temperature in the raceway and problems in the deadman region and the cohesive zone. The next step for obtaining a considerable coke saving, a better operation in the deadman as an well as increase in blast furnace productivity and minimizing the environmental impact due to a decrease in carbon dioxide emmision would be injection by tuyeres of hot reducing gases (HRG) which are produced by low grade coal gasification or top gas regenerating. Use of HRG in combination with high pulverized coal inyection PCI rate and oxigen enrichment in the blast could allow to keep and to increase the competitiveness of the blast furnace process. Calculations using a mathematical model show that the HRG injection in combination with pulverized coal (PC) and enriching blast with oxigen can provide an increase in PC rate up to 300-400 kg/tHM and a rise in the furnace productivity by 40-50 %. Blast furnace operation with full oxigen blast (100 % of process oxigen with the exception for the hot blast) is possible when HRG is injected. La tasa de inyección de combustibles fósiles está limitada a causa de la caída de la temperatura de llama en el raceway (cavidad frente a las toberas) y a problemas en la región del "hombre muerto" y en la zona cohesiva. La inyección por tobera de gases reductores calientes (GRC), que se producen por gasificación de carbón de bajo grado o generación de gas de tragante, será la próxima etapa para lograr un considerable ahorro adicional de coque, una zona del "hombre muerto" bien definida, además de un aumento en la productividad del horno alto y para minimizar el impacto ambiental debido a una disminución de la emisión de dióxido de carbono. El uso de GRC en combinación con una tasa elevada de inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP) con viento enriquecido en oxígeno, podrá permitir mantener y aumentar la competitividad del proceso del horno alto. Los cálculos, utilizando un modelo matemático, muestran que la inyección de GRC en combinación con la ICP y enriquecimiento del viento con oxígeno pueden suministrar un aumento en la tasa de carbón pulverizado hasta 300-400 kg/t arrabio y una elevación en la productividad del horno de 40-50 %. La operación del horno alto con un máximo de oxígeno en el viento (100 % del oxígeno del proceso con la excepción para el viento caliente) es posible cuando se inyecta GRC.

by LI Yinghao,

金属学报 , 1987,
Abstract: Resemble principle of electrical analog and the corresponding mathematical equations were described. Resistance paper was used as the simulator to investigate the variation of the gas flow field parameters in a blast furnace by means of observating the electric field. Some imformation for both the production process of ironmaking and design of the size of blast furnace may be provided by this method.

WANG Huibin LU Zhongwu,

金属学报 , 1987,
Abstract: The mathematical model of blast furnace burdening at low fuel rate,and regression equation of coke saving were obtained by use of optimization method. Upon this,the fuel rate,the blast furnace burden scheme at low fuel rare,the volume of Coke oven gas fed to the stove and the blast temperature obtained by burning blast furnace gas can be all predicted.Not only the mathematical model for blast furnace burdening but also its computer programs were provided.
The use of blast furnace slag  [PDF]
V. Václavík,V. Dirner,T. Dvorsky,J. Daxner
Metalurgija , 2012,
Abstract: The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.
Novel blast furnace operation process involving charging with low-titanium vanadium–titanium magnetite carbon composite hot briquette  [PDF]
Wei Zhao,Man-sheng Chu,Hong-tao Wang,Zheng-gen Liu,Ya-ting Tang
- , 2016, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12613-016-1261-9
Abstract: An innovative process of blast furnace (BF) operation involving charging with low-titanium vanadium–titanium magnetite carbon composite hot briquette (LVTM-CCB) was proposed for utilizing LVTM and conserving energy. In this study, the effect of LVTM-CCB charging ratio on the softening, melting, and dripping behaviors of the mixed burden was explored systemically, and the migration of valuable elements V and Cr was extensively investigated. The results show that with increasing LVTM-CCB charging ratio, the softening interval T 40 ? T 4 increases from 146.1°C to 266.1°C, and the melting interval T D ? T S first decreases from 137.2°C to 129.5°C and then increases from 129.5°C to 133.2°C. Moreover, the cohesive zone becomes narrower and then wider, and its location shifts slightly downward. In addition, the recovery ratios of V and Cr in dripped iron first increase and then decrease, reaching maximum values of 14.552% and 28.163%, respectively, when the charging ratio is 25%. A proper LVTM-CCB charging ratio would improve the softening–melting behavior of the mixed burden; however, Ti(C,N) would be generated rapidly in slag when the charging ratio exceeds 25%, which is not favorable for BF operation. When considering the comprehensive softening–melting behavior of the mixed burden and the recovery ratios of V and Cr, the recommended LVTM-CCB charging ratio is 20%.

CHEN Yisheng,HE Youduo Baotou University of Iron,Steel Technology,

金属学报 , 1993,
Abstract: A mathematical model to represent the fluid flow, temperature distribution and mass transfer in raceway of blast furnace has been developed. The model is used for pre- dicting the velocity, temperature, and concentration field of raceway in different operation conditions of blast furnace. Results contribute to the understanding of the transport process involved in such a system. The model can also be used for optimising the blast furnace opera- tions and the calculation of combustion of pulverized coal.

YANG YUNG-YI,CHU CHING-KANG Peking Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy,

金属学报 , 1965,
Abstract: The modified Janssen formula, relating the pressure of the burden column and thecountercurrent gas flow, has been verified experimentally. However this formula can notexplain the mechanism of hanging. The authors proposed the following mechanism: Ifthere exists a layer of poor gas-permeability in the burden column and if the gas velocityis increased to exceed some critical value, then the pressure drop of the gas through thatlayer would become greater than the layer weight. Therefore a force acting upward fromthat layer is induced. When this force becomes equal to or greater than the pressureof the overlaying burden, hanging will take place in the blast furnace. Such hanging,however, never occurs in the fluidized bed with granular particles of uniform size anddensity. The suggested mechanism has been proven in a 1/50 laboratory model of the1513 m~3 blast furnace and has been compared with the results of the actual industrialperformance of various blast furnaces. From this mechanism the authors arrived at the conclusions that the physical pro-perties of the raw materials, especially the screen analysis and the viscosity of the slagin the melting zone, are of vital importance when the driving rate of the blast furnaceis to be increased and hanging avoided.
The cycle and effect of zinc in the blast-furnace process  [PDF]
P. Besta,K. Janovská,A. Samolejová,A. Beránková
Metalurgija , 2013,
Abstract: This article analyzes the effect of zinc in the blast furnace process and it also analysis its contents in the input and output raw materials. The results obtained in the long-term research project will be used as data here. The removal of zinc from the input raw materials is very difficult already in the sinter production stage. This is due to its uniform distribution in the raw materials, but also due to the fact that it does not transfer into gas phase during the sintering process. The content of Zinc compounds was experimentally measured in the lining. The quantity of penetrated Zinc is different in different parts of the blast furnace. As demonstrated by the research, zinc repeatedly enters the blast furnace process, which leads to its circulation.
YAN Yuzhang,LAN Hong,Chongqing University,chongqing,China YAN Yuzhang,Associate Professor,
YAN Yuzhang
,LAN Hong,Chongqing University,chongqing,China YAN Yuzhang,Associate Professor

金属学报(英文版) , 1992,
Abstract: The desulphurizing reaction of the blast furnace low titania slag under the condition of no external agitation is confirmed to be of a first order. The controlling step is the diffusion of S in slag. The measures to accelerate the rate of desulfurization are approached.
Silicon behaviour at the blast furnace process  [PDF]
A. Klimczyk,R. Stachura,M. Bernasowski,A. ??dzki
Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose: Views on the reduction of SiO2 at the blast furnace process began to change in the mid 70s. Nowadays it is claimed that the silicon appears in the metal not only from the slag SiO2 reduction at the liquid phase, but also from a gaseous SiO. Presented in this paper, laboratory tests were aimed on finding the effect of temperature and MgO containing in the slag on the dynamics of the Si transition to the pig iron at the liquid phase at time when slag lies on metal.Design/methodology/approach: Laboratory tests carried out in laboratory on devices AGH described in detail in other studies such as [8-11]. Metal used in the study obtained by carbonizing the carbon-iron saturation assuming the values given by J. Chipman [7].Findings: Observations of industrial units in combination with laboratory tests allowed us to approximately determine the contribution of silicon from the gaseous SiO in hot metal.Research limitations/implications: Si content in the metal after the test at a constant temperature is less than taping pig iron of about 0.15 to 0.35%. This means that in addition to the reduction reaction of the silica source of silicon in the slag is reduced gaseous SiO , which is in line with those of the authors [2-5, 8-10]. This will also be the subject of the next stage of research.Practical implications: As a result, developed guidelines and proposals for the conduct of blast-furnace technology to minimize Si in pig iron.Originality/value: The AGH research team has approached to issue of SiO2 reduction complexly. The work is divided into stages. Laboratory studies combined with industry specific observations. As a result of this approach to work is possible to develop a practical technology to minimize silicon in the pig iron. Articles published in reputable journals on similar or related topics do not include all issues.
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