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 Physics , 2013, Abstract: The influence of La and Nd co-substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films was examined. Epitaxial thin films of pure and, La and Nd co-doped BFO on the SrRuO3 buffered single crystal SrTiO3 (001) substrate were deposited using pulsed laser deposition. The structural change in co doped La and Nd BFO thin films which was caused by the changes of force constant in the crystal lattice induced by ionic radii mismatch was investigated. Raman spectroscopy studies manifest the structural change in doped BFO films from rhombohedral to monoclinic distorted phase which is induced by the co substitution of La and Nd. Room temperature magnetic hysteresis curves indicated that saturation magnetization is enhanced in the doped film with saturation magnetization of ~20 emu/cm3. The dielectric and magnetic properties are effectively improved in BLNFO films compared to pure BFO thin films.
 Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1063/1.2009808 Abstract: We have explored the influence of deposition pressure and temperature on the growth of BiFeO3 thin films by pulsed laser deposition onto (001)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates. Single-phase BiFeO3 films are obtained in a region close to 10-2 mbar and 580C. In non-optimal conditions, X-ray diffraction reveals the presence of Fe oxides or of Bi2O3. We address the influence of these parasitic phases on the magnetic and electrical properties of the films and show that films with Fe2O3 systematically exhibit a ferromagnetic behaviour, while single-phase films have a low bulk-like magnetic moment. Conductive-tip atomic force microscopy mappings also indicate that Bi2O3 conductive outgrowths create shortcuts through the BiFeO3 films, thus preventing their practical use as ferroelectric elements in functional heterostructures.
 Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.017204 Abstract: We have combined neutron scattering and piezoresponse force microscopy to study the relation between the exchange bias observed in CoFeB/BiFeO3 heterostructures and the multiferroic domain structure of the BiFeO3 films. We show that the exchange field scales with the inverse of the ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic domain size, as expected from Malozemoff's model of exchange bias extended to multiferroics. Accordingly, polarized neutron reflectometry reveals the presence of uncompensated spins in the BiFeO3 film at the interface with the CoFeB. In view of these results we discuss possible strategies to switch the magnetization of a ferromagnet by an electric field using BiFeO3.
 Processing and Application of Ceramics , 2011, Abstract: Bi0.85La0.15FeO3 (BLFO) thin films were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2 /Si substrates by the soft chemical method. Films with thicknesses ranging from 140 to 280 nm were grown on platinum coated silicon substrates at 500°C for 2 hours. The X-ray diffraction analysis of BLFO films evidenced a hexagonal structure over the entire thickness range investigated. The grain size of the film changes as the number of the layers increases, indicating thickness dependence. It is found that the piezoelectric response is strongly influenced by the film thickness. It is shown that the properties of BiFeO3 thin films, such as lattice parameter, dielectric permittivity, piezoeletric coefficient etc., are functions of misfit strains.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.054114 Abstract: Crystal and domain structures of tensile-strained BiFeO3 films grown on orthorhombic (110)o PrScO3 substrates were investigated. All films possess a MB-type monoclinic structure with 109o stripe domains oriented along the [\=i10]o direction. For films thicknesses less than ~40 nm, presence of well-ordered domains is proved by the detection of satellite peaks in synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies. For thicker films, For thicker films, only the Bragg reflections from tilted domains were detected. This is attributed to the broader domain size distribution in thicker films.Using planar electrodes,the in-plane polarization of the MB phase is determined to be 85 uC/cm2, which is much larger than that of compressive strained BiFeO3 films. Our results further reveal that the substrate monoclinic distortion plays a major role in determining the stripe domain formation of the rhombohedral ferroic epitaxial thin films, which sheds light to the understanding of elastic domain structure evolution in many other functional oxide thin films as well.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201001867 Abstract: A morphotropic phase boundary driven by epitaxial strain has been observed in a lead-free multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films and the strain-driven phase transitions were widely reported to be iso-symmetric Cc-Cc ones by recent works. In this paper, we suggest that the tetragonal-like BiFeO3 phase identified in epitaxial films on (001) LaAlO3 single crystal substrates is monoclinic MC. This MC phase is different from MA type monoclinic phase reported in BiFeO3 films grown on low mismatch substrates, such as SrTiO3. This is confirmed not only by synchrotron x-ray studies but also by piezoresponse force microscopy measurements. The polarization vectors of the tetragonal-like phase lie in the (100) plane, not the (110) plane as previously reported. A phenomenological analysis was proposed to explain the formation of MC Phase. Such a low symmetry MC phase, with its linkage to MA phase and the multiphase coexistence open an avenue for large piezoelectric response in BiFeO3 films and shed light on a complete understanding towards possible polarization rotation paths and enhanced multiferroicity in BiFeO3 films mediated by epitaxial strain. This work may also aid the understanding of developing new lead-free strain-driven morphotropic phase boundary in other ferroic systems.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.024115 Abstract: We report a Raman scattering investigation of multiferroic bismuth ferrite BiFeO3 epitaxial (c-axis oriented) thin films from -192 to 1000C. Phonon anomalies have been observed in three temperature regions: in the gamma-phase from 930C to 950C; at ~370C, Neel temperature (TN), and at ~123C, due to a phase transition of unknown type (magnetic or structural). An attempt has been made to understand the origin of the weak phonon-magnon coupling and the dynamics of the phase sequence. The disappearance of several Raman modes at ~820C (Tc) is compatible with the known structural phase transition and the Pbnm orthoferrite space group assigned by Arnold {\it et al.} \cite{arnold:09}. The spectra also revealed a {\it non-cubic} $\beta$-phase from 820-930\dc and the same {\it non-cubic} phase extends through the $\gamma$-phase between 930-950\dc, in agreement with Arnold {\it et al.} \cite{arnold2:09}, and an evidence of a cubic $\delta$-phase around 1000\dc in thin films that is not stable in powder and bulk. Such a cubic phase has been theoretically predicted in \cite{vasquez:prb09}. Micro-Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction showed no structural decomposition in thin films during the thermal cycling from 22-1000\dc.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1063/1.4746036 Abstract: We report a study on the thermodynamic stability and structure analysis of the epitaxial BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films grown on YAlO3 (YAO) substrate. First we observe a phase transition of MC-MA-T occurs in thin sample (<60 nm) with an utter tetragonal-like phase (denoted as MII here) with a large c/a ratio (~1.23). Specifically, MII phase transition process refers to the structural evolution from a monoclinic MC structure at room temperature to a monoclinic MA at higher temperature (150oC) and eventually to a presence of nearly tetragonal structure above 275oC. This phase transition is further confirmed by the piezoforce microscopy measurement, which shows the rotation of polarization axis during the phase transition. A systematic study on structural evolution with thickness to elucidate the impact of strain state is performed. We note that the YAO substrate can serve as a felicitous base for growing T-like BFO because this phase stably exists in very thick film. Thick BFO films grown on YAO substrate exhibit a typical "morphotropic-phase-boundary"-like feature with coexisting multiple phases (MII, MI, and R) and a periodic stripe-like topography. A discrepancy of arrayed stripe morphology in different direction on YAO substrate due to the anisotropic strain suggests a possibility to tune the MPB-like region. Our study provides more insights to understand the strain mediated phase co-existence in multiferroic BFO system.
 Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1063/1.2402204 Abstract: We report on the functionalization of multiferroic BiFeO3 epitaxial films for spintronics. A first example is provided by the use of ultrathin layers of BiFeO3 as tunnel barriers in magnetic tunnel junctions with La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 and Co electrodes. In such structures, a positive tunnel magnetoresistance up to 30% is obtained at low temperature. A second example is the exploitation of the antiferromagnetic spin structure of a BiFeO3 film to induce a sizeable (~60 Oe) exchange bias on a ferromagnetic film of CoFeB, at room temperature. Remarkably, the exchange bias effect is robust upon magnetic field cycling, with no indications of training.
 Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.75.245111 Abstract: Temperature dependent impedance spectroscopy enables the many contributions to the dielectric and resistive properties of condensed matter to be deconvoluted and characterized separately. We have achieved this for multiferroic epitaxial thin films of BiFeO3 (BFO) and BiMnO3 (BMO), key examples of materials with strong magneto-electric coupling. We demonstrate that the true film capacitance of the epitaxial layers is similar to that of the electrode interface, making analysis of capacitance as a function of film thickness necessary to achieve deconvolution. We modeled non-Debye impedance response using Gaussian distributions of relaxation times and reveal that conventional resistivity measurements on multiferroic layers may be dominated by interface effects. Thermally activated charge transport models yielded activation energies of 0.60 eV +- 0.05 eV (BFO) and 0.25 eV +- 0.03 eV (BMO), which is consistent with conduction dominated by oxygen vacancies (BFO) and electron hopping (BMO). The intrinsic film dielectric constants were determined to be 320 +- 75 (BFO) and 450 +- 100 (BMO).
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