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Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007
Xiao-Nong Zhou, Shan Lv, Guo-Jing Yang, Thomas K Kristensen, N Robert Bergquist, Jürg Utzinger, John B Malone
Parasites & Vectors , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-2-10
Abstract: The goal of the '1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health', convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007, was to review advances made in the control of zoonotic parasitic diseases through the use of geospatial tools. The symposium, organized by the Global Network for Geospatial Health http://www.gnosisGIS.org webcite and supported by the Ministry of Health (MoH) of China, the World Health Organization (WHO), and the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) [1], was held in conjunction with the '7th Annual Meeting of the Regional Network for Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Zoonotic Helminthiases' (RNAS+; http://www.rnas.org.cn webcite) [2]. It attracted more than 150 participants from 19 countries/regions and international organizations and the 71 presentations, including 10 plenary sessions, dealt with intervention strategies, risk profiling, spatio-temporal modeling of parasitic disease transmission, biological investigations to further our understanding of the interaction between vectors and/or intermediate hosts with the definitive human host, as well as database management and sharing of data. Geostatistical approaches and time series analyses have been employed in schistosomiasis control in China, including random-effect modeling, transmission dynamics and Bayesian geostatistics.The symposium was essentially an initiative intended to encourage local and international scientists to share data and geospatial health applications in compatible format with special emphasis on the region represented by the site of the annual RNAS+ meeting. It had the form of an open forum where the information from different regions and diseases was freely exchanged. Results from simple cross-sectional surveys as well as advanced modeling, such as that based on random-effects, spatio-temporal studies or transmission dynamics, were presented along with Bayesian statistics a
Tropical Parasitic Diseases andWomen
OO Okwa
Annals of African Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Tropical parasitic diseases constitute the greatest threat to the health and socio – economic status of women as a gender and social group. There are some gender specific ways in which parasitic diseases affect women in contrast to men due to differences in exposure, occupational risk, sociocultural behavior, gender roles and practices. These parasitic diseases confer some social stigma, which affects the health seeking behavior of women. Women are therefore important in the control of these parasitic diseases and they are key agents of change, if they are included in community control programs. Women need more attention in endemic areas as a group that had been neglected. This deprived and excluded group have got vital role to play, as discussed in this review
Tropical parasitic diseases and women  [cached]
Okwa O
Annals of African Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Tropical parasitic diseases constitute the greatest threat to the health and socio– economic status of women as a gender and social group. There are some gender specific ways in which parasitic diseases affect women in contrast to men due to differences in exposure, occupational risk, sociocultural behavior, gender roles and practices. These parasitic diseases confer some social stigma, which affects the health seeking behavior of women. Women are therefore important in the control of these parasitic diseases and they are key agents of change, if they are included in community control programs. Women need more attention in endemic areas as a group that had been neglected. This deprived and excluded group have got vital role to play, as discussed in this review.
Pyogenic abscesses and parasitic diseases
LAMBERTUCCI, José Roberto;RAYES, Abdunnabi Ahmed;SERUFO, José Carlos;NOBRE, Vandack;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46652001000200003
Abstract: parasitic diseases which during their course in the host switch the immune system from a t helper 1 to a t helper 2 response may be detrimental to the host, contributing to granuloma formation, eosinophilia, hyper-ige, and increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. patients and animals with acute schistosomiasis and hyper-ige in their serum develop pyogenic liver abscess in the presence of bacteremia caused by staphylococcus aureus. the salmonella-s. mansoni association has also been well documented. the association of tropical pyomyositis (pyogenic muscle abscess) and pyogenic liver abscess with toxocara infection has recently been described in the same context. in tropical countries that may be an interesting explanation for the great morbidity of bacterial diseases. if the association of parasitic infections and pyogenic abscesses and/or fungal diseases are confirmed, there will be a strong case in favor of universal treatment for parasitic diseases to prevent or decrease the morbidity of superinfection with bacteria and fungi.
Pyogenic abscesses and parasitic diseases  [cached]
LAMBERTUCCI José Roberto,RAYES Abdunnabi Ahmed,SERUFO José Carlos,NOBRE Vandack
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 2001,
Abstract: Parasitic diseases which during their course in the host switch the immune system from a T helper 1 to a T helper 2 response may be detrimental to the host, contributing to granuloma formation, eosinophilia, hyper-IgE, and increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. Patients and animals with acute schistosomiasis and hyper-IgE in their serum develop pyogenic liver abscess in the presence of bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The Salmonella-S. mansoni association has also been well documented. The association of tropical pyomyositis (pyogenic muscle abscess) and pyogenic liver abscess with Toxocara infection has recently been described in the same context. In tropical countries that may be an interesting explanation for the great morbidity of bacterial diseases. If the association of parasitic infections and pyogenic abscesses and/or fungal diseases are confirmed, there will be a strong case in favor of universal treatment for parasitic diseases to prevent or decrease the morbidity of superinfection with bacteria and fungi.
Parasitic diseases in the returning traveller
M Grobusch, C Menezes
Continuing Medical Education , 2009,
Abstract: Parasitic infections often present with nonspecific symptoms
Apoptosis induced by parasitic diseases
Anne-Lise Bienvenu, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Stephane Picot
Parasites & Vectors , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-106
Abstract: Cell death by apoptotic-like mechanisms could be described as a ride to death with a return ticket, as initiation of the pathway may be reversed, with the potential that it could be manipulated for therapeutic purposes. The management of host-cell apoptosis could thus be an adjunctive factor for parasitic disease treatment. Evidence that the apoptotic process could be reversed by anti-apoptotic drugs has recently been obtained, leading to the possibility of host-cell rescue after injury. An important issue will be to predict the beneficial or deleterious effects of controlling human cell death by apoptotic-like mechanisms during parasitic diseases.Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death involved in a wide range of adaptive processes, from embryogenesis to stress injury responses. The main benefits of apoptosis occur when an organism is uninfected. However, detrimental effects caused by apoptosis can be triggered by parasitic infection, depending upon the specific host-parasite situation. During their evolution, parasites have developed mechanisms to induce or avoid host cell apoptosis in order to be able to survive and complete their life cycle.Pathways involved in apoptosis are highly regulated, demonstrating that this mechanism is finely tuned according to the biological environment of the cell. Among the factors involved in that balance in infected organisms, the time of apoptosis (early or late occurrence), the cell type and the type of parasitism (intracellular or not) are the major modulators. For example, early apoptosis of host cells could contribute towards their fight against infection by intracellular parasites; equally, early apoptosis could favour the penetration of the parasite. Late apoptosis of cells of the defence system could be beneficial to the host, clearing excess cells and thereby avoiding the detrimental effects of excessive inflammatory response in the tissue that they would cause (e.g. the deleterious effect of reactive oxygen species
Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China  [cached]
Chen Jia,Xu Min-Jun,Zhou Dong-Hui,Song Hui-Qun
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-152
Abstract: Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.
Effect of climatic changes on the prevalence of zoonotic diseases
Neelam Sachan and V.P.Singh
Veterinary World , 2010,
Abstract: Combustion of fossil fuels and human activities has led to sharp increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These climate changes have tremendous effect on prevalence of zoonotic diseases. The changes in climate may increase the insect vectors, prolong transmission cycles or increase the importation of vectors or animal reservoirs. It may also have an adverse effect on biodiversity, distribution of animals and microflora which may lead to emergence of zoonotic disease outbreaks. A historical perspective on major vector-borne diseases such as arboviral encephalitides, dengue fever and Rift Valley fever, Lyme disease, West Nile virus, malaria, plague, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and dengue fever have been shown to have a distinct seasonal pattern and in some instances their frequency has been shown to be weather sensitive. Because of the sensitivities of the vectors and animal hosts of these diseases to climactic factors, climate change-driven ecological changes such as variations in rainfall and temperature could significantly alter the range, seasonality and human incidence of many zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. The evolution of emerging zoonotic diseases globally during the period 1996 to 2007 was Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, avian influenza H5N1, plague and Nipah virus. Whereas, bird flu and swine flu like diseases are still creating havoc for human and animal health worldwide. It is a today’s and tomorrow’s demand that interdisciplinary communication between health professionals, veterinarians, environmental scientists, ecologists, geographers and economists seeking to understand climate change will be key to protecting people in India and worldwide against these threats. Rigorous cross-disciplinary studies using a variety of methodological tools will enable us to predict the transmission dynamics of diseases under different climate scenarios and estimate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies. In this text some of important diseases which are dependant on global warming and climate changes have been discussed taken for and can change their prevalence rate is considered for discussion. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(11.000): 519-522]
Homeopathy in parasitic diseases
Denise Lessa Aleixo,Leoni Vilano Bonamin,Silvana Marques de Araujo
International Journal of High Dilution Research , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: The use of homeopathic medicines has increased, once traditional medicines sometimes do not produce the desired effects and because side effects sometimes compromise the treatment. In recent years, research on homeopathy has clearly developed, both in the implementation of more consistent methodologies and in the description of the data and published methods, improvement are still required in these matters. The acknowledgment of homeopathy depends on the credibility of the groups researching this topic Objective: list and criticize articles highlighting main effects, schedule of treatment and potencies used in different animals models. Material and Methods: A review of articles published since 2000 in journals indexed in the PubMed/Scielo databases was performed. Keywords used were parasitosis/homeopathy and parasitosis/ultra-diluted, in English and Portuguese. Specialized journals such as Homeopathy, International Journal of High Dilution Research, and Brazilian Homeopathic Journal were also used. The contents of each issue of these journals were examined for the "Use of highly diluted medication in parasitic infections." Results and Discussion: Thirty nine papers have been gathered. The methodology of the articles surveyed did not meet the requirements listed in the REHBaR[1]. Thirty seven reports have shown the benefits/effects of highly diluted medicine in the treatment of infectious diseases. In models where experimental conditions are carefully controlled, the conclusions follow the same pattern as those observed in the treatment of farm animals, where, even without completely controlled conditions, clinical result is positive. In fourteen reports using the same model, eight where animals were treated in a constant and prolonged way shown a better result, compared with six reports in which animals were treated for a short period of time, receiving a single daily dose. Several authors have conducted clinical trials using commercial formulas, which do not always provide their composition and/or dynamization, making it difficult to reproducing the experiment. In some of the articles, it was not mentioned if the experiments were repeated at least twice. Conclusions: In parasitic infections, the effect of homeopathic medications is still controversial, and the experimental parameters for evaluation shoud be carefully chosen to avoid isolated analyses of data. Researchers should consider results regarding environmental and sanitary conditions of the animal as a whole. The improvement of techniques and expansion of knowledge about highly di
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