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Comparison of wavefront aberrations under cycloplegic, scotopic and photopic conditions using WaveScan
Fan, Rong;He, Tao;Qiu, Yan;Di, Yu-Lan;Xu, Su-yun;Li, Yao-yu;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27492012000200009
Abstract: purpose: to evaluate the differences of wavefront aberrations under cycloplegic, scotopic and photopic conditions. methods: a total of 174 eyes of 105 patients were measured using the wavefront sensor (wavescan? 3.62) under different pupil conditions: cycloplegic 8.58 ± 0.54 mm (6.4 mm - 9.5 mm), scotopic 7.53 ± 0.69 mm (5.7 mm - 9.1 mm) and photopic 6.08 ± 1.14 mm (4.1 mm - 8.8 mm). the pupil diameter, standard zernike coefficients, root mean square of higher-order aberrations and dominant aberrations were compared between cycloplegic and scotopic conditions, and between scotopic and photopic conditions. results: the pupil diameter was 7.53 ± 0.69 mm under the scotopic condition, which reached the requirement of about 6.5 mm optical zone design in the wavefront-guided surgery and prevented measurement error due to the pupil centroid shift caused by mydriatics. pharmacological pupil dilation induced increase of standard zernike coefficients z3-3, z40 and z5-5. the higher-order aberrations, third-order aberration, fourth-order aberration, fifth-order aberration, sixth-order aberration, and spherical aberration increased statistically significantly, compared to the scotopic condition (p<0.010). when the scotopic condition shifted to the photopic condition, the standard zernike coefficients z40, z42, z6-4, z6-2, z62 decreased and all the higher-order aberrations decreased statistically significantly (p<0.010), demonstrating that accommodative miosis can significantly improve vision under the photopic condition. under the three conditions, the vertical coma aberration appears the most frequently within the dominant aberrations without significant effect by pupil size variance, and the proportion of spherical aberrations decreased with the decrease of the pupil size. conclusions: the wavefront aberrations are significantly different under cycloplegic, scotopic and photopic conditions. using the wavefront sensor (visx wavescan) to measure scotopic wavefront aberrations is
High correlation of scotopic and photopic electroretinogram components with severity of central retinal artery occlusion  [cached]
Celso S Matsumoto,Kei Shinoda,Kazuo Nakatsuka
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011,
Abstract: Celso S Matsumoto1,2, Kei Shinoda1, Kazuo Nakatsuka21Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether a significant correlation exists between the scotopic and photopic components of electroretinograms (ERGs) and the degree of circulation disturbances caused by a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO).Design: Observational clinical study.Participants: Sixteen patients with a CRAO (16 eyes).Methods: The circulatory disturbance in eyes with CRAO was graded as mild (group 1) when the arm-to-retina transmission time was <30 sec and severe (group 2) when the arm-to-retina transmission time was ≥30 sec. Scotopic and photopic ERG components in eyes with CRAO were compared with those in healthy fellow eyes with respect to the degree of circulation disturbance.Results: The scotopic and photopic b-waves were significantly reduced only in group 2, whereas the amplitudes of the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the photopic cone ERGs were significantly reduced in both groups. The amplitudes of each ERG component, except for the a-wave of the mixed rod-cone ERG, were significantly smaller in group 2 than in group 1.Conclusions: The PhNR was reduced even in group 1 with minimal circulatory disturbance and thus may be a good functional indicator.Keywords: scotopic electroretinogram, photopic electroretinogram, photopic negative response, central retinal artery occlusion, fluorescein angiography
High correlation of scotopic and photopic electroretinogram components with severity of central retinal artery occlusion
Celso S Matsumoto, Kei Shinoda, Kazuo Nakatsuka
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S16053
Abstract: h correlation of scotopic and photopic electroretinogram components with severity of central retinal artery occlusion Original Research (3377) Total Article Views Authors: Celso S Matsumoto, Kei Shinoda, Kazuo Nakatsuka Published Date January 2011 Volume 2011:5 Pages 115 - 121 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S16053 Celso S Matsumoto1,2, Kei Shinoda1, Kazuo Nakatsuka2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether a significant correlation exists between the scotopic and photopic components of electroretinograms (ERGs) and the degree of circulation disturbances caused by a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). Design: Observational clinical study. Participants: Sixteen patients with a CRAO (16 eyes). Methods: The circulatory disturbance in eyes with CRAO was graded as mild (group 1) when the arm-to-retina transmission time was <30 sec and severe (group 2) when the arm-to-retina transmission time was ≥30 sec. Scotopic and photopic ERG components in eyes with CRAO were compared with those in healthy fellow eyes with respect to the degree of circulation disturbance. Results: The scotopic and photopic b-waves were significantly reduced only in group 2, whereas the amplitudes of the photopic negative response (PhNR) of the photopic cone ERGs were significantly reduced in both groups. The amplitudes of each ERG component, except for the a-wave of the mixed rod-cone ERG, were significantly smaller in group 2 than in group 1. Conclusions: The PhNR was reduced even in group 1 with minimal circulatory disturbance and thus may be a good functional indicator.
Evaluation of the Changes in Anterior Segment Morphology with Ultrasound Biomicroscopy after Vitrectomy without Use of Tamponade in Pseudophakic Eyes  [PDF]
Erkan ünsal, Kadir Eltutar
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2016.64030
Abstract: Aim: In this study we investigated the changes in anterior segment morphology in pseudophakia patients that underwent ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) operation without use of tamponade. Method: Pseudophakic patients who undergo PPV were enrolled in this prospective study between October 2012 and April 2015. Study included patients in whom intraocular tamponade was not used during PPV operation. UBM measurements were performed both before and 10 days after the operation. Anterior chamber depth (ACD) was measured using axial images of anterior segment. Trabecular meshwork-iris angle (TIA), ciliary body thickness (CBT), sclera thickness (ST), trabecular meshwork-ciliary process distance (T-CPD), iris-ciliary processes distance (I-CPD), and iris thickness (IT) were measured at temporal quadrant based on radial section images of the angle. Values measured before and after the operation were statistically compared with each other. Results: This study included 30 patients (18 females, 12 males) that underwent an operation ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) operation without use of tamponade. Mean age was 69.6 ± 9.1 (55 - 85) years. Eighteen operations occurred on the left eye whereas twelve operations occurred on the right eye. CBT1, CBT2, CBT Max, T-CPD, and I-CPD were significantly decreased after operation when compared with the values of baseline (before) (p = 0.018, p = 0.012, p = 0.001, p = 0.033, p = 0.015, respectively). Other evaluated parameters did not show statistically significant changes after the operation (p > 0.05). Discussion: PPV results in significant changes in ciliary body morphology together with changes in anterior segment parameters in pseudophakic cases.
不同遗传背景儿童在不同调节状态下眼前节结构的变化
Changes in the anterior segment of eyes of children with different genetic background under different accommodations
 [PDF]

戴怡康,傅伟才,陆玮瑜,
DAI Yi-kang
, FU Wei-cai, LU Wei-yu, et al

- , 2016, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2016.01.016
Abstract: 目的 研究和分析不同遗传背景下,相同屈光状态儿童在不同的调节刺激下眼前节结构的变化。方法 采集正视眼儿童(+0.50~-0.50 DS)60例(60眼),分成2组:A组30例,儿童父母均为正视;B组30例,父母均为高度近视(≥6.0 DS)。所有受试儿童行散瞳主觉验光,调节放松和不同程度调节刺激下测量前房深度、晶状体厚度及暗瞳直径,比较两组间的差异。结果 两组儿童的年龄、调节幅度和裸眼视力差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。调节放松和诱发3D调节时两组间各测量指标的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。诱发6D调节时,A组前房深度变浅值和晶状体变厚值均大于B组(P<0.05),但暗瞳直径缩小值两组之间的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论 在6D调节刺激下,父母均为高度近视的儿童眼前节结构中前房深度以及晶状体厚度变化值均小于父母均为正视的儿童,这种差异是否造成今后屈光转归的不同尚需进一步研究。
: Objective To investigate and analyze the changes in the anterior segment of eyes of children with different genetic background and same refraction under different accommodations. Methods A total of 60 emmetropic children (60 eyes, +0.50~-0.50 DS) were enrolled and divided into A group (n=30) and B group (n=30). Parents of children of A group were emmetropic and parents of children of B group were highly myopic (≥6.0 DS). All children underwent subjective refraction after mydriasis. The anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens thickness, and dark pupil diameter were measured under relaxation and different accommodations. The difference between two groups was compared. Results The differences of age, accommodation amplitude, and naked vision between two groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The differences of measurements under relaxation and accommodation of 3D between two groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The decrease of anterior chamber depth and the increase of crystalline lens thickness of A group under accommodation of 6D were larger than those of B group (P<0.05), while the difference of the decrease of dark pupil diameter between two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion Changes of anterior chamber depth and crystalline lens thickness in the anterior segment of eyes of children with highly myopic parents under accommodation of 6D are smaller than those of children with emmetropic parents. Whether this difference leads to the difference of refraction in the future still needs further study
The anterior segment of the eye in diabetes  [cached]
Adeoti CO,Isawumi MA,Ashaye AO,Olomola BV
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2012,
Abstract: CO Adeoti1, MA Isawumi1, AO Ashaye2, BV Olomola11Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria; 2Ophthalmology Department, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaPurpose: A prospective study to examine the anterior segment of the eye in patients with diabetes mellitus.Materials and methods: The anterior segments of the eyes of 181 patients with diabetes mellitus were examined. The commonest finding in the lids was warts, followed by poliosis and chalazia, and, in the conjunctiva, tortuous conjunctival vessels inferiorly (36.50%), pterygium (14.92%), and pingueculum (14.37%). Corneal sensitivity was reduced in 25 (13.80%) patients. Iris atrophy was the commonest finding in the iris. Dilatation of the pupil was delayed in 34 (18.79%) patients. Cataract was found in 119 (65.75%) patients. Forty-one (22.65%) patients had intraocular pressure greater than 21 mmHg. Seven (3.87%) patients, four (2.21%) patients, and one (0.55%) patient had seventh, third, and fourth palsy, respectively. No patient had sixth nerve palsy.Conclusion: Primary care physicians and other allied health care professionals who are first in contact with patients are enjoined to familiarize themselves with the anterior segment features of diabetes mellitus and take necessary action when they are detected.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, eye, anterior segment
The anterior segment of the eye in diabetes
Adeoti CO, Isawumi MA, Ashaye AO, Olomola BV
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S27313
Abstract: nterior segment of the eye in diabetes Original Research (2528) Total Article Views Authors: Adeoti CO, Isawumi MA, Ashaye AO, Olomola BV Published Date May 2012 Volume 2012:6 Pages 667 - 671 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S27313 Received: 13 October 2011 Accepted: 11 December 2011 Published: 07 May 2012 CO Adeoti1, MA Isawumi1, AO Ashaye2, BV Olomola1 1Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria; 2Ophthalmology Department, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria Purpose: A prospective study to examine the anterior segment of the eye in patients with diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods: The anterior segments of the eyes of 181 patients with diabetes mellitus were examined. The commonest finding in the lids was warts, followed by poliosis and chalazia, and, in the conjunctiva, tortuous conjunctival vessels inferiorly (36.50%), pterygium (14.92%), and pingueculum (14.37%). Corneal sensitivity was reduced in 25 (13.80%) patients. Iris atrophy was the commonest finding in the iris. Dilatation of the pupil was delayed in 34 (18.79%) patients. Cataract was found in 119 (65.75%) patients. Forty-one (22.65%) patients had intraocular pressure greater than 21 mmHg. Seven (3.87%) patients, four (2.21%) patients, and one (0.55%) patient had seventh, third, and fourth palsy, respectively. No patient had sixth nerve palsy. Conclusion: Primary care physicians and other allied health care professionals who are first in contact with patients are enjoined to familiarize themselves with the anterior segment features of diabetes mellitus and take necessary action when they are detected.
Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for the Quantitative Evaluation of the Anterior Segment Following Boston Keratoprosthesis  [PDF]
Joann J. Kang, Norma Allemann, Thasarat Vajaranant, Jose de la Cruz, Maria Soledad Cortina
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070673
Abstract: Objective To quantitatively evaluate the anterior segment using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) following Boston keratoprosthesis type 1. Methods A retrospective study consisted of AS-OCT imaging at a single time point postoperatively in 52 eyes. Main outcomes measures include anatomical and functional anterior chamber depth (ACD), angle (ACA) and peripheral and proximal synechiae. Results The mean time point of imaging was 19.3 months postoperatively. Average anatomical and functional ACD was 2.0 and 0.21 mm respectively, and mean ACA ranged from 2.5° to 6.14° in representative meridians. An average of 8.7 clock hours of angle closure was observed in the 25 eyes in which all meridians were imaged. The majority of eyes showed peripheral (86.5%) and proximal (67.3%) synechiae. Conclusions AS-OCT is a useful tool for quantitative evaluation of anterior segment and angle after keratoprosthesis, which is otherwise poorly visible. The majority of eyes showed shallow ACD, extensive angle closure and synechiae formation.
Técnicas para la preparación de ojos de cadáver utilizadas para practicar cirugía intraocular del segmento anterior Techniques for preparing postmortem human eyes to perform anterior segment intraocular surgery  [cached]
LG Vargas,L Werner,SK Pandey,LP Werner
Archivos de la Sociedad Espa?ola de Oftalmología , 2003,
Abstract: Describimos las técnicas para preparar ojos humanos o animales obtenidos postmortem empleados en el Centro de Investigaciones en Terapéutica Ocular y Bio-implantes, Storm Eye Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, EE.UU. Estas técnicas han sido utilizadas para prácticar diferentes procedimientos quirúrgicos (facoemulsificación, extracción extracapsular de cristalino, etc.), y para el entrenamiento de cirujanos en transición. La práctica de estas técnicas en el laboratorio ha contribuido a mejorar la habilidad quirúrgica para realizar los pasos críticos de la cirugía de facoemulsificación. La evaluación patológica de los globos humanos pseudofáquicos obtenidos postmortem mediante la técnica posterior de Miyake-Apple, y el análisis histológico han sido fundamentales en el estudio de complicaciones postoperatorias de cirugía de catarata (opacidad de cápsula anterior, opacidad de cápsula posterior) secundarias a proliferación postoperatoria de células epiteliales del cristalino dentro del saco capsular. Las modificaciones en las técnicas quirúrgicas y en el dise o de las lentes intraoculares han ayudado a disminuir estas complicaciones postoperatorias. El implante de diferentes tipos de lentes afáquicos y fáquicos en ojos humanos y animales obtenidos postmortem ha permitido un mejor análisis del tama o y la posición de nuevos dise os de lentes dentro del ojo. We describe different methods to prepare postmortem human or animal eyes used at the Center for Research in Ocular Therapeutics and Biodevices at the Storm Eye Institute, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. These techniques have been utilized for performing different surgical procedures (phacoemulsification, extracapsular cataract extraction, etc.), and for training of surgeons in-transition. Performing these techniques in the wet-laboratory contributed to improve surgical skills to perform the critical steps of the phacoemulsification surgery. Pathological evaluation of pseudophakic postmortem human eyes using the Miyake-Apple posterior view and histology was helpful to analyze postoperative complications of cataract surgery (anterior capsule opacification and posterior capsule opacification) secondary to postoperative proliferation of lens epithelial cells into the capsular bag. Modifications in the surgical techniques and/or lens design may be helpful to reduce these postoperative complications. Implantation of various aphakic and phakic intraocular lenses in postmortem human eyes as well as animal eyes was helpful to analyze the sizing and fitting of
Application of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Ophthalmology
Ricardo Salles Cauduro,Caroline do Amaral Ferraz,Maira Saad ávila Morales,Patricia Novita Garcia,Yara Cristina Lopes,Paulo Henrique Souza,Norma Allemann
Journal of Ophthalmology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/313120
Abstract: Purpose. Application of anterior segment optical coherence (AS-OCT) in pediatric ophthalmology. Methods. Retrospective clinical study case series of 26 eyes of 19 pediatric patients throughout a 21-month period, presenting anterior segment pathologies, were submitted to AS-OCT examination (OCT Visante, 1310 nm, Zeiss), noncontact technique, no sedation requirement. Results. AS-OCT images were obtained from 19 patients (range: 2 months to 12 years). Clinical diagnosis of anterior segment abnormalities included cornea disease (=7), congenital anterior segment conditions (=10), ocular trauma (=1), anterior segment surgeries (=2), iridocorneal angle abnormalities (=4), intermediate uveitis (=2). The most common OCT findings were corneal hyperreflectivity and thickening (=15), shallow anterior chamber with iris-lens diaphragm anterior displacement (=4), atypical corneal curvature (=4), corneal thinning (=4), peripheral synechiae with angle closure (=3), increased anterior chamber depth (=2), and proximal portion of glaucoma drainage tube (=2). Conclusion. In the present study, noncontact AS-OCT demonstrated to be a feasible technique to evaluate the anterior segment providing anatomic details and useful to clarify diagnosis in the pediatric population.
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