Abstract:
the following paper aims to review and analyze how latin america's colonialism and modernity have been represented, built and interrogated in two major films of regional contemporary cinema: memorias del subdesarrollo (memories of underdevelopment) cuba, 1968 and pizza, birra, faso (pizza, beer, fag), argentina, 1998. we have two questions to answer: what images of coloniality and modernity are pictured in these films? how are ？coloniality？ and ？modernity？ articulated in the selected films?

Abstract:
We introduce here three complementary models to analyze the role of predation pressure in avian coloniality. Different explanations have been proposed for the existence of colonial breeding behavior in birds, but field studies offer no conclusive results. We first propose a learning model in which the decision of birds are taken according to the collective performance. The properties of the system are then studied according to a model in which birds choose according to their individual experience, and the agreement of the introduction of spatial structure with field data are then shown.

Abstract:
This paper deals with a problem in which two players share a previously sliced pizza and try to eat as much amount of pizza as they can. It takes time to eat each piece of pizza and both players eat pizza at the same rate. One is allowed to take a next piece only after the person has finished eating the piece on hand. Also, after the first piece is taken, one can only take a piece which is adjacent to already-taken piece. This paper shows that, in this real time setting, the starting player can always eat at least two-fifth of the total size of the pizza. However, this may not be the best possible amount the starting player can eat. It is a modified problem from an original one where two players takes piece alternatively instead.

Abstract:
We propose a class of two person perfect information games based on weighted graphs. One of these games can be described in terms of a round pizza which is cut radially into pieces of varying size. The two players alternately take pieces subject to the following rule: Once the first piece has been chosen, all subsequent selections must be adjacent to the hole left by the previously taken pieces. Each player tries to get as much pizza as possible. The original pizza problem was to settle the conjecture that Player One can always get at least half of the pizza. The conjecture turned out to be false. Our main result is a complete solution of a somewhat simpler class of games, concatenations of stacks and two-ended stacks, and we provide a linear time algorithm for this. The algorithm and its output can be described without reference to games. It produces a certain kind of partition of a given finite sequence of real numbers. The conditions on the partition involve alternating sums of various segments of the given sequence. We do not know whether these partitions have applications outside of game theory. The algorithm leads to a quadratic time algorithm which gives the value and an optimal initial move for pizza games. We also provide some general theory concerning the semigroup of equivalence classes of graph games.

Abstract:
Consider n straight line cuts of a circular pizza made so as to maximize the number of pieces. We investigate how fair such a maximal division may be and how many slices are obtained if the cuts are successfully made with a certain probability.

Abstract:
Bob cuts a pizza into slices of not necessarily equal size and shares it with Alice by alternately taking turns. One slice is taken in each turn. The first turn is Alice's. She may choose any of the slices. In all other turns only those slices can be chosen that have a neighbor slice already eaten. We prove a conjecture of Peter Winkler by showing that Alice has a strategy for obtaining 4/9 of the pizza. This is best possible, that is, there is a cutting and a strategy for Bob to get 5/9 of the pizza. We also give a characterization of Alice's best possible gain depending on the number of slices. For a given cutting of the pizza, we describe a linear time algorithm that computes Alice's strategy gaining at least 4/9 of the pizza and another algorithm that computes the optimal strategy for both players in any possible position of the game in quadratic time. We distinguish two types of turns, shifts and jumps. We prove that Alice can gain 4/9, 7/16 and 1/3 of the pizza if she is allowed to make at most two jumps, at most one jump and no jump, respectively, and the three constants are the best possible.

Abstract:
Given two players alternately picking pieces of a pizza sliced by radial cuts, in such a way that after the first piece is taken every subsequent chosen piece is adjacent to some previously taken piece, we provide a strategy for the starting player to get 4/9 of the pizza. This is best possible and settles a conjecture of Peter Winkler.

Abstract:
This exploratory study surveys preferences of participants towards pairing three categories of beer (lager, ale and stout) with a non-spicy and spicy pizza. The goals of this study are to determine the level of a ‘just right’ match of pizza style with each beer type, determine any differences by gender, and to explore if spice has an impact on participants’ beer selection and beer preference. Implications of this research apply to restaurateurs’ ability to appropriately cater their beer and pizza offerings in terms of menu design and pro-duct delivery.

Abstract:
Background: Brain fag is an indigenous psychopathology or culture-bound syndrome formally documented in Nigeria in the 1960’s by Raymond Prince. Objective: The need for a factorial examination of the scale to ensure factorial validity and also to examine the reliability of this screening scale. Methods: Two hundred thirty four (234) participants with ages between 11 – 20 years with a mean age of 14.20 and a Standard Deviation of 2.14 of which 114 were from a private secondary school and 120 from a public secondary school were randomly selected and administered the Brain Fag Syndrome Scale [BFSS]. The data was subjected to factor analysis using Principal Component Analysis with Oblim Rotation. Results: Two valid factors emerged with items 1-3 and items 4, 5 & 7 loading on respectively, making the BFSS a twodimensional (multidimensional) scale which measures 2 aspects of brain fag [labeled burning sensation and crawling sensation respectively]. The reliability analysis yielded a Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.521, and a standardized item alpha of 0.528 estimated its internal consistency. Also, the BFSS was correlated with other tests to establish its concurrent validity [convergent and divergent]. Conclusion: BFSS is a valid and reliable two-dimensional instrument to assess brain fag syndrome.

Abstract:
this study evaluated the effectiveness of nisaplin, commercial product having nisin as active component, in decreasing the staphylococcal population in refrigerated pizza doughs. the refrigerated pizza dough pieces randomly chosen were dipped in the solutions with nisaplin concentrations of 1.0 x 10-3 g and 1.0 x 10-2 g nisaplin/ml named for the treatment a and b and kept under refrigeration (7 °c ± 1 °c). on times 0, 15 and 30 days post treatment the staphylococcus spp. count was carried out. the results showed that both nisaplin treatments were able to reduce the staphylococcus spp. count (cfu/g) in the refrigerated pizza doughs. however, only treatment b showed statistically significant reducer effect (p < 0.05) on the count providing a decrease of 1.0 and 0.98 log cycles, respectively, after 15 and 30 days post treatment. these data suggest that nisin could appear as promising alternative to control the survival of the pathogen microorganisms in the foods, particularly, staphylococcus in the refrigerated pizza doughs.