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Description of the fourth instar larva of Lutzomyia longipalpis, under scanning electron microscopy
Leite, Ant?nio Cesar Rios;Williams, Paul;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761996000500007
Abstract: the fourth instar larva of lutzomyia (lutzomyia) longipalpis (phlebotomidae: phlebotominae) was studied by scanning electron microscope. based on three-dimensional observations, the fine structure and setal position (using of setal numeration) of the larva are presented.
Posterior spiracles of fourth instar larvae of four species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) under scanning electron microscopy
Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa;Queiroz, Raul Guerra de;Ward, Richard Douglas;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762000000500013
Abstract: in the present study, posterior spiracles of laboratory-reared fourth instar larvae of lutzomyia longipalpis, l. migonei, l. lenti, and l. whitmani (diptera: psychodidae) of the state of ceará, brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. the number of papillae of spiracles examined varied according to the species examined, but no intraspecific differences were found. the importance of this structure to sand fly larva identification and phylogeny is commented.
Posterior spiracles of fourth instar larvae of four species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) under scanning electron microscopy  [cached]
Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa,Queiroz Raul Guerra de,Ward Richard Douglas
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000,
Abstract: In the present study, posterior spiracles of laboratory-reared fourth instar larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. lenti, and L. whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The number of papillae of spiracles examined varied according to the species examined, but no intraspecific differences were found. The importance of this structure to sand fly larva identification and phylogeny is commented.
Lutzomyia adiketis sp. n. (Diptera: Phlebotomidae), a vector of Paleoleishmania neotropicum sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Dominican amber
George Poinar
Parasites & Vectors , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-1-22
Abstract: Lutzomyia adiketis sp. n. (Phlebotomidae: Diptera) is described from Dominican amber as a vector of Paleoleishmania neotropicum sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). The fossil sand fly differs from all previously described extinct and extant members of the genus by the following combination of characters: Sc forked with the branches meeting the costa and radius veins; wing L/W value of 4.1; a δ value of 18; a ratio β/α value of 0.86, and the shape and size of the spatulate rods on the ninth sternite. The trypanosomatid is characterized by the structure of its promastigotes, amastigotes and paramastigotes and its transmission by an extinct species of sand fly.Morphological characters show that the fossil sand fly is a new extinct species and that it is host to a digenetic species of trypanosomatid. This study provides the first fossil evidence that Neotropical sand flies were vectors of trypanosomatids in the mid-Tertiary (20–30 mya).Moth flies (Psychodidae) and sand flies (Phlebotomidae) are primitive Diptera [1] often treated as subfamilies [2]. The fossil record of sand flies dates back to Early Cretaceous Lebanese [3,4] and Burmese amber [5]. The Burmese amber sand fly, Palaeomyia burmitis Poinar [5] was transmitting Paleoleishmania protera Poinar & Poinar [6,7], the first described fossil digenetic trypanosomatid parasite. The present study describes a second species of Paleoleishmania carried by an extinct species of Lutzomyia sand fly in Dominican amber.Family Phlebotomidae Kertész 1903Genus Lutzomyia Fran?a 1924Lutzomyia adiketis sp.n. (Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4)Length = 1.3 mm; body, legs and antennae light brown.Head; Length, 315 μm; eye bridge absent; length of proboscis, 202 μm; maxillary palp extending well beyond tip of proboscis; length of maxillary palp, 544 μm; palpal formula 1-4-2-3-5; Newstead's scales in oval area on basal half of 3rd palpomere; lengths of palpomeres; 1, 44 μm; 2, 89 μm; 3, 120 μm; 4, 82 μm; 5, 209 μm; ratio of palp segments, 1/2 = 0
Redescripción de la quetotaxia del cuarto estadio larval de Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) Redescriptión of the chaetotaxy of the fourth instar larva of Lutzomyia evansi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)
DALMIRO CAZORLA,MILAGROS OVIEDO,MARíA ALEJANDRA VíVENES
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2010,
Abstract: Se redescribe e ilustra la quetotaxia de las larvas del estadio IV de Lutzomyia evansi obtenidas en condiciones de laboratorio. Asimismo, se dan las medidas de las setas. El estudio morfológico comparativo sugiere que las larvas IV de L. evansi, como las demás de la serie verrucarum hasta ahora descritas, pueden colocarse en el Grupo cuatro de las especies flebotominas del Neotrópico que poseen antenas con segmento basal corto y el distal ovoide, lo que pareciera apoyar la correcta agrupación propuesta basada en las características de sus imagos. Se discute la importancia de homogenizar la nomenclatura de la quetotaxia de los flebotominos y el empleo de un solo sistema quetotáxico para su descripción. The chaetotaxy of fourth instar larvae of Lutzomyia evansi, obtained from laboratory conditions, is redescribed and illustrated. Measurements of the setae are also provided. The comparative morphological study suggests that fourth instar larvae of L. evansi, as well as the other species of the verrucarum series, can be placed in Group 4 of the neotropical phlebotomine which posses antennae with a short basal segment and an ovoid distal segment, which seems to support the correct proposed groupings based on characters of the imagos. The significance of the importance to standardize the nomenclature of sand fly chaetotaxy and use of a single chaetotaxy system for their descriptión is discussed.
Development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) larvae in different diets
WERMELINGER, E. D.;ZANUNCIO, J. C.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842001000300009
Abstract: the objective of this research was to evaluate, in laboratory, the development of lutzomyia intermedia and lutzomyia longipalpis (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae) larvae, vectors of leishmaniasis in brazil, in the following diets: industrialized food for rabbits, dogs, hamsters and aquarium fishes, besides liver powder, cooked lettuce, wheat germ, beer yeast, oat, wheat bran and a diet denominated aged food. except wheat bran for l. intermedia, all diets provided adequate development for both species, which showed that any of them can be used in laboratory insectaries for these insects. l. intermedia showed better development with most nutritious diets and both species presented better development with aged food. fungi as an additional nutrient source for l. intermedia and l. longipalpis is suggested.
Development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) larvae in different diets  [cached]
WERMELINGER E. D.,ZANUNCIO J. C.
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2001,
Abstract: The objective of this research was to evaluate, in laboratory, the development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) larvae, vectors of leishmaniasis in Brazil, in the following diets: industrialized food for rabbits, dogs, hamsters and aquarium fishes, besides liver powder, cooked lettuce, wheat germ, beer yeast, oat, wheat bran and a diet denominated aged food. Except wheat bran for L. intermedia, all diets provided adequate development for both species, which showed that any of them can be used in laboratory insectaries for these insects. L. intermedia showed better development with most nutritious diets and both species presented better development with aged food. Fungi as an additional nutrient source for L. intermedia and L. longipalpis is suggested.
Toxicity of Bacillus species to larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis (L. & N.) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)
Wermelinger, Eduardo D.;Zanuncio, José C.;Rangel, Elizabeth F.;Cecon, Paulo R.;Rabinovitch, Leon;
Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0301-80592000000300025
Abstract: a study was conducted to compare the susceptibility of third instar larvae of lutzomyia longipalpis (l. & n.) (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae), the vector of the american visceral leishmaniasis to two strains of bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis, one strain of bacillus sphaericus (all pathogenic to diptera culicidae) and a strain of b. thuringiensis ser. morrisoni (pathogenic to larvae of anticarsia gemmatalis (hübner) (lepidoptera: noctuidae)). larvae of l. longipalpis showed similar susceptibility to the two strains of b. thruringiensis ser. israelensis, while b. sphaericus and b. thuringiensis ser. morrisoni showed low and no larvicidal effect to this vector, respectively.
Aislamiento reproductivo asimétrico entre Lutzomyia pseudolongipalpis y Lutzomyia longipalpis (especie C2), vectores neotropicales de leishmaniasis visceral (Diptera: Pshychodidae)
Arrivillaga,Jazzmin; Salerno,Patricia; Rangel,Yadira;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2009,
Abstract: asymmetric reproductive isolation between lutzomyia pseudolongipalpis and lutzomyia longipalpis (species c2), neotropical vectors of visceral leishmaniasis (diptera: pshychodidae). lutzomyia pseudolongipalpis and lutzomyia longipalpis (species c2, l. sp n.) are two endemic species of phlebotominae sand fly vectors from venezuela. the two insects are sympatric and monophyletic but have deeply diverging, morphological differences. they belong to the l. longipalpis complex. a study of their reproductive isolation is necessary to understand the process of speciation and maintenance of the two sister species as two discrete taxonomic and biological entities. cross-mating tests were conducted (homo and hetero-specific) and monitored under two criteria: biological (presence of copulation and offspring) and genetic (using two isozymic markers diagnostic for the l. longipalpis complex; enzyme diagnosis ak and hk). results indicate reproductive isolation, with an asymmetrical genetic exchange in a direction of hybridization between the two species under experimental conditions, and production of a low number of heterozygotes. these findings support the existence of negative selection on hybrids, and explain the absence of hybrids under natural conditions, in the sympatric locality. rev. biol. trop. 57 (1-2): 23-31. epub 2009 june 30.
Genetic Structure of Lutzomyia longipalpis Populations in Mato Grosso Do Sul, Brazil, Based on Microsatellite Markers  [PDF]
Mirella F. C. Santos, Paulo E. M. Ribolla, Diego P. Alonso, José D. Andrade-Filho, Aline E. Casaril, Alda M. T. Ferreira, Carlos E. S. Fernandes, Reginaldo P. Brazil, Alessandra G. Oliveira
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074268
Abstract: Background Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and thus plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). This vector is the best studied species of sand fly in the Neotropical region. Many studies claim that this vector is in fact a species complex; however there is still no consensus regarding the number of species that belong into this complex or the geographical distribution of sibling species. The aim of the present study was to analyze the genetic relationships within?Lu. longipalpis?populations in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 30 Lu. longipalpis (15 females and 15 males) from five localities (Campo Grande, Três Lagoas, Aquidauana, Miranda and Bonito) and 30 Lu. Cruzi from Corumbá, totaling 180 sandflies from MS, and 30 Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, state of Alagoas (AL), Northeast Brazil. We show that eight previously described microsatellite loci were sufficient in distinguishing Lu. longipalpis from Lu. Cruzi, which is a closely related species, and in differentiating between Lu. longipalpis collected in MS versus Estrela de Alagoas. Analyses of the genotypes revealed introgression between sympatric Lu. longipalpis and Lu. Cruzi. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the hypothesis of cryptic species within the Lu. longipalpis complex. Furthermore, our data revealed introgression between Lu. longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the level and incidence of hybridization between these two species. We also demonstrated that microsatellite markers are a powerful tool for differentiating sand fly populations and species. The present study has elucidated the population structure of Lu. longipalpis in MS and, by extension, the Neotropical Lu. longipalpis complex itself.
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