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Some Aspects of Protozoan Infections in Immunocompromised Patients: A Review
Ferreira, Marcelo Sim?o;Borges, Aércio Sebasti?o;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762002000400001
Abstract: protozoa are among the most important pathogens that can cause infections in immunocompromised hosts. these microorganisms particularly infect individuals with impaired cellular immunity, such as those with hematological neoplasias, renal or heart transplant patients, patients using high doses of corticosteroids, and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. the protozoa that most frequently cause disease in immunocompromised patients are toxoplasma gondii, trypanosoma cruzi, different leishmania species, and cryptosporidium parvum; the first two species cause severe acute meningoencephalitis and acute myocarditis, leishmania sp. causes mucocutaneous or visceral disease, and cryptosporidium can lead to chronic diarrhea with hepatobiliary involvement. various serological, parasitological, histological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of these infections are currently available and early institution of specific therapy for each of these organisms is a basic measure to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with these infections.
Some Aspects of Protozoan Infections in Immunocompromised Patients: A Review
Ferreira Marcelo Sim?o,Borges Aércio Sebasti?o
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2002,
Abstract: Protozoa are among the most important pathogens that can cause infections in immunocompromised hosts. These microorganisms particularly infect individuals with impaired cellular immunity, such as those with hematological neoplasias, renal or heart transplant patients, patients using high doses of corticosteroids, and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The protozoa that most frequently cause disease in immunocompromised patients are Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi, different Leishmania species, and Cryptosporidium parvum; the first two species cause severe acute meningoencephalitis and acute myocarditis, Leishmania sp. causes mucocutaneous or visceral disease, and Cryptosporidium can lead to chronic diarrhea with hepatobiliary involvement. Various serological, parasitological, histological and molecular methods for the diagnosis of these infections are currently available and early institution of specific therapy for each of these organisms is a basic measure to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with these infections.
Bartonella Infection in Immunocompromised Hosts: Immunology of Vascular Infection and Vasoproliferation
Mosepele Mosepele,Dana Mazo,Jennifer Cohn
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/612809
Abstract: Most infections by genus Bartonella in immunocompromised patients are caused by B. henselae and B. quintana. Unlike immunocompetent hosts who usually develop milder diseases such as cat scratch disease and trench fever, immunocompromised patients, including those living with HIV/AIDS and posttransplant patients, are more likely to develop different and severe life-threatening disease. This paper will discuss Bartonella's manifestations in immunosuppressed patients and will examine Bartonella's interaction with the immune system including its mechanisms of establishing infection and immune escape. Gaps in current understanding of the immunology of Bartonella infection in immunocompromised hosts will be highlighted.
Fungal infections in the immunocompromised host
Wanke, Bodo;Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos;Nucci, Marcio;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762000000700025
Abstract: in recent years many remarkable changes occurred in our way of life, producing opportunities for microbes. all these changes are related to the recent emergence of previously unrecognized diseases, or the resurgence of diseases that, at least in developed countries, were thought to be under control. this concept is reviewed regarding fungal infections and their agents in the immunocompromised host. the changing pattern of these infections, the portals of entry of fungi into the human host, fungal pathogenicity and the main predisposing factors are analyzed. opportunistic fungal infections in cancer, organ transplant and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients are reviewed, specially candidiasis and aspergillosis.
Fungal infections in the immunocompromised host  [cached]
Wanke Bodo,Lazéra Márcia dos Santos,Nucci Marcio
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000,
Abstract: In recent years many remarkable changes occurred in our way of life, producing opportunities for microbes. All these changes are related to the recent emergence of previously unrecognized diseases, or the resurgence of diseases that, at least in developed countries, were thought to be under control. This concept is reviewed regarding fungal infections and their agents in the immunocompromised host. The changing pattern of these infections, the portals of entry of fungi into the human host, fungal pathogenicity and the main predisposing factors are analyzed. Opportunistic fungal infections in cancer, organ transplant and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients are reviewed, specially candidiasis and aspergillosis.
Cytomegalovirus Infections in Immunocompromised Patients  [cached]
Y?ld?z Camc?o?lu
Cocuk Enfeksiyon Dergisi , 2009,
Abstract: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common herpes virus which causes severe illness and death in people with primary and secondary immune deficiencies. In this review, immunopathogenesis, clinical features, a clear diagnostic tests to provide appropriate diagnosis and choise of treatment of CMV infection in immunocompromised patients will be mentioned.
FUNGAL INFECTIONS OF THE EAR IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST: A REVIEW
Borlingegowda Viswanatha,Khaja Naseeruddin
Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.4084/mjhid.2011.
Abstract: Otomycosis is a fungal infection of the external ear; middle ear and open mastoid cavity. Meyer first described the fungal infection of the external ear canal in 1884.External ear canal has the ideal warm humid environment for the proliferation of fungus. Although this disease is rarely life threatening, it can presents a challenging and frustrating situation for the otologist and patients due to long term treatment and high rate of recurrence .Otomycosis is seen more frequently in immunocompromised patients as compared to immunocompetent persons. Recurrence rates are high in immunocompromised patients and they need longer duration treatment and complications are more frequent in immunocompromised patients. In the recent years; opportunistic fungal infections are gaining greater importance in human medicine as a result of possibly huge number of immunocompromised patients. In immunocompromised patients, it is important that the treatment of otomycosis be vigorous, to minimize complications such as hearing loss, tympanic membrane perforations and invasive temporal bone infection . Fungal cultures are essential to confirm the diagnosis. Hematological investigations play a very important role in confirming the diagnosis and immunity status of the patients. In diabetic patients with otomycosis, along with antifungal therapy blood sugar levels should be controlled with medical therapy to prevent complications.
Safety and efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B for the empirical therapy of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients  [cached]
Miceli MH,Chandrasekar P
Infection and Drug Resistance , 2012,
Abstract: Marisa H Miceli1, Pranatharthi Chandrasekar21Oakwood Hospital and Medical Center, Dearborn, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Liposomal amphotericin B is a "true" liposomal formulation of amphotericin B with greatly reduced nephrotoxicity and minimal infusion-related toxicity. This broad spectrum polyene is well tolerated and effective against most invasive fungal infections. In view of the current limitations on diagnostic capability of invasive fungal infections, most clinicians are often compelled to use antifungal drugs in an empiric manner; liposomal amphotericin B continues to play an important role in the empiric management of invasive fungal infections, despite the recent availability of several other drugs in the azole and echinocandin classes.Keywords: invasive fungal infections, immunocompromised hosts, empiric therapy, polyenes, efficacy and safety
Deep-Seated Fungal Infections in Immunocompromised Patients in Iran Before and After Treatments
Shahindokht Bassiri Jahromi,Ali Asghar Khaksar
Iranian Journal Of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology , 2005,
Abstract: During the last two decades or so, the incidence of fungal infections has increased dramatically. Deep- seated mycoses are creating serious problems for clinicians working with certain populations of patients, such as those with cancer, the immunocompromised, and physiologically compromised.A study of fungal isolated for identification of deep fungal infections, risk factors and etiologic agents in immunocompromised patients was carried out in the section of Medical Mycology, Pasteur Institute of Iran from 1994 to 2001. Eighty two immunosupressed patients with deep fungal infection were retrospectively analyzed for etiology and risk factors. They had one or more predisposing factors to disseminated fungal infections. Diagnosis was established by demonstration of fungus in direct and cultural examinations. Candida spp. were isolated in 67% (36.5% C. albicans and 30.5% non-albincans), and Aspergillus spp. were isolated in 15% of cases. The most frequent risk factors were hematologic malignancy (ALL, lymphoma, Hodgkin, multiple myeloma) and diabetes mellitus. This study suggests that in immunocompromised patients, fungal infections especially in saprophytic infections, back ground evaluation and clinical features, correspondence of clinical symptoms and laboratory examinations should be considered and investigation of other factors which created the infection will lead us to a clear picture of patients situation.
Pulmonary cryptosporidiosis in HIV negative, immunocompromised host  [cached]
Shrikhande S,Chande C,Shegokar V,Powar R
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology , 2009,
Abstract: Cryptosporidia are intestinal spore forming protozoa, which cause intracellular infections, predominantly in the epithelial cells of the intestine. Extra-intestinal infections with Cryptosporidium parvum have been rarely reported. However, a few reports of pulmonary cryptosporidiosis in HIV/AIDS cases have been mentioned in literature. In immunocompromised individuals who do not have HIV-related disease, Cryptosporidiosis has been rarely reported. We present a case of respiratory infection caused by C. parvum . The patient was a 10-year-old child with nephrotic syndrome and was receiving corticosteroids for 6 months. The child had history of low-grade fever, breathlessness and cough with expectoration of 3 months duration. The patient was nonreactive for HIV, and there was no evidence of primary immunodeficiency. Major serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM) were in normal range. Simultaneous gastrointestinal involvement with C. parvum was observed.
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