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Agricultural Market Infrastructure in Punjab
Gurdas Singh
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Marketing infrastructure includes all those facilities and amenities needed for the smooth conduct of marketing in the economy. The infrastructural facilities in development are as necessary as foundations of a building. The existence of adequate marketing infrastructure are important not only for the performance of various marketing functions and expansion of the size of the markets but also for the transfer of appropriate price signals leading to improved marketing efficiency. The availability of different infrastructures affects the choice of technology to be adopted, reduces the cost of transportation, produces powerful impetus to production and also affects income distribution in favour of small and marginal farmers by raising their access to the market.
Markets in Tradition – Traditional Agricultural Communities in Italy and the Impact of GMOs
Johanna Gibson
SCRIPT-ed , 2006,
Abstract: This paper considers the relationship between traditional agricultural communities, regional development, and the uptake of agricultural biotechnologies, through an examination of Italian traditional agriculture in the context of attempts to introduce genetically modified organisms (GMO) to the agricultural market. Of critical interest to this paper is the cultural and economic significance of Italian traditional agricultural knowledge and national cultural identity with respect to farming practices, organic trade, and resistance to GMOs. This paper considers the interaction in Italy between traditional agriculture and GMOs (particularly in the context of international trade and intellectual property protection), and suggests some political and cultural factors that are perhaps limiting the commercial and agricultural potential of biotechnology in Italy, but at the same time triggering particular consumer preferences, thus facilitating growth in regional and local economies and effective competition in an international market.
A Service-oriented Infrastructure Approach for Mutual Assistance Communities  [PDF]
Ning Gui,Vincenzo De Florio,Hong Sun,Chris Blondia
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Elder people are becoming a predominant aspect of our societies. As such, solutions both efficacious and cost-effective need to be sought. This paper proposes a service-oriented infrastructure approach to this problem. We propose an open and integrated service infrastructure to orchestrate the available resources (smart devices, professional carers, informal carers) to help elder or disabled people. Main characteristic of our design is the explicitly support of dynamically available service providers such as informal carers. By modeling the service description as Semantic Web Services, the service request can automatically be discovered, reasoned about and mapped onto the pool of heterogeneous service providers. We expect our approach to be able to efficiently utilize the available service resources, enrich the service options, and best match the requirements of the requesters.
Spatial and Temporal Variation of Archaeal, Bacterial and Fungal Communities in Agricultural Soils  [PDF]
Michele C. Pereira e Silva, Armando Cavalcante Franco Dias, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Joana Falc?o Salles
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051554
Abstract: Background Soil microbial communities are in constant change at many different temporal and spatial scales. However, the importance of these changes to the turnover of the soil microbial communities has been rarely studied simultaneously in space and time. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we explored the temporal and spatial responses of soil bacterial, archaeal and fungal β-diversities to abiotic parameters. Taking into account data from a 3-year sampling period, we analyzed the abundances and community structures of Archaea, Bacteria and Fungi along with key soil chemical parameters. We questioned how these abiotic variables influence the turnover of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities and how they impact the long-term patterns of changes of the aforementioned soil communities. Interestingly, we found that the bacterial and fungal β-diversities are quite stable over time, whereas archaeal diversity showed significantly higher fluctuations. These fluctuations were reflected in temporal turnover caused by soil management through addition of N-fertilizers. Conclusions Our study showed that management practices applied to agricultural soils might not significantly affect the bacterial and fungal communities, but cause slow and long-term changes in the abundance and structure of the archaeal community. Moreover, the results suggest that, to different extents, abiotic and biotic factors determine the community assembly of archaeal, bacterial and fungal communities.
Roles of Extension Officers to Promote Social Capital in Japanese Agricultural Communities  [PDF]
Kosuke Takemura, Yukiko Uchida, Sakiko Yoshikawa
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091975
Abstract: Social capital has been found to be correlated with community welfare, but it is not easy to build and maintain it. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of professional coordinators of social relationships to create and maintain social capital in a community. We focused on extension officers in Japanese agricultural communities, who help farmers in both technical and social matters. A large nation-wide survey of extension officers as well as two supplementary surveys were conducted. We found that (1) social capital-related activities (e.g., assistance for building organizations among farmers) were particularly effective for solving problems; (2) social capital (trust relationships) among community residents increased their life quality; (3) social capital in local communities was correlated with extension officers' own communication skills and harmonious relationships among their colleagues. In sum, social capital in local communities is maintained by coordinators with professional social skills.
Technical support for Life Sciences communities on a production grid infrastructure  [PDF]
Franck Michel,Johan Montagnat,Tristan Glatard
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Production operation of large distributed computing infrastructures (DCI) still requires a lot of human intervention to reach acceptable quality of service. This may be achievable for scientific communities with solid IT support, but it remains a show-stopper for others. Some application execution environments are used to hide runtime technical issues from end users. But they mostly aim at fault-tolerance rather than incident resolution, and their operation still requires substantial manpower. A longer-term support activity is thus needed to ensure sustained quality of service for Virtual Organisations (VO). This paper describes how the biomed VO has addressed this challenge by setting up a technical support team. Its organisation, tooling, daily tasks, and procedures are described. Results are shown in terms of resource usage by end users, amount of reported incidents, and developed software tools. Based on our experience, we suggest ways to measure the impact of the technical support, perspectives to decrease its human cost and make it more community-specific.
Malaria knowledge and agricultural practices that promote mosquito breeding in two rural farming communities in Oyo State, Nigeria
Oladimeji Oladepo, Grace O Tona, Frederick O Oshiname, Musibau A Titiloye
Malaria Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-91
Abstract: This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of data through the use of eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and the interview of 403 randomly selected farmers using semi-structured questionnaires. These sets of information were supplemented with observations of agricultural practices made in 40 randomly selected farms. The FGD data were recorded on audio-tapes, transcribed and subjected to content analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.Most respondents in the two communities had low level of knowledge of malaria causation as only 12.4% stated that mosquito bite could transmit the disease. Less than half (46.7%) correctly mentioned the signs and symptoms of malaria as high body temperature, body pains, headache, body weakness and cold/fever. The reported main methods for preventing mosquito bites in the farming communities included removal of heaps of cassava tuber peelings (62.3%), bush burning/clearing (54.6%) and clearing of ditches (33.7%). The dumping of cassava tuber peelings which allows the collection of pools of water in the farms storage of peeled cassava tubers soaked in water in uncovered plastic containers, digging of trenches, irrigation of farms and the presence of fish ponds were the observed major agricultural practices that favoured mosquito breeding on the farms. A significant association was observed between respondents' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which promote mosquito breeding. Respondents' wealth quintile level was also seen to be associated with respondents' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which promote mosquito breeding.Farmers' knowledge of malaria causation and signs and symptoms was low, while agricultural practices which favour mosquito breeding in the farming communities were common. There is an urgent need to engage farmers in meaningful dialogue on malaria reduction initiatives including the modification of agricultura
中国农业基础设施的规模效应及其区域差异研究
Research on the Scale Effect and Region Difference Existing in Chinese Agricultural Infrastructure
 [PDF]

曹文明,胡海波,,
- , 2017,
Abstract: 基于动态性视角,运用系统性广义矩估计方法,构建经济增长与财政支出规模理论模型,依据2000-2013 年中国农业基础设施的省级面板数据,考量中国农业基础设施对农业经济增长的规模效应.结果显示:中国农业基础设施存在规模效应,北方地区规模效应明显强于南方地区,南方地区农业基础设施正由规模经济向规模不经济转变.鉴此,应转变农业基础设施重点区域投向与农业基础设施的项目投向,促进农业经济增长。
Using the System GMM and constructing economic growth and fiscal expenditure scale theory model, this paper considers the scale effect of the contribution of the agricultural infrastructure to the agricultural economic growth with the provincial panel data of Chinese gricultural infrastructure collected from 2000 to 2013. The results show that the scale effect exists in the Chinese agricultural infrastructure,and that effect of the northern region is much stronger than that in the south, and the agricultural infrastructure in South China is transforming from the scale economy to the diseconomies of scale. In view of this,the investments in the key area of the agricultural infrastructure and the project investment should be transformed to improve the agricultural economic growth.
Dynamic Edge Effects in Small Mammal Communities across a Conservation-Agricultural Interface in Swaziland  [PDF]
Zachary M. Hurst, Robert A. McCleery, Bret A. Collier, Robert J. Fletcher, Nova J. Silvy, Peter J. Taylor, Ara Monadjem
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074520
Abstract: Across the planet, high-intensity farming has transformed native vegetation into monocultures, decreasing biodiversity on a landscape scale. Yet landscape-scale changes to biodiversity and community structure often emerge from processes operating at local scales. One common process that can explain changes in biodiversity and community structure is the creation of abrupt habitat edges, which, in turn, generate edge effects. Such effects, while incredibly common, can be highly variable across space and time; however, we currently lack a general analytical framework that can adequately capture such spatio-temporal variability. We extend previous approaches for estimating edge effects to a non-linear mixed modeling framework that captures such spatio-temporal heterogeneity and apply it to understand how agricultural land-uses alter wildlife communities. We trapped small mammals along a conservation-agriculture land-use interface extending 375 m into sugarcane plantations and conservation land-uses at three sites during dry and wet seasons in Swaziland, Africa. Sugarcane plantations had significant reductions in species richness and heterogeneity, and showed an increase in community similarity, suggesting a more homogenized small mammal community. Furthermore, our modeling framework identified strong variation in edge effects on communities across sites and seasons. Using small mammals as an indicator, intensive agricultural practices appear to create high-density communities of generalist species while isolating interior species in less than 225 m. These results illustrate how agricultural land-use can reduce diversity across the landscape and that effects can be masked or magnified, depending on local conditions. Taken together, our results emphasize the need to create or retain natural habitat features in agricultural mosaics.
Evaluation of Fadama II Road Infrastructure among Rural Communities in Adamawa State, Nigeria  [cached]
Umar Adamu Madu,John Phoa CL
Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development , 2012,
Abstract: This study analyzed the role played by Fadama II on road development in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The data were obtained from 300 respondents who were randomly selected from Fadama II beneficiaries, non-beneficiaries within Fadama II communities and non-beneficiaries outside Fadama II communities. Based on propensity score matching (PSM) and double difference estimator (DD), the data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and balancing test (t-test). The results showed that 30% of the roads were funded by Fadama II Project. Most of the roads were constructed and rehabilitated after the establishment of the project. Fadama II roads were found to be important for the beneficiaries’ activities. The analysis established that beneficiaries’ travel distance, travel time, waiting time and transport fares were reduced relative to non-beneficiaries. Road development has boosted marketing services for both farm and non-farm economic activities. Spill-over effect also manifests in the adjoining communities.
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