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Estudio de un brote de leptospirosis en Honduras tras el paso del huracán Mitch y potencialidad profiláctica de vax-SPIRAL?
Naranjo,Mariela; Suárez,Miguel; Fernández,Carmen; Amador,Nelly; González,Marta; Batista,Niurka; González,Irma; Valdés,Yolanda; Infante,Juan F.; Sierra,Gustavo;
Vaccimonitor , 2007,
Abstract: hurricane mitch affected central america with vast flooding caused by rainfall resulting in leptospirosis outbreaks. honduras was one of the most affected countries, where a group of researchers worked in the isolation and confirmation of this outbreak. 68 patients from different locations of puerto cortes department with suspicious symptoms of leptospirosis were studied. all of them were taken a blood samples for hemoculture and serum obtaining. microscopic agglutination technique (mat) was used to identify leptospira strains and to evaluate the protection conferred by vax-spiral? (cuban leptospiral vaccine) against challenge with the isolated strain and verify the prevalence of leptospira in kidneys and liver. a predominance of male patients was observed in a group between 15-49 years. municipalities of this department with greater number of cases were san pedro sula, la lima and chamelecón. the most frequent symptoms were: fever, headache, myalgias, general discomfort among others. more than 80% of individuals manifested presence of rodents in their housing and had contact with accumulated water and domestic animals. the isolated strain of the positive hemoculture was from serogrupo icterohaemorrhagiae, very virulent in the animal model used. 100% protection of hamsters immunized with vax-spiral? and challenged with the honduras strain was evidenced while microscopic analysis of immunized animal organs which survived to the challenge at 100% revealed absence of signs characteristic of infection.
Una propuesta metodológica para medir la vulnerabilidad de un territorio ante los peligros naturales: el caso de Honduras tras el paso del huracán Mitch  [cached]
Ahamdanech Zarco, Ismael,Bosque Sendra, Joaquín,Pérez Asensio, Esther
Estudios Geográficos , 2004,
Abstract: When some kind of humanitarian disaster happens, one question comes to our mind. Would it have been possible to avoid the disaster? Other questions also seem reasonable: would it have been possible lighten the consequences?, would the disaster have been so destructive in a developed zone? The vulnerability concept arises related to these questions, as an approach of a disaster effects on populations and territories with different characteristics. Along this work, we develop a methodology to measure the vulnerability concept. This methodology is applied to the Mitch hurricane in Honduras case. [es] Cuando sucede alguna catástrofe humanitaria de cualquier tipo siempre surge, o al menos debería hacerlo, una pregunta: se podría haber evitado?, e inmediatamente aparecen otras, en cualquier caso, se podrían haber atenuado sus consecuencias?, habría causado los mismos da os en una zona desarrollada? Relacionado con estas preguntas aparece el concepto de vulnerabilidad, como una aproximación al efecto de una misma catástrofe sobre poblaciones y territorios con diferentes características. En este trabajo se desarrolla una metodología para medir dicho concepto de vulnerabilidad y se aplica al caso del huracán Mitch en Honduras. [fr] Quand un certain genre de désastre humanitaire se produit, une question vient à notre esprit. Il aurait été possible d'éviter le désastre? D'autres questions semblent également raisonnables : il aurait été possible éclairent les conséquences?, le désastre aurait été si destructif dans une zone développée? Le concept de vulnérabilité surgit connexe à ces questions, comme approche des effets d'un désastre sur des populations et des territoires avec différentes caractéristiques. Le long de ce travail, nous développons une méthodologie pour mesurer le concept de vulnérabilité. Cette méthodologie est appliquée à l'ouragan de Mitch dans le cas du Honduras.
Environmental pesticide exposure in Honduras following hurricane Mitch
Balluz,Lina; Moll,Deborah; Diaz Martinez,Maria Georgina; Merida Colindres,Julio Enrique; Malilay,Josephine;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862001000400004
Abstract: objective: to investigate whether environmental contamination occurred in the wake of hurricane mitch (30-31 october 1998), we conducted a population-based cross-sectional household survey in the barrio of istoca, department of choluteca, honduras. the goals were to evaluate chemical contamination of potable water and the extent of human exposure to chemicals as a result of extensive flooding. methods: the survey consisted of an environmental exposure assessment, which included assaying water and soil samples for contaminants, and taking blood and urine samples from 45 adolescents aged 15-18 years. we also made a subjective questionnaire assessment of 155 households. findings: there was significant contamination of the soil in istoca, but no water contamination in the aftermath of hurricane mitch. the soil levels of chlopyrifos and parathion were 30- and 1000-times higher, respectively, than the environmental data quality level. however, the most striking finding was the detection of elevated levels of chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides in adolescents. toxicological analyses of serum specimens showed that 51% of the samples had elevated levels of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p-dde) (range, 1.16-96.9 ng/ml) (us reference mean = 3.5 ng/ml) in adults. dieldrin levels >0.2 ng/ml were also present in 23% of the serum specimens (serum levels of this analyte in us adolescents are <0.2 ng/ml). of 43 urine samples analysed for organophosphate metabolites, 18.6% contained diethyl phosphate (dep) at levels which were greater that the reference mean of 6.45 mg/g creatinine. we also detected elevated levels of p-nitrophenol (p-np) and of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-tcpy) in 91% and 42% of the samples, respectively. conclusion: the elevated levels of chlorinated pesticides were surprising, since although these substances were banned in honduras 15 years ago it appears that they are still being used in the country. moreover, elevated levels of o
Environmental pesticide exposure in Honduras following hurricane Mitch  [cached]
Balluz Lina,Moll Deborah,Diaz Martinez Maria Georgina,Merida Colindres Julio Enrique
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether environmental contamination occurred in the wake of hurricane Mitch (30-31 October 1998), we conducted a population-based cross-sectional household survey in the barrio of Istoca, Department of Choluteca, Honduras. The goals were to evaluate chemical contamination of potable water and the extent of human exposure to chemicals as a result of extensive flooding. METHODS: The survey consisted of an environmental exposure assessment, which included assaying water and soil samples for contaminants, and taking blood and urine samples from 45 adolescents aged 15-18 years. We also made a subjective questionnaire assessment of 155 households. FINDINGS: There was significant contamination of the soil in Istoca, but no water contamination in the aftermath of hurricane Mitch. The soil levels of chlopyrifos and parathion were 30- and 1000-times higher, respectively, than the Environmental Data Quality Level. However, the most striking finding was the detection of elevated levels of chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides in adolescents. Toxicological analyses of serum specimens showed that 51% of the samples had elevated levels of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (p,p-DDE) (range, 1.16-96.9 ng/ml) (US reference mean = 3.5 ng/ml) in adults. Dieldrin levels >0.2 ng/ml were also present in 23% of the serum specimens (serum levels of this analyte in US adolescents are <0.2 ng/ml). Of 43 urine samples analysed for organophosphate metabolites, 18.6% contained diethyl phosphate (DEP) at levels which were greater that the reference mean of 6.45 mg/g creatinine. We also detected elevated levels of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) and of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCPY) in 91% and 42% of the samples, respectively. CONCLUSION: The elevated levels of chlorinated pesticides were surprising, since although these substances were banned in Honduras 15 years ago it appears that they are still being used in the country. Moreover, elevated levels of organophosphates were detected in the study adolescents even three weeks after the hurricane. Since these chemicals are usually cleared from the body quickly, our data suggest that the adolescents face an ongoing threat from pesticide exposure.
Psychological and psychopathological reactions in Honduras following Hurricane Mitch: implications for service planning
Kohn,Robert; Levav,Itzhak; Donaire,Irma; Machuca,Miguel; Tamashiro,Rita;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892005000900009
Abstract: background: posttraumatic stress disorder (ptsd) and other psychopathological outcomes have not been sufficiently studied in community-based samples in latin america. this study explored various psychopathological reactions and their respective risk factors two months after hurricane mitch struck honduras in october 1998. methods: in the honduran capital of tegucigalpa, 800 respondents age 15 and older were selected from residential areas of high, middle, or low socioeconomic status that had suffered either high or low impact from the devastating effects of the hurricane. the composite international diagnostic interview was used to diagnose ptsd. depression, alcohol misuse, and grief reaction were examined using screening instruments, and the self-reporting questionnaire was used to measure demoralization. the impact of event scale was administered to ascertain the severity of the posttraumatic reaction. results: ptsd was present in 10.6% of the sample. respondents from the high-impact residential areas were more distressed, had higher scores on the grief inventory, and showed greater severity in ptsd symptoms. the respondents from the high-impact residential areas also had higher prevalence rates of major depression, alcoholism, and prior emotional problems. the best explanatory model for the risk of developing ptsd included the degree of exposure based on reported traumatic events, and associated increased demoralization. among the persons with ptsd, its severity was predicted by being female and by the degree of exposure to hurricane-related traumatic events. conclusions: out of a total population of 3.3 million adults (age 15 and older) in honduras, it is estimated that over 492 000 of them may have developed ptsd due to hurricane mitch. adequate health disaster preparedness and response requires full acknowledgement of the multiple psychological effects that victims experience.
Estudio de tolerancia local de la vacuna vax-TyVi en ratas Sprague Dawley
Eligio Sosa Roble,Sergio Sifontes Rodríguez,Juan Francisco Infante Bourzac,Daiyana Díaz Rivero
Vaccimonitor , 2005,
Abstract: La vacuna antitifoídica vax-TyVi consiste en una preparación de polisacárido capsular Vi de Salmonella typhi, el cual es diluido en una solución buffer isotónica solución amortiguador, a laque se le a ade fenol como preservo. Cada dosis de 0,5 mL contiene 25 μg de polisacárido como sustancia activa. En nuestro país el esquema de vacunación contra la fiebre tifoidea con vax-TyVi se aplica a los alumnos de 9-10 a os (5to grado), una 2da dosis a la edad de 12-13 a os (8vo grado) y una 3ra dosis a la edad de 16-17 a os (11no grado). Además, es vacunado el personal de riesgo de Salud Pública y el personal que manipula alimentos. En el presente trabajose describe el ensayo de tolerancia local llevado a cabo con la vacuna vax-TyVi durante su fase de estudios preclínicos, actualmente utilizada en la vacunación contra la fiebre tifoidea en Cuba.Se empleó un total de 170 ratas que fueron tratadas con la vacuna, su placebo (todos los componentes, excepto la materia prima activa), o que no recibieron tratamiento alguno (controles). Se realizaron observaciones clínicas diarias durante todo el ensayo, se determinó el consumo de agua y alimentos y se realizaron investigaciones anatomopatológicas a animales sacrificados 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 y 42 días después de la inoculación. No se observaron muertes ni síntomas de toxicidad; no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los pesos vivos, el consumo de agua ni el de alimentos entre los grupos del ensayo. Tampoco se observaron lesiones anatomopatológicas que indicaran toxicidad por parte del producto inoculado. Los resultados permitieron concluir que la potencialidad de la vacuna vax-TyVi para producir efectos adversos locales es baja.
Mitch Epstein, American Power
Hélène Béade
Transatlantica : Revue d'études Américaines , 2012,
Abstract: La fondation Henri Cartier-Bresson a eu la primeur d’exposer du 4 mai au 24 juillet l’intégralité de la série American Power de Mitch Epstein, troisième volet d’une trilogie amorcée au milieu des années 1990. Cette série, publiée par Steidl en 2009, a re u le prix Pictet (prix international de photographie sur la durabilité environnementale) quelques jours après la catastrophe de Fukushima. Il est encore possible de voir certains clichés à la Tate Modern à Londres jusqu’au 31 mars 2012 da...
Exposition Mitch Epstein : American Power
Géraldine Fasentieux
Transatlantica : Revue d'études Américaines , 2012,
Abstract: Photo reproduite avec l’aimable autorisation de la Fondation HCBEn 2003, le documentariste américain Mitch Epstein re oit une commande du New York Times, qui lui demande de photographier la destruction de Cheshire, un village d’environ 300 habitants dans l’Ohio. Le village, contaminé par la centrale thermique voisine doit être abandonné et rayé de la carte en raison d’une catastrophe écologique. L’AEP (American Electric Power), propriétaire de la centrale, dédommage les habitants afin que ceu...
Prueba toxicológica de dosis única para la vacuna antileptospirósica vax-SPIRAL en ratones Single-dose toxicological test for leptospirosis vaccine vax-SPIRAL in rats
Juan Francisco Infante Bourzac,Sergio Sifontes Rodríguez,Martha González González,Viviana Pérez Amat
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2005,
Abstract: Se realizó la prueba toxicológica de dosis única para la vacuna antileptospirósica vax-SPIRAL en ratones. No se encontraron síntomas clínicos de toxicidad y las diferencias entre las variables evaluadas no fueron importantes desde el punto de vista biológico. The single-dose toxicological test for the leptospirosis vaccine vax-SPIRAL was made in rats. No clinical toxicity symptoms were found. The differences between the evaluated variables were not important from the biological point of view.
Demoralization and the longitudinal course of PTSD following Hurricane Mitch  [cached]
Robert Kohn
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2013,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Numerous studies of disasters have used measures of non-specific distress as outcome measures. The utility of these measures as predictive of the long-term outcome of disasters has remained unclear, in particular the relationship with PTSD. This study examines whether demoralization is predictive and a useful concept to examine the long-term outcome of disaster related PTSD. Methods: The 1998 Hurricane Mitch that impacted Honduras was examined two-months (n = 800) and two-years following the disaster in a longitudinal community-based sample of 604 adults. Respondents were selected from a stratified sample in Tegucigalpa based on exposure and social economic status. PTSD diagnosed using the CIDI module at both periods of time. Demoralization was measured using the PERI-D at 2-months post-disaster. Results: The PERI-D, increased demoralization, was significantly associated with PTSD at two-month and two-years. In addition, increased demoralization was associated with increased risk of PTSD chronicity. Decreased demoralization was associated with PTSD remission. New onset PTSD was associated increased demoralization; however, the finding was not appreciated after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions: Demoralization can be measured using a simple screening questionnaire that may be a useful in identifying individuals who may be at increased risk for PTSD in the short-term, as well as in the long-term following a disaster.
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