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Ferro Content in Soil and Mustard Leave (Brassica junjea) Treated by Agricultural Waste on the Biosensitizer-Iron Photoreduction  [cached]
Johnly Alfreds Rorong,Sudiarso,Jeany Polii-Mandang,Edi Suryanto
Jurnal Tanah Tropika , 2012,
Abstract: Atom absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) had been used to analyzed Ferro in the soil and in the green mustard leaf (Brassica junjea treated with phenolics extract from the agricultural wastes of clove leaf (Eugenia aromatica),rice straw (Oryza sativa) and water hyacinth leaf (Eichhornia crassipessolms), in which the phenolics as the electron donor on the biosensitizer – iron photoreduction. Phenolics extract was obtained from varions of aquadest and 40;60; 80%methanol. The solution without extract was used as sensitizer, while the extract without illumination was used as control. Green mustard was packed into medium polybag within it added by 2,000 mg kg-1. Soil type as sample was volcanic soil in various categories, such as:soil-extract, soil NPK fertilizer extract, and soil control.Results of Ferro analysis in the clove leafs treated with 80% methanol indicated the highest increasing Fe2+ of 22.94 mg kg-1. Rice straw treated with 60% methanol showed the highest increasing Fe2+ of 34.5 mg kg-1. The water hyacinth leafs treated with 60% methanol obtained the highest increasing Fe2+ of 17.67 mg kg-1. Fe2+ concentration at soil-clove leafs had the highest increasing of Fe2+ production for 5.6 mg kg-1. Its concentration at soil NPK fertilizer extract water hyacinth leafs showed the highest increasing of Fe2+ production for 13.39 mg kg-1. Highest concentration of Fe2+ in the green mustard at soil NPK fertilizer extract clove leafs was 176.37 mg kg-1. Various concentrations and various soil categories resulted in the highest increasing Fe2+ concentration in each agricultural waste extract.
INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia Crassipes)  [cached]
Singh Ranu, Agarwal Pragya and Dhagat Monika
International Journal of Microbiology Research , 2012,
Abstract: Water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] is a noxious aquatic weed. In India,it has infested more than 200,000 ha of water surface. During the course of present investigation it was proposed to make an extensive, planned and systematic survey of fungal pathogens that destroy the water hyacinth from the ponds of M.P. The study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of two or more fungi for integrated management of water hyacinth. Results clearly indicate that except Alternaria eichhorniae all the pathogens are compatible to each other. In vivo the lesion diameters were greater on water hyacinth leaves when combination of pathogens were used than individual pathogens. The Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata and Fusarium pallidoroseum combination resulted in maximum disease development followed by A. alternata with C. lunata, A. alternata with F. pallidoroseum and C. lunata with F. pallidoroseum. Thus, it can be concluded that better management of the weed can be achieved by using combination of pathogens.
Bioactivity and biochemical analysis of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)  [PDF]
Bikash Baral,Geeta Shrestha Vaidya,Nabin Bhattarai
Botanica Orientalis: Journal of Plant Science , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/botor.v8i0.5556
Abstract: Water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes ) is an invasive aquatic weed causing serious threats to water ecosystems throughout the world. Recently, considerable attention has been given at harvesting the plant for practical uses. An experiment on the bioactivity of water hyacinth was conducted using the soxhlet extraction (hot method) and cold percolation method in chloroform and ethanol in order to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the plant. Plant samples were also analyzed for the presence of major pharmacologically active compounds. The antimicrobial assay was performed using well diffusion method against nine different clinical bacterial strains and six phytopathogenic fungal strains. The chloroform hot extract showed activity against 22.22% (Zone of Inhibition, ZOI < 13mm) bacteria and 66.66% (ZOI < 12mm) fungi; while the cold extract showed activity against 50% (ZOI < 13mm) fungi, but no activity against bacteria. Similarly, the ethanol hot extract showed activity against 77.77% (ZOI < 19mm) bacteria and 66.66% (ZOI < 20mm) fungi, while the cold extract showed activity against 77.77% (ZOI < 10mm) bacteria and 50% (ZOI < 14mm) fungi. The ethanolic hot and cold extract proved to be far better than the chloroform fraction showing more antibacterial activity, while they share the same value and possess same effectiveness against the different fungi. Chemical analysis indicated that the major components in these extracts were saponins, polyoses, alkaloid salts, and reducing compounds. The present study showed that the devastating aquatic weed, with strong antimicrobial potentials and presence of biologically active phytochemicals, may be useful for developing alternative compounds to treat infectious diseases caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/botor.v8i0.5556 Botanica Orientalis – Journal of Plant Science (2011) 8: 33-39
Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Hydrochloric Acid by Acid Extracts of Eichhornia Crassipes
International Journal of Materials and Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijmc.20120204.08
Abstract: Acid extracts from leaves and roots of Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) were tested as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in hydrochloric acid solutions using a gasometric technique. The effects of temperature and concentration on the inhibition performance of the extracts have been studied. The results show that both the leaf and root extracts functioned as effective corrosion inhibitors, with the leaf extracts exerting a greater effect. Fitting of the experimental data to the Arrhenius and transition state equations revealed that the organic constituents of the extracts were physically adsorbed on the corroding mild steel surface. The adsorption characteristics of selected extract constituents were theoretically evaluated by molecular dynamics simulations in the framework of the density functional theory and confirm distinct adsorption of the extract organic matter on the mild steel surface. Our findings provide ready eco-friendly application for the problematic fresh water weed Eichhornia crassipes.
Allelopathic Effects of Water Hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes]  [PDF]
Sanaa M. M. Shanab,Emad A. Shalaby,David A. Lightfoot,Hany A. El-Shemy
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013200
Abstract: Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms is an invasive weed known to out-compete native plants and negatively affect microbes including phytoplankton. The spread and population density of E. crassipes will be favored by global warming. The aim here was to identify compounds that underlie the effects on microbes. The entire plant of E. crassipes was collected from El Zomor canal, River Nile (Egypt), washed clean, then air dried. Plant tissue was extracted three times with methanol and fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The crude methanolic extract and five fractions from TLC (A–E) were tested for antimicrobial (bacteria and fungal) and anti-algal activities (green microalgae and cyanobacteria) using paper disc diffusion bioassay. The crude extract as well as all five TLC fractions exhibited antibacterial activities against both the Gram positive bacteria; Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus faecalis; and the Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were not inhibited by either E. crassipes crude extract nor its five fractions. In contrast, Candida albicans (yeast) was inhibited by all. Some antialgal activity of the crude extract and its fractions was manifest against the green microalgae; Chlorella vulgaris and Dictyochloropsis splendida as well as the cyanobacteria; Spirulina platensis and Nostoc piscinale. High antialgal activity was only recorded against Chlorella vulgaris. Identifications of the active antimicrobial and antialgal compounds of the crude extract as well as the five TLC fractions were carried out using gas chromatography combined with mass spectroscopy. The analyses showed the presence of an alkaloid (fraction A) and four phthalate derivatives (Fractions B–E) that exhibited the antimicrobial and antialgal activities.
Controle químico do aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes)
Neves, T.;Foloni, L.L.;Pitelli, R.A.;
Planta Daninha , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-83582002000400011
Abstract: six assays were carried out under greenhouse conditions to study the efficacy of diquat, glyphosate, sulfosate, imazapyr, 2,4-d, metsulfuron-methyl, sulfentrazone and imazapic in controlling eichhornia crassipes (mart.) solms. the same co2 pressurized sprayer was used in all assays. diquat , glyphosate , imazapyr and sulfentrazone were studied in the first assay. diquat and glyphosate were highly efficient in controlling e. crassipes. the symptoms developed faster in diquat-treated plants. the symptoms promoted by imazapyr and sulfentrazone were progressive all over the experimental period, suggesting that higher control intensity could be achieved obtained during a longer observation time. waterhyacinth control was studied in the second assay, using diquat, glyphosate, imazapyr, imazapic, 2,4-d, metsulfuron-methyl, and sulphosate. diquat, glyphosate, imazapyr and 2,4-d showed good control of waterhyacinth the control promoted by diquat and 2,4-d showed quick results. imazapyr showed slow control action. under the experimental conditions, imazapic, sulfosate and metsulfuron-methyl did not show good control of this aquatic weed. waterhyacinth control promoted by imazapyr and glyphosate sprayed at 3, 6, and 9 hours before simulated rain were studied. glyphosate was more efficient in controlling e. crassipes than imazapyr. for glyphosate, the interval between spraying and rain did not affect the final control (thirty days after spraying), but the development of the symptom was faster at higher doses. in the fourth assay, waterhyacinth control was studied using diquat sprayed during the day or at night. the herbicide was efficient in controlling waterhyacinth at 1,0 l ha-1 or higher. night spraying showed faster symptoms than day-spraying, but the symptons were similar in the final control. in the fifth assay, diquat's waterhyacinth control efficacy was studied. it was sprayed during the day or night, at intervals of 30, 60 and 120 minutes between spraying and simulated
Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) toxicity through aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes  [PDF]
Kiran Gupta
International Journal of Environment , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ije.v3i2.10500
Abstract: A study was performed for biomonitoring the toxicity of lead (Pb) in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). To assess phytotoxic response of the plant against Pb chlorophyll content, protein content and NR activity has been observed while genotoxiocity was analyzed by study of mitotic index and micronuclei (MNCs) as genotoxic end point. For this purpose, Plants of Eichhornia crassipes were exposed to various concentrations of Pb (0.0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 ppm) for 2 and 7 days durations. Pb induced phytotoxicity was evident by reduction in chlorophyll content, protein content and nitrate reductase activity (NR activity). All aforesaid parameters decreased in dose-duration dependent manner. Pb treatment also led to dose-duration dependent inhibition of mitotic index (MI) and induction of micronuclei in root meristematic cells of E. crassipes . Decline in MI reflects cytotoxicity that directly affects root growth and elongation. Pb may cause cell death, which may appear as decline in MI. Micronucleus induction involving the mitotic spindle and consequent production of laggard chromosomes during anaphase and loss of a complete chromosome. The present investigations revealed that E. crassipes exposed to Pb experienced phyto-genotoxicity, therefore it can be utilized as biomonitoring tool for toxicity of Pb assessment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10500 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 12-19
Ecological and socio-economic utilization of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart Solms)
N Jafari
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2010,
Abstract: Around the world, there is an increasing trend in areas of land, surface waters and groundwater affected by contamination from industrial, military and agricultural activities due to either ignorance, lack of vision, or carelessness. In the last three decades a special interest in the world is aroused by the potential of using the biological methods in the waste water treatment. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) constitutes an important part of an aquatic ecosystem. Water hyacinth as a very promising plant with tremendous application in wastewater treatment is already proved. Water hyacinth is used to treat waste water from dairies, tanneries, sugar factories, pulp and paper industries, palm oil mills, distilleries, etc. All the efforts of scientists and technocrats all over the world to eliminate these weeds by chemical and biological means have met with little success. The water hyacinth have been found to have potential for use as phytoremediation, paper, organic fertilizer, biogas production, human food, fiber, animal fodder.
The feeding activity of Colossoma macropomum larvae (tambaqui) in fishponds with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) fertilizer
Sipaúba-Tavares, LH.;Braga, FMS.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842007000300010
Abstract: analysis of macrophyte water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) as an organic fertilizer of colossoma macropomum (tambaqui) larvae in ponds is provided. water hyacinth produce an organic fertilizer at the ratio of 100 g.m-2 in tambaqui ponds. two groups of 5,000 larvae were transferred to two fishponds with and without water hyacinth fertilizer and reared until day 43. the fertilized pond evidenced more plankton abundance during the entire production period when compared with the control pond (p < 0.001). the phytoplankton community in the pond was not significantly different than in gut contents (p > 0.05) in both ponds (with and without organic fertilizer). fish larvae failed to show any preference or selectivity in relation to the different algae (p > 0.01) in the pond, but exhibited high ingestion selectivity for zooplankton (p < 0.05). application of fertilizer increased (p < 0.05) the abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton in the treatment pond. since water hyacinth fertilizer is quite cheap and easily available, it may be conveniently used to enhance fish yield in ponds.
Lead remotion of automotive batteries recycling industry wastewater by the aquatic macrofit eichhornia crassipes  [PDF]
Marlise Schoenhals,Vanderlei Abele de Oliveira,Franciele Aní Caovilla Follador
Engenharia Ambiental : Pesquisa e Tecnologia , 2009,
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the lead absorption by the aquatic macrofit Eichhornia crassipes in the wastewater treatment of an automotive batteries recycling industry located at county of Paula de Freitas, state of Paraná, Brazil. For that, the relation of humid green mass of water hyacinth by solution volume was optimized and, in follow the method was employed in the industrial wastewater treatment. The results permitted to conclude that the lead and other metals (Fe, Cu, Zn e Cr) absorption efficiency depends straightly of the water hyacinth mass (g) by solution volume (L), being 40 and 50 g L-1 the more efficient relations showing equivalents results in wastewaters containing until 30 mg L-1 of contaminant. Factors as pH and temperature in the analyzed values no had an expressive influence. For the treatment of wastewater contaminated by lead of the small and mean industries which recycle automotive batteries, the utilization of water hyacinth is practicable in the optimized conditions. It′s necessary a refined study for the definition of the best alternative of treatment/final disposal of the water hyacinth biomass after the wastewater treatment.Key-words: green house, composting, stabilization lagoon, heavy metal.
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