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Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: The South African problem
Hermanus A. Rossouw,Catharina C. Grant,Margaretha Viljoen
South African Journal of Science , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v108i5/6.907
Abstract: Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are on the increase worldwide.Overweight and obesity increase the risk for the development of non-communicable diseases during childhood and adolescence, and predispose the individual to the development of overweight, obesity,ardiovascular disease, and metabolic and other disorders in adulthood.In Africa the number of overweight or obese children has doubled since 1990. In South Africa,overweight and obesity in children and adolescents are on the increase, but the prevalencevaries with age, gender and population group. These differences are important when intervention programmes and policies are considered. South Africa faces a double burden of disease where undernutrition and overweight or obesity are found in the same populations, in the same households and even in the same children. Malnutrition is a major contributor to the double burden of disease in South African children and adolescents.
Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents  [cached]
El Mouzan Mohammad,Foster Peter,Al Herbish Abdullah,Al Salloum Abdullah
Annals of Saudi Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background and Objective : There is limited information on overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to establish the national prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. Methods : The 2005 Saudi reference data set was used to calculate the body mass index (BMI) for children aged 5 to 18 years. Using the 2007 WHO reference, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity were defined as the proportion of children with a BMI standard deviation score more than +1, +2 and +3, respectively. The 2000 CDC reference was also used for comparison. Results : There were 19 317 healthy children and adolescents from 5 to 18 years of age, 50.8% of whom were boys. The overall prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity in all age groups was 23.1%, 9.3% and 2%, respectively. A significantly lower prevalence of overweight (23.8 vs 20.4; P < .001) and obesity (9.5 vs 5.7; P < .001) was found when the CDC reference was used. Conclusions : This report establishes baseline national prevalence rates for overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Saudi children and adolescents, indicating intermediate levels between developing and industrialized countries. Measures should be implemented to prevent further increases in the numbers of overweight school-age children and adolescents and the associated health hazards.
Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Maria del Mar Bibiloni,Antoni Pons,Josep A. Tur
ISRN Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/392747
Abstract: Objective. To review the extant literature on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents (10–19 years old) of both sexes. Design. The search was carried out using Medline and Scopus considering articles published from the establishment of the databanks until June 7, 2012. Data on the prevalence of children being overweight and obese from the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) website was also reviewed. Only original articles and one National Health Report were considered. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. Results. Twenty-five of these studies were nationally representative, and ten countries were represented only by regional data. Conclusions. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents worldwide is high, and obesity is higher among boys. The IOTF criterion is the most frequently used method to classify adolescents as overweighed or obese in public health research. 1. Introduction The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has widely increased worldwide [1, 2], making it one of the most common chronic disorders in this age group and in adulthood. The use of body mass index (BMI) for age to define being overweight and obese in children and adolescents is well established for both clinical and public health applications, because of their feasibility under clinical settings and in epidemiological studies [3, 4]. In children and adolescents, the natural increases in BMI that occur with age necessitate the use of age-sex-specific thresholds. The most widely used growth charts are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-2000) [5], the International Task Force (IOTF) [6], and the 2007 growth references for 5 to 19 year olds produced by the World Health Organization (WHO-2007) [7]. The CDC-2000 growth charts were developed to evaluate the nutritional status of US children and were originated from five cross-sectional representative surveys carried out in the US between 1963 and 1994. These growth charts are routinely applied to identify children and adolescents with a BMI greater than the 85th or 95th percentiles following the advice of the US Expert Committee on Childhood Obesity [8]. However, the appropriateness of an American dataset for defining overweight in young people from other countries is questionable [9]. The IOTF reference also uses age-sex-specific BMI percentiles, and overweight and obesity definition corresponds to an adult BMI of 25 and 30?kg/m2, respectively, and reflects values in children tracking to overweight and obesity in adults [6]. This reference is based
Obesity and Overweight Prevalence Among Adolescents With Disabilities  [cached]
James H. Rimmer, PhD,Kiyoshi Yamaki, PhD,Brienne M. Davis, MPH,Edward Wang, PhD
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2011,
Abstract: IntroductionWe examined overweight and obesity prevalence among adolescents with disabilities by disability type (physical vs cognitive) and demographic factors (sex, age, race/ethnicity).MethodsParents (N = 662) of adolescents aged 12 to 18 years with disabilities from 49 states responded to an online survey from September 2008 through March 2009.ResultsPrevalence of obesity among adolescents with physical and cognitive disabilities (17.5%) was significantly higher compared with that among adolescents without disabilities (13.0%). Obesity prevalence was higher among males, 18-year-olds, and youths with cognitive disabilities than among females, younger adolescents, and youths with physical disabilities.ConclusionThe higher prevalence of obesity among youths with disabilities compared with nondisabled youths, particularly in certain subgroups, requires further examination in future surveillance research.
Obesity, overweight, screen time and physical activity in Mexican adolescents
Morales-Ruán,María del Carmen; Hernández-Prado,Bernardo; Gómez-Acosta,Luz María; Shamah-Levy,Teresa; Cuevas-Nasu,Lucía;
Salud Pública de México , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342009001000016
Abstract: objective: to determine whether screen time and physical activity is related to overweight or obesity in adolescents. material and methods: cross-sectional design. adolescents aged 10 to 19 were included in the mexican national health and nutrition survey 2006 (ensanut 2006). the dependent variable was overweight or obesity; the independent variable was screen time. a logistic regression model was created to estimate the relationship of overweight and obesity to various factors, including screen time, physical activity, study vs. no study, age, sex, indigenous ethnicity, alcohol consumption and tobacco use. results: a total of 18 784 adolescents were included. a positive relation between screen time and overweight and obesity was found. conclusions: screen time is associated with overweight and obesity in mexican adolescents.
Parental Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Adolescents: A National Study  [cached]
Aazam Doustmohammadian,Morteza Abdollahi,Dolly Bondarianzadeh,Anahita Houshiarrad
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: Overweight among adolescents is not only an important public health problem but also a problem affecting economic growth in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the parental determinants of overweight and obesity in Iranian adolescents at national level.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the Comprehensive Study on Household Food Consumption Patterns and Nutritional Status of IR Iran during 2001-2003. In adolescents, anthropometric indices were defined based on the CDC 2000 cut-off points for age and gender-specific body mass index (BMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaire. Among the 7158 participating households, data on 7908 adolescents aged 11-19 years (3750 girls and 4158 boys) was analyzed.Findings: The prevalence of overweight (85–94th percentile) in boys and girls was 6.2%, and 8.7%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity (≥95th percentile) among boys and girls was similar (3.3%). Parents’ weight status, father’s job and parents’ education showed significant association with weight status in adolescents. Logistic regression analysis showed that parental overweight and obesity, parental education and father’s job were the main parental determinants of overweight and obesity in Iranian adolescents.
Overweight and obesity in public schools' adolescents from Fortaleza: an exploratory study
Marta Maria Coelho Damasceno,Ana Roberta Vilarouca da Silva,Hérica Cristina Alves de Vasconcelos,Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo
Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing , 2007,
Abstract: Nowadays overweight is a condition that prepares adolescents to several chronical diseases in the future. Thus, the objective was to find out overweight and obesity cases in public schools' adolescents from Fortaleza. 720 students between 14 and 19 years of age were investigated in the months of February and March, 2006, by means of a form application in which socio-demographic features, weight, height, Body Mass Rate (BMR) were recorded. Results highlighted that 65.8% were between 14-17 years old, 81% attended highschool, 59.3% belonged to the female gender and 12.9% had an above normal BMR. Out of these, 10.3% were overweight, 2.6% were obese, 7.6% belonged to the female gender and 8.4% were between 14-17 years old. Overweight/obesity predominance was higher in those with lower income, although a statistically significant association was not found (p=0.342). However, there was a significant association between BMR and age (p= 0.003). It was inferred that the raise of overweight cases among the investigated may be related to the adoption of a predisposing lifestyle. In this context, the nurse should implement intervention and prevention actions such as education in health and early detection of overweight cases.
Overweight and obesity in public schools' adolescents from Fortaleza: an exploratory study
Marta Maria Coelho Damasceno 1,Ana Roberta Vilarouca da Silva 2,Hérica Cristina Alves de Vasconcelos 3,Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo 4
Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing , 2007,
Abstract: Nowadays overweight is a condition that prepares adolescents to several chronical diseases in the future. Thus, the objective was to find out overweight and obesity cases in public schools' adolescents from Fortaleza. 720 students between 14 and 19 years of age were investigated in the months of February and March, 2006, by means of a form application in which socio-demographic features, weight, height, Body Mass Rate (BMR) were recorded. Results highlighted that 65.8% were between 14-17 years old, 81% attended highschool, 59.3% belonged to the female gender and 12.9% had an above normal BMR. Out of these, 10.3% were overweight, 2.6% were obese, 7.6% belonged to the female gender and 8.4% were between 14-17 years old. Overweight/obesity predominance was higher in those with lower income, although a statistically significant association was not found (p=0.342). However, there was a significant association between BMR and age (p= 0.003). It was inferred that the raise of overweight cases among the investigated may be related to the adoption of a predisposing lifestyle. In this context, the nurse should implement intervention and prevention actions such as education in health and early detection of overweight cases.
Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents of Urban AND Rural Area of Surat, Gujarat  [cached]
Alok Parekh,Malay Parekh,Divyeshkumar Vadasmiya
National Journal of Medical Research , 2012,
Abstract: Background: The present study in prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban & rural adolescents in Surat (Gujarat, India). Methods: The data were derived from cross-sectional sampling of children, 176 in rural and 213 in urban, aged 14–16 years doing study in government schools in year of 2009. Age, gender and body mass index (BMI) were used to define overweight and obesity. Result: The prevalence of obesity increased significantly from 12.8% in rural to 14.6% in urban (p<0.01), whereas underweight decreased from 13.6% to 4.6% (p<0.001). There was a significantly higher risk of being overweight and obese in urban than rural, after adjusting for age, gender. Urban Males had significantly higher increase in prevalence and risk of being overweight and obese. Conclusion: This study showed an increasing in prevalence of overweight and obesity in urban adolescents especially with male gender, calling for an urgent need for immediate and targeted preventive measures. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000): 325-329]
Comparison of three criteria for overweight and obesity classification in brazilian adolescents  [cached]
Pelegrini Andreia,Silva Diego Augusto Santos,Gaya Adroaldo Cezar Araujo,Petroski Edio Luiz
Nutrition Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-5
Abstract: Objective To describe and compare the nutritional status of adolescents using three criteria for nutritional status classification (Conde & Monteiro, International Obesity Task Force - IOTF and Word Health Organization - WHO), to analyze the correlation between these three criteria as for the overweight proportion, and to investigate whether factors associated with overweight and obesity differ among the three criteria. Methods Demographic (gender, age, geographic area) and anthropometric (body weight, height) variables were measured in 33.728 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years. The following criteria were investigated: IOTF (2000); Conde & Monteiro (2006); and WHO (2007). Results The overall overweight prevalence was 20.6% for the Conde & Monteiro criteria; 15.3% for the IOTF criteria and 20.1% for the WHO criteria. Both for boys and girls, the estimated overweight prevalence using the Conde & Monteiro and WHO criteria were higher than that using the IOTF criteria. Higher concordance was found between the Conde & Monteiro (2006) and WHO (2007) criteria for all age groups. Regarding associated factors, similar associations were found for the three criteria for higher BMI classification: being male, 11–12 and 13–14 years of age and living in the Midwestern, Southeastern and Southern regions of Brazil. Conclusion The criteria for BMI classification estimate overweight prevalence in a different way, and the criteria proposed by Conde & Monteiro resulted in higher prevalence in both sexes. Higher concordance between the Conde & Monteiro and WHO criteria was found for all age groups. The groups most vulnerable to showing overweight and obesity for the three criteria for BMI classification were males, age 11–12 and 13–14 years, and living in the Midwestern, Southeastern and Southern regions of Brazil. Overweight and obesity are considered a public health problem prevalent among adolescents in Brazil, regardless of the criteria adopted.
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