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Cutaneous manifestations of HIV/AIDS: Part I
Ncoza Dlova, Anisa Mosam
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can lead to a variety of clinical cutaneous manifestations. These cutaneous disorders occur universally during the course of HIV infection. Cutaneous manifestations of HIV are very diverse. The course and clinical presentation of HIV in individuals who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is completely different from that in those who do not. Many of the HIV cutaneous presentations seen in South Africa become chronic and progressive. There is a marked reduction in the incidence of opportunistic infections and neoplasms in North America, Western Europe and Australia, where there is access to HAART. Approximately 90% of patients will develop one or more skin diseases during the course of their illness. It is therefore crucial that health professionals become familiar with and are able to recognise the various skin manifestations of HIV Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine Vol. 5 (4) 2004: 12-17
Mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV infection  [cached]
Shobhana A,Guha Subhasish,Neogi D
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2004,
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with various mucocutaneous features, which may be the first pointer towards the existence of HIV infection. This study was done to note the different mucocutaneous lesions present in the HIV population in eastern India. METHODS: Four hundred and ten HIV seropositive patients attending the outpatient and inpatient departments were included in the study. RESULTS: Out of 410 HIV positives, 40% had mucocutaneous involvement at presentation. The mean age of the study population was 29 years and male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The common mucocutaneous morbidities included oral candidiasis (36%), dermatophytosis and gingivitis (13% each), herpes zoster (6%), herpes simplex and scabies (5% each). A striking feature, noted in 36% males, was straightening of hairs. Genital herpes was the commonest genital ulcer disease. Lesions associated with declining immunity included oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia and herpes zoster with median CD4 counts of 98, 62 and 198/ L respectively. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of mucocutaneous manifestations and associated STDs help in better management of HIV/AIDS.
Mucocutaneous manifestations in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection  [cached]
Mendiratta Vibhu,Mittal Saurabh,Jain Arpita,Chander Ram
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2010,
Abstract: Skin is one of the most frequently involved organs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and mucocutaneous manifestations may be one of the earliest markers of AIDS. The prevalence of cutaneous abnormalities in HIV approaches nearly 90%. Mucocutaneous manifestations may also act as a prognostic marker of HIV infection. Children are increasingly being affected by HIV infection and it is important to realize the presence of the infection early in the disease process as their immune status is not mature enough to handle the stress of various infections. Skin manifestations can serve as early markers and prognostic indicators of HIV infection. This review highlights the epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, and the mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV infection in children.
Coinfection of cutaneous leishmaniasis and hiv infection
Master Administrator, L Adusei, L Hanson-nortey, J.H Addy
Ghana Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: ered in some parts of Ghana. The case of an HIV infected patient presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is discussed. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was con-firmed by histology. Also highlighted is the fact that this is the first reported case of dual infection of HIV and Leishmaniasis in Ghana. The possibility of rapid spread to other members of the community, both immunecompetent and immunesuppressed in view of the large numbers of organisms present in the lesion is discussed.
Otolaryngologic manifestations of HIV infection  [cached]
B Viswanatha
Journal of Hematological Malignancies , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/jhm.v2n2p33
Abstract: HIV is a retrovirus on the Lentivirus subfamily. The virus binds to the CD4 receptor on the T helper lymphocytes. Fusion of the viral and cell membranes allows entry of the viral core into the cell. The reverse transcriptase enzyme, a protein carried by the virus that allows transcription of ribonucleic acid (RNA) into deoxyribonucleic acid, then mediates transcription of the viral RNA genome into viral DNA. Viral integrase then facilitates incorporation of the viral DNA into the host genome. The viral DNA is then transcribed into multiple RNA copies by the host cell. This newly created RNA is translated into viral proteins. Translation of the viral RNA sequences results in protein precursors that undergo proteolytic processing by a viral protease that liberates the functional viral proteins [1, 2]. As the virus infects and damages helper T cells, both humoral and cell-mediated immunity are impaired. Defective chemotaxis and phagocytosis causes increased vulnerability to infections such as candidiasis and toxoplasmosis. A lack of T-cell stimulation of B cells results in decreased immunoglobulin production and a vulnerability to encapsulated organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria. These problems are compounded by impaired neutrophil function [2].
Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis: Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)  [cached]
Chaudhary Raju,Bilimoria Freny,Katare S
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2008,
Abstract: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoal parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. Immune suppression caused by HIV infection is an important factor for atypical presentation and widespread progression of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Diffuse (disseminated) cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection is emerging as an extremely serious new disease. A 38-year-old HIV-positive man presented with a 12-month history of a progressive papule and nodular eruptions on face and extremities with infiltrations of nasal and oral mucosa. We report the case due to its atypical, widespread muco-cutaneous presentation masquerading as lepromatous leprosy.
Gender and Oral Manifestations of HIV Infection Among Adult Nigerians
O N Obuekwe, A N Onunu
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2006,
Abstract: Oral manifestations were studied in 305 adult Nigerians with HIV infection. Data collected were demographic (age, sex, marital status, educational status and occupation) and clinical (mode of transmission, general manifestations and oral manifestations of HIV infection). The chi- square test was used in test for significance between variables and p values less than 0.05 were regarded as significant. A total of 47.5% patients had oral manifestations. There were 67.6% females and 32.4% males (p <0.001). The patients ranged in age from 19-70 years. Heterosexual contact with multiple sex partners was the most common mode of transmission of infection (42.9% in females and 74.5% in males, p < 0.05). Candidiasis was the most common oral manifestation (78.6% in females and 78.7% in males p >0.05). The study concluded that similar demographic and clinical characteristics were observed in the occurrence of oral manifestations of HIV infection in both male and female Nigerians. African Journal of Reproductive Health Vol. 10 (2) 2006: pp. 81-89
Prevalence of cutaneous lesions , route of infection and distribution of lesions in HIV positive patients in Isfahan province in 1385
Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh,Elaheh Haftbaradaran,Katayoon Tayeri
Dermatology and Cosmetic , 2010,
Abstract: "nBackground and aim: it has been estimated that 70000-100000 cases of HIV infection exist in Iran. The main route of transmission is intravenous drug (IV) injection. Rapid spread of this disease necessitates its prompt diagnosis. About 90% of HIV infected patients express cutaneous manifestations; therefore, recognition of these symptoms may be of help in early diagnosis."n"nMethods: HIV infected patients with suspected skin lesion were referred to Skin Disease and Leishmaniasis Research Center and were examined by an intern contributed in the study. All the information were gathered in data code sheets. Then, all of the patients were visited by the dermatologist for complementary examinations and the results including lesion type, location and duration were recorded in the check list."n"nResults: fifty persons were examined and 42 patients were selected. Prevalence of dermatologic manifestations was as follows: herpes zoster in 23.8%, seborrheic dermatitis in 14.3%, hyperpigmentation in 19%, oropharyngeal candidiasis in 14.3%, folliculitis in 14.3% dermatophytosis in 4.7%, wart in 4.7%, Kaposi’s sarcoma in 2.3%, and drug eruption in 2.3% , 75% of patient who had hyperpigmentation were infected by their sexual partner and 25% via IV injection. 33% of patient who had folliculitis were infected via IV injection, 33% through blood transfusion and 33% by sexual relationship."n"nConclusion: According to the results of this study, paying attention to cutaneous signs HIV/AIDS patients, their early detection and diagnostic and therapeutic measures for them are advocated.
Disseminated Cutaneous Cryptococcosis In A Patient With HIV Infection  [cached]
Damisetty Rajetha,Janaki C,Sentamilselvi G,Janaki V R
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2004,
Abstract: Cryptococcosis is one the emerging mycoses, given the context of the ongoing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Disseminated cutanous cryptococcosis with obvious involvement of the central nervous system is described here, with the aim of emphasizing the importance of histopathological examination in the diagnosis of HIV related dermatoses and to highlight the fact that cutaneous cryptococcsis may be a harbinger of neurological involvement.
Unresponsive cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection: Report of three cases  [cached]
Soni Prasoon,Prasad Neha,Khandelwal Kanika,Ghiya Bhikam
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2011,
Abstract: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector borne disease caused by various species of Leishmania parasite. CL is endemic in the Thar desert of Rajasthan state and Himachal Pradesh in India. Immune suppression caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with atypical clinical presentation of CL which responds poorly to the standard treatment and causes frequent relapses. We are reporting three cases of localized and disseminated CL due to Leishmania tropica which failed to respond to conventional intralesional/intramuscular sodium stibogluconate (SSG) injections. Initially, we did not think of HIV infection because CL is endemic in this region. When patients did not respond to SSG injections, we performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for HIV and they turned out to be HIV positive. Our report showed that CL is emerging as an opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS and may be the first manifestation in HIV positive patients in an endemic area.
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