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Variación de la Tasa de Enraizamiento Asociada al Número de Subcultivo y Diámetro de Microtallos de Casta?o Castanea sativa Mill
Ríos L,Darcy; Avilés M,Fabiola; Sánchez-Olate,Manuel; Escobar R,René; Pereira C,Guillermo;
Agricultura Técnica , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072005000300003
Abstract: this study had the objective of determining the subculture number and the shoot basal diameter that produces the best rooting rate ex vitro of chestnut, castanea sativa mill., microshoots obtained via in vitro culturing. the plant material corresponded to microcuttings obtained from embryo cultures with between 7 and 12 subcultures in the proliferative stage, for which driver and kuniyuki walnut (dkw) medium was used with the macronutrients reduced to a half and supplemented with 1 mg l-1 6-benzylaminopurine (bap) and 0.1 mg l-1 indole-3-butiric acid (iba). the quick induction rooting method was used, submerging the base of the microcuttings in a solution of 0.5 mg ml-1 of iba for 15 min. for the rooting stage, pine bark:perlite (4:1, v/v) substrate was used, carrying out the evaluation of results at 20 days after culturing. the evaluated variables were survival rate (%), rooting rate (%), root number, root length (mm), callus presence and visual aspect of the rooting system. the results showed a decrease of rooting capacity as the subculture number increases. the factor microcutting diameter did not present significant differences with respect to the evaluated variables.
INTRODUCCIóN DE CULTIVARES DE CASTA O EUROPEO (Castanea sativa Mill.), HíBRIDOS EUROJAPONESES (Castanea crenata x Castanea sativa), Y CASTA O JAPONéS (Castanea crenata Sieb et Zucc.) A CHILE. PRIMEROS RESULTADOS Introduction of European chestnut cultivars (Castanea sativa Mill.), Eurojapanese hybrids (Castanea crenata x Castanea sativa) and Japanese cultivars (Castanea crenata Sieb et Zucc.) to Chile. First results
Pablo Grau B.
Agricultura Técnica , 2003,
Abstract: El Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), en su Centro Regional de Investigación (CRI) Quilamapu, ubicado en la ciudad de Chillán, como parte del programa de mejoramiento de frutos de nuez, introdujo 18 de los cultivares comerciales más importantes de casta a desde Italia, Francia y Japón, a mediados de la década del 90. La mayoría de los cultivares introducidos pertenecen a la clasificación marrón, siendo ésta la primera vez que cultivares comerciales de fruto de alta calidad de casta o europeo (Castanea sativa Mill.) tipo marrón, de casta o japonés (Castanea crenata Sieb et Zucc.), e híbridos eurojaponeses (C. crenata x C. sativa) son introducidos al país. Luego de cumplir dos a os de cuarentena, el material fue liberado e injertado en portainjertos de semilla en el CRI Quilamapu. La mayoría de los cultivares iniciaron su producción al segundo a o de establecidos, el a o 2002, y su comportamiento agronómico está siendo evaluado anualmente. La calidad del fruto de la mayoría de los cultivares fue excelente, y cumplen los requisitos para ser clasificados como marrón según el sistema francés o italiano. Los cvs. más promisorios fueron Marrone di Citta di Castello, Marrone di Marradi y Marrone di Val di Susa que expresaron una alta calidad de fruto. La precocidad de los cultivares híbridos eurojaponeses fue superior a la expresada por selecciones locales, iniciándose la cosecha a inicios de marzo. A partir del a o 2002 todos los cultivares se encuentran en evaluación en ensayos de adaptación desde la VII a la X Región del país, área con alto potencial para el cultivo de ambas especies. El presente trabajo constituye la primera introducción de cultivares tipo marrón de casta o europeos, híbridos eurojaponeses y cultivares japoneses a Chile. The Agricultural Research Institute (INIA), at its Regional Research Center (CRI) Quilamapu at Chillán, as part of a nut fruit improvement program, introduced in the middle of 90’s eighteen of the most important commercial chestnut cultivars from Italy, France and Japan. Most of the introduced cultivars belong to the "marron type" and represent the first time that cultivars of high fruit quality of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.), Japanese cultivars (C. crenata Sieb et Zucc.) and Eurojapanese hybrids (C. crenata x C. sativa) are introduced to Chile. After two years of quarantine period, the germplasm was released and grafted onto seedling rootstocks at CRI Quilamapu. Most of the cultivars started yielding after two years of planting, by year 2002, and their agronomic performance it was year round e
Diversidad vegetal y tratamientos forestales en parcelas de casta o (Castanea sativa Mill.) de dos regiones mediterráneas  [cached]
Gondard, H.,Leonardi, S.,Santa Regina, I.,Romanae, R.
Pirineos : Revista de Ecología de Monta?a , 2004,
Abstract: During the last few decades; marked land use changes have taken place throughout the Mediterranean region. These changes have a great impact on plant diversity and also affect the current ecosystem functioning. This is particularly true for sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) stands (groves or coppices) that have been more or less abandoned from the end of the last century. Thus; our objective was to analyze consequences on plant species diversity of various management types in chestnut stands of two Mediterranean areas; the Cévennes in France; and Mt. Etna in Italy. Our results indicate that there are few species in common between the two Mediterranean areas; only less than 9%. These differences can be explained by different ecological conditions (climate; soil type; etc.) between the two areas; but also by the differences of management type (groves and coppice stands in the Cévennes; only coppice stands on Mt. Etna) or stand characteristics (shoot density; diameter at breast height; etc.). Moreover; plant species diversity is different according to management types. Indeed; we found that plant species diversity is higher in groves than in coppice stands. VSfe also demonstrated that C. sativa cultivated groves were generally characterized by small heliophilous therophytes. C. sativa abandoned groves; young C. sativa coppice stands were characterized by hemicryptophytes with anemochorous dispersal mode and chamaephytes. Medium and old C. sativa coppice stands (that differ by the shoot age) were more particularly characterized by phanerophytes with zoochorous dispersal mode. A consequence of chestnut stands abandonment is homogeneous vegetation with decreasing plant diversity. One solution could be to maintain a landscape mosaic of diverse chestnut stands diversely modified by human activities. This could allow enhancing the high regional plant diversity. [fr] Ces dernières décades les changements subis dans la région Méditerranéenne ont affecté la diversité végétale dont les variations affectent aussi le fonctionnement des écosystèmes. Ainsi des la fin du siècle dernier les peuplements de chataigniers ont été abandonnés. Notre objectif était d'analyser les conséquences sur la diversité végétale de différents traitements dans deux chataigneraies méditerranéennes des Cévennes (France) et de l'Etna en Italie. Les résultats indiquent qu'il y a peu d'espèces communes aux deux zones d'étude; environ 9%. Ces différences peuvent être justifiées par les facteurs écologiques (climat; sol; etc.) mais aussi par les différences de traitement (plantation pour le fr
INTRODUCCIóN DE CULTIVARES DE CASTA?O EUROPEO (Castanea sativa Mill.), HíBRIDOS EUROJAPONESES (Castanea crenata x Castanea sativa), Y CASTA?O JAPONéS (Castanea crenata Sieb et Zucc.) A CHILE. PRIMEROS RESULTADOS
Grau B.,Pablo;
Agricultura Técnica , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072003000300013
Abstract: the agricultural research institute (inia), at its regional research center (cri) quilamapu at chillán, as part of a nut fruit improvement program, introduced in the middle of 90?s eighteen of the most important commercial chestnut cultivars from italy, france and japan. most of the introduced cultivars belong to the "marron type" and represent the first time that cultivars of high fruit quality of european chestnut (castanea sativa mill.), japanese cultivars (c. crenata sieb et zucc.) and eurojapanese hybrids (c. crenata x c. sativa) are introduced to chile. after two years of quarantine period, the germplasm was released and grafted onto seedling rootstocks at cri quilamapu. most of the cultivars started yielding after two years of planting, by year 2002, and their agronomic performance it was year round evaluated. fruit quality in most of the evaluated cultivars was outstanding as they meet both french and italian requirements to classify as marron type. the most promising cvs. were marrone di citta di castello, marrone di marradi and marrone di val di susa, that showed very high fruit quality. earliness in the eurojapanese cultivars was higher than local selections as they began its harvest by early march. since year 2001 field evaluation trials are conducted from vii to x region of the country, to determine the performance and agronomic adaptation of both species to the potential chestnut growing areas of chile. this work is the first introduction of marron type of european, eurojapanese hybrids and japanese chestnut cultivars to chile.
Um método eficiente para a detec o de Phytophthora cinnamomi associada com a Doen a da Tinta do Castanheiro na rizosfera de Castanheiro (Castanea sativa Mill.) An efficient assay for detection of Phytophthora cinnamomi in the rhizosphere of Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.)  [cached]
E. Gouveia,V. Coelho,N. Sousa,S. Coutinho
Revista de Ciências Agrárias , 2009,
Abstract: O ciclo biológico de Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands e P. cambivora (Petri) Buisman espécies associadas com a Doen a da Tinta do Castanheiro, ocorre integralmente no ambiente solo. A presen a de qualquer uma destas espécies parasitas inviabiliza as novas planta es de castanheiro e coloca sérios problemas à manuten o dos soutos já instalados. Para garantir a ausência de propágulos dos parasitas no material de multiplica o do castanheiro e avaliar o estado sanitário dos solos é necessário que os métodos de detec o sejam sensíveis e rápidos, o que nem sempre é conseguido com as espécies de Phytophthora cujo ciclo de vida ocorre no ambiente solo. Neste estudo desenvolveuse e optimizou-se um método de biodetec o conjugado com a utiliza o de meios de cultura selectivos. Como material biológico utilizaram-se discos de folha de castanheiro (Castanea sativa), azevinho (Ilex aquifolium) e camélia (Camellia japonica), em condi es de temperatura constante (25o) e em condi es normais de laboratório com a adi o ou n o de biocidas (pimaricina e penicilina) na água de dilui o do solo. Os discos de folha de castanheiro foram mais eficientes na detec o de Phytophthora, obtendo-se maior percentagem de isolamentos positivos no meio de cultura selectivo (P10VPH). Os resultados obtidos neste estudo permitiram estabelecer um protocolo experimental de fácil utiliza o e tornar mais eficiente a detec o de Phytophthora cinnamomi associada com a Doen a da Tinta do Castanheiro. The life cycle of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands and P. cambivora (Petri)Buisman, both species associated with Ink Disease of Chestnut, occurs entirely in soil. The presence of any of these parasitic species is a limiting constraint for new plantations of sweet chestnut and represents a serious problem for established groves. Sensitive and fast detection methods are necessary to guarantee the absence of inoculum in the propagation material and to evaluate the sanitary condition of soils. In this study a method that involved a baiting assay conjugated with selective agar medium was developed. As biological baits, leaf discs of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), holly trees (Ilex aquifolium) and camellia (Camellia japonica) were used, at 25 oC and normal laboratory conditions with or without addition of biocides (pimaricin and penicillin) in the water of soil dilution. The leaf discs of sweet chestnut were more efficient for detection of Phytophthora and greater percentage of positive isolations were always obtained in the selective medium P10VPH. Results of this study allow us to establish an efficient
EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF CONDENSED TANNINS IN CASTANEA SATIVA MILL.
J ?ivkovi?,I Muji?,G Nikoli?,S Vidovi?
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2010,
Abstract: Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins are widespread in woody plants, but are also found in certain forages. Castanea sativa Mill. are exploited for various purposes, but a little is known about potential of this species and possible application in diet and therapy. The parts of chestnut such as: seed, peeled seed, brown seed shell, red internal seed shell, leaves, catkin, spiny bur, as well as the new and old chestnut bark were extracted with 50% ethanol as an extragents. Contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids were measured by application of the standard colorimetric assay. The total condensed tannins content estimated was highest in red internal seed shell 15.29%CE (vanillin assay) and 3.12%CT (acid butanol assay). Also high content of total phenolic compounds and condensed tannins had extracts of catkin, brown seed shell of chestnut and new chestnut bark. Extracts of C. sativa Mill. can be a potential resource of natural tannins with possible application in diet and therapy.
Um método eficiente para a detec??o de Phytophthora cinnamomi associada com a Doen?a da Tinta do Castanheiro na rizosfera de Castanheiro (Castanea sativa Mill.)
Gouveia,E.; Coelho,V.; Sousa,N.; Coutinho,S.; Nunes,L.; Monteiro,Maria Loreto;
Revista de Ciências Agrárias , 2009,
Abstract: the life cycle of phytophthora cinnamomi rands and p. cambivora (petri)buisman, both species associated with ink disease of chestnut, occurs entirely in soil. the presence of any of these parasitic species is a limiting constraint for new plantations of sweet chestnut and represents a serious problem for established groves. sensitive and fast detection methods are necessary to guarantee the absence of inoculum in the propagation material and to evaluate the sanitary condition of soils. in this study a method that involved a baiting assay conjugated with selective agar medium was developed. as biological baits, leaf discs of sweet chestnut (castanea sativa), holly trees (ilex aquifolium) and camellia (camellia japonica) were used, at 25 oc and normal laboratory conditions with or without addition of biocides (pimaricin and penicillin) in the water of soil dilution. the leaf discs of sweet chestnut were more efficient for detection of phytophthora and greater percentage of positive isolations were always obtained in the selective medium p10vph. results of this study allow us to establish an efficient protocol for detection of p. cinnamomi associated with ink disease of chestnut in the rhizosphere of sweet chestnut.
Seed Size Effects on Germination, Survival and Seedling Growth of Castanea sativa Mill.  [PDF]
Emrah Cicek,Fahrettin Tilki
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The effects of seed size on seed germination, and seedling survival and growth of Castanea sativa were studied in this study. The seeds were classified into small (< 5 g), medium (5-8 g) and large (> 8 g) classes. Germination parameters were significantly related to seed weight and large seeds germinated early and showed better germination than small seeds under laboratory conditions. Survival percentage and various morphological traits of the seedlings were investigated at the end of first growing season in nursery bed. It was found that seed size significantly affected seedling emergence, seedling survival, shoot height, root collar diameter and seedling dry weight but did not significantly affect shoot/root ratio and the average numbers of roots. Thus, it can be concluded that large seeds in C. sativa have better germination and survival, and the larger the seed, the larger the average seedling would be in seedling diameter, height and dry weight.
The epidermal study of sweet chestnut-tree Leaf (Castanea sativa Mill.)  [cached]
I. MOLDOVAN,Aurelia MOLDOVAN
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 1992,
Abstract: This paper is part of a broader study on the ontogenetic evolution of C. sativa. On detached epidermis, obtained by different methods, the following structural aspects have been studied: the shape and size of the cells of each sample and their number on surface unity, the type of stomata, the size of stomata, the number of stomata on surface unity and the stomatic index. At the same time remarks have been made concerning the protecting and secretive hairs of each sample.
Thermoanalytical study and characterization of native starches of Paraná pine seeds (Araucaria angustiofolia, Bert O. Ktze) and European chestnut seeds (Castanea sativa, Mill)
Bicudo, S. C. W.;Demiate, I. M.;Bannach, G.;Lacerda, L. G.;Carvalho Filho, M. A. S.;Ionashiro, M.;Schnitzler, E.;
Eclética Química , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-46702009000100001
Abstract: starch is the most important carbohydrate storage in plants. it is a raw material with diverse botanical origins, and is used by the food, paper, chemical, pharmaceutical, textile and other industries. in this work, native starches of paraná pine seeds (pinh?o) (araucária angustiofolia, bert o. ktze) and european chestnut seeds (castanea sativa, mill) were studied by thermoanalytical techniques: thermo-gravimetry (tg), differential thermal analysis (dta) and differential scanning calorimetry (dsc), as well as x-ray powder patterns diffractometry. apparent and total amylose content was also determined.
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