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Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Saudi Arabia: Description of the first one hundred cases  [cached]
AlMazroa Mohammad,Memish Ziad,AlWadey Ali
Annals of Saudi Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background and Objectives : In April 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared pandemic influenza A (H1N1) "public health emergency of international concern". On June 11, 2009, WHO raised the pandemic alert level to phase 6, indicating a global pandemic. By December 2009, more than 208 countries and territories had reported swine flu cases. The descriptive epidemiology of the first reported 100 cases of this virus in Saudi Arabia are summarized in this report. Methods : Data were collected from 1 June to 3 July, 2009 using a predesigned questionnaire. Questionnaires were filled by Field Epidemiology Training Program residents. Data for the first 100 complete cases of confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were compiled and analyzed. Results : The age of reported cases was in the range of 1 to 56 years. The highest percentage of cases was in the age group of 20 to 30 years followed by the age group of 1 to 10 years. Females represented 55% of the cases; imported cases represented 47%, 58% of whom had come via the King Khaled Airport. The most common nationalities most were from Saudi Arabia and the Philippines. The main symptoms were fever (56%), cough (54%), and sore throat and the number of cases was seen to peak from the 27 to 29 June. Conclusion : Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) is still a threat to Saudi Arabia. Thus, comprehensive and effective measures for surveillance and prevention of the disease are needed to control its spread.
Characteristics of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection in patients presenting to a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
BinSaeed Abdulaziz
Annals of Saudi Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background and Objectives : A national plan of management for flu-like illnesses was developed by the Saudi Ministry of Health after the first outbreak in Saudi Arabia in June. We describe the clinical presentation of the H1N1 cases attending King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) between July through September 2009 and identify the high-risk age groups. Methods : All patients presenting with influenza-like illnesses (ILI) in the H1N1 clinics during the specified period were clinically examined and tested using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Those who were clinically diagnosed and confirmed positive for novel influenza A (H1N1) were included in the study. Results : Over a 6-week period, 117 cases of laboratory-confirmed cases were reported in KKUH with a mean (SD) age of 19.6 (16.7) years, of whom 72 (62.1%) were males. Most reported cases were Saudis (n=99, 85.3%); 94 (81%) had no travel history outside the country; 100 (86.2%) had had no contact with an H1N1-identified patient; 33% were aged 5-14 years and 28.4% were aged 15-29 years. The most commonly reported symptoms were fever in 99 (85.3%), cough in 9 (81%), runny nose (33.6%) and sore throat (21.3%). All 117 cases were confirmed positive using real time RT-PCR testing. Thirty-one cases (26%) were admitted and 22 of those (71%) recovered after receiving oseltamivir. Two deaths were attributed to the 2009 pandemic. One patient died of chronic pulmonary disease. The other cause of death was unknown. Conclusion : These findings indicate indigenous influenza A (H1N1) transmission, and confirm the urgent need for prevention strategies which specifically target children and young adults, who appear to have a higher risk of infection and hospitalization. Such measures include immunization, improved personal hygiene, and increased ventilation in habitations.
A novel influenza A (H1N1) outbreak experience among residents of a long term-care facility in Saudi Arabia during 2010 seasonal flu circulation  [cached]
Raouf M. Afifi,Sherif Omar,Ahmed El Raggal
Infectious Disease Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/idr.2012.e23
Abstract: The aim of this work was to describe and analyze an outbreak of novel 2009 influenza A (H1N1) among residents of a long-term care facility (LTCF) in Prince Mansour Military Hospital (PMMH), Taif, Saudi Arabia. These patients had been admitted to the LTCF months or years before the outbreak for several reasons, e.g. cerebral palsy, neurological deficits due to road traffic accidents with resultant handicap, chronic diseases associated with old age. An observational study was carried out to demonstrate and analyze the epidemiological characteristics (demographic factors, risk factors, and outcomes) associated with the outbreak in order to clarify which prevention and control measures had been taken and which recommendations were followed. During the period October 28 to November 11 2010, 21 LTCF residents were suspected to be clinically involved: fever ≥38oC with influenza-like illness (ILI). Age ranged from 9-91 years (mean 46±24.13); 62% were males. Among them, 12 (57%) were influenza A (H1N1) positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). Mortality involved 2 (17%) of the A (H1N1) laboratory confirmed individuals. Implementation of the recommended infection control measures mitigated the transmission of infection to new individuals. The fulfillment of strict infection control measures could limit H1N1 infection among LTCFPMMH patients. Routine influenza, including specific H1N1 immunization of all LTCF residents together with their healthcare staff, should be mandatory in those settings serving immunocompromised patients.
Causes of uveitis in a tertiary center in Western Saudi Arabia
Shaik HM. Nizamuddin,Ahmed M. Bawazeer
Saudi Medical Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Objectives: To analyze the causes of uveitis and compare our results with national and international published studies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of medical records of patients who attend the uveitic clinic of Magrabi Eye & Ear Hospital in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 1999 to December 2011. Results: We encountered 823 eyes of 587 uveitis patients (male: 319 [54%] and female: 268 [46%]). Native Saudi patients constituted 52% of our total population, expatriate Arabs 23%, and Afro-Asians 23%. Average age at presentation was 34.8±12.83 (range 5-70) years. Unilateral presentation was noted in 351 (60%) and bilateral in 236 (40%) patients. Idiopathic anterior uveitis was the most common diagnosis (n=268, 45.7%). Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomical diagnosis (n=335, 57.1%) followed by panuveitis (n=151, 25.7%), posterior uveitis (n=51, 8.7%) and intermediate uveitis (n=50, 8.5%). There were 50 patients (8.5%) of Behcet’s disease, 48 patients (8.2%) of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH) and 35 cases (6%) of toxoplasmosis. Conclusion: The most common cause of anatomic diagnosis was anterior uveitis. Behcet’s disease was the most common identifiable cause of uveitis followed by VKH. The most common cause of infectious uveitis was toxoplasmosis. Idiopathic anterior uveitis was the most common uveitic entity.
Prevalence of respiratory diseases in hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia: A 5 years study 1996-2000  [cached]
Alamoudi Omer
Annals of Thoracic Medicine , 2006,
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: 1) To determine the prevalence of respiratory diseases and the length of stay among hospitalized patients with respiratory disorders 2) To detect the medical disorders commonly associated with respiratory diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was done for 810 patients hospitalized with respiratory diseases in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, over 5 years (January 1996 to December 2000). A special form was used to collect information from patient medical records including demographic data (such as age, sex and nationality), discharge diagnosis with other associated diseases and length of stay during hospitalization. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent of patients were males and 56.3% were Saudis. The mostly affected age group was 46-65 years (41.8%). Asthma (38.6%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (17.2%), pneumonia (11.5%), lung cancer (8.4%) and tuberculosis (TB) (7.2%) had the highest prevalence among hospitalized patients. Asthma was higher among females (63.3%) than males (36.7%). In contrast, lung cancer, COPD and TB were higher among males (88.2, 66.9 and 74.1%) than females (11.8, 33.1 and 25.9%) respectively ( P < 0.001). The mostly affected age groups among asthma and TB were 26-45 years and 46-65 years respectively, while the mostly affected age group in lung cancer and COPD patients was 46-65 years ( P < 0.001). Diabetes mellitus (22.8%) and hypertension (15.1%) were the most prevalent associated diseases. In 75% of the patients, the length of stay ranged from 1-7 and 8-14 days. CONCLUSION: Asthma, COPD and pneumonia were the leading causes of hospitalization among patients with respiratory disorders, while diabetes and hypertension were the most commonly associated diseases.
Medication prescribing errors in a pediatric inpatient tertiary care setting in Saudi Arabia
Majed I Al-Jeraisy, Menyfah Q Alanazi, Mostafa A Abolfotouh
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-294
Abstract: A five-week retrospective cohort study identified medication errors in the general pediatric ward and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) through the physical inspection of physician medication orders and reviews of patients' files. Out of the 2,380 orders examined, the overall error rate was 56 per 100 medication orders (95% CI: 54.2%, 57.8%). Dose errors were the most prevalent (22.1%). These were followed by route errors (12.0%), errors in clarity (11.4%) and frequency errors (5.4%). Other types of errors were incompatibility (1.9%), incorrect drug selection (1.7%) and duplicate therapy (1%). The majority of orders (81.8%) had one or more abbreviations. Error rates were highest in prescriptions for electrolytes (17.17%), antibiotics (13.72%) and bronchodilators (12.97%). Medication prescription errors occurred more frequently in males (64.5%), infants (44.5%) and for medications with an intravenous route of administration (50.2%). Approximately one third of the errors occurred in the PICU (33.9%).The incidence of MPEs was significantly high. Large-scale prospective studies are recommended to determine the extent and outcome of medication errors in pediatric hospitals in Saudi Arabia.Medication errors (MEs) are one of the most common types of medical errors and one of the most common and preventable causes of iatrogenic injuries [1]. MEs contribute to the morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients. In the USA, MEs have been found to be responsible for 7,000 patient injuries per year, with a similar incidence and consequences in the UK [2,3]. Approximately one third of adverse drug events (ADEs) are associated with medication errors and are thus preventable [4]. MEs occur in 6.5 of 100 adult hospital admissions and 5 of 100 adult medication orders [5].When medication errors occur, pediatric patients have a much higher risk of death than adults [6]. There are many factors that put children at a greater risk for medication
The Role of Tertiary Education in Developing Local Communities: The Case of Al-Majma’ah Town, Saudi Arabia  [cached]
Ibrahim Abdullah Al-Zuaibir
Asian Social Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v7n2p141
Abstract: This research explores the role of education in developing the local community of Al-Majma'ah town in Saudi Arabia. In so doing, it attempts a detailed account of the relationship between education and development. The paper then proceeds to report the development issues that have been addressed by the tertiary education programs in the light of the theories underlying the relationship between education and development.
Unconventional therapy use among asthma patients in a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  [cached]
Al Moamary Mohamed
Annals of Thoracic Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Objectives: Unconventional therapy (UT) is a therapeutic practice of alternative and complementary medicine that is not currently considered an integral part of modern medical practice. The aim of this article is to investigate the experience of Saudi patients with UT modalities in the treatment of asthma. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study of asthma patients referred to King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2004. Information was collected using a pre-designed questionnaire administered through interviews. Results: Two hundred consecutive patients with a mean age of 52.3 years (±18.7) were included in this study. Sixty-nine (34.5%) of those patients used some form of UT in the previous year. There was a tendency to use UT among the older age group ( P = 0.029) and among those with longer duration of disease ( P = 0.009). However, there was no significant correlation observed between the use of UT and gender, FEV 1 , or disease control. The most commonly used form of UT was recitation of Holy Quran (9%), honey (24.5%), herbs (23.5%), cautery (12%), and blackseed (10%). There was no significant correlation between disease control and the use of modalities. Conclusion: Unconventional therapy is frequently practiced by asthma patients in Saudi Arabia, who commonly believe that UT will lead to improvement. The lack of evidence necessitates the fostering of a national project to address the practice of UT.
A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia
Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2004,
Abstract: The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI) has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41%) patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%), lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%), bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3%) and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%). Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80%) cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3%) patient.
Pediatric retinal detachment in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: Experience of a tertiary care hospital  [cached]
Cheema Rizwan,Al-Khars Wajeeha,Al-Askar Essam,Amin Yasir
Annals of Saudi Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Because no previous studies have addressed the issue, we describe clinical characteristics and surgical outcome of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in a pediatric population of the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all consecutive cases of pediatric RRD (0-18 years) patients presenting at Dhahran Eye Specialist Hospital, a tertiary care hospital, in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia over a period of 3 years. Results: Twenty patients were included in the study, accounting for 9.4% of all retinal detachment surgery cases performed over a period of 3 years (January 2006 to December 2008). The median age was 11.0 years, (range, birth to 18 years). Trauma, (45%) myopia/vitreoretinal degeneration (10%) and prior ocular surgery (25%) were significant risk factors for RRD. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) more than grade C was present in 14/20 (70%) of cases. Most patients (15/20, 75%) were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and placement of an encircling buckle, while silicone oil or gas was used as tamponade in 13/20 (65%) patients. Surgery was successful in 17/20 (85%) cases in achieving retinal re-attachment. Visual acuity improved significantly following surgery (Mean preop 2.146 LogMAR, Mean postop 1.497 LogMAR) ( P= .014). Longer duration of RRD ( P =.007) and macular involvement ( P =.05) were associated with worse anatomical outcomes following surgery. Conclusion: Pediatric RRD in the Eastern province is often associated with predisposing pathology. Surgery is successful in achieving anatomical reattachment of the retina in a majority of cases with improvement of visual acuity.
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