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Air Pollution Makes Public Health Problem in Urban Agglomeration Environment in Poland  [cached]
Katarzyna Sygit,Witold Kollataj,Marian Sygit,Barbara Kollataj
Environment and Pollution , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ep.v1n2p112
Abstract: The development of civilization has a significant impact on the increment in environmental pollution. Particular threats to the health of people living in urban agglomerations make the unfavourable changes in atmospheric air. The aim of this study was to describe the influence of climate (seasons, annual temperature changes) and presence of sources of air pollutants emissions on air pollutants concentrations in the selected urban agglomeration - Szczecin (Poland). Researches were conducted at 4 air pollution monitoring stations during the period 2005-2008. There were noticed statistically significant relationships between the air pollutants concentrations and climate parameters (wind, temperature, seasons). It was found that average annual PM10 concentrations were lower than the limit value. By contrast average daily PM10 concentrations exceed quality standards. Annual average concentrations of lead and cadmium in PM10 were lower than acceptable levels (for lead) or destination levels (for cadmium). While the average concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in PM10 were above the target value - 1ng/m3. The air quality in Szczecin agglomeration improved during the period 2005-2008.
Reform of Rural Compulsory Education under The Perspective of Public Finance Equalization  [cached]
Fangcheng Yuan
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v4n7p7
Abstract: In the public services provided by the government, education plays an important part. Providing equal educational service is the basic function of public finance. In terms of equalization of public service, this article remounts to the system changes of rural compulsory education, investigates the practice of the protecting investment in rural compulsory education reform, which now is in the stage of government-supported compulsory education, and objectively evaluates the complicated effect of the reform. Furthermore, some measures on the reform of rural compulsory education are presented.
The Research about Factors and Countermeasures of Influence Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration Development of Public Sports Service in China  [PDF]
Luojing Zhu, Xinsen He
iBusiness (IB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2013.53B030

The paper analyzed the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration sports public service in China. There are many influence factors about Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration sports public service. As follows: 1) The complexity of Administrative districts restricted balance development of the sports public services in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration; 2) Dual economic structure of urban and rural areas result in imbalance of city and countryside development; 3) The single outlay source of sports funds has restricted the development and affected the increase of quality of sports public service. At the same time, I put forward the corresponding countermeasures and Suggestions: 1)T Choose compound administration model to be administrative model of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration; 2) Promoting urban and rural integration to realize equalization of sports public service; 3) Improving sports public service system of the community; 4) Actively exploring multi-channel financing of sports and optimizing sports funds structure; 5) Establishing fairly detailed Assessment system associated with sports public service.

Analysis of Urban Functional Characteristics of Urban Agglomeration: A Case Study of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration  [PDF]
Jiayi Zhao
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2017.62008
Abstract: Bearing the responsibility of the rising strategy of central region of China, Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration is an important growth pole of the development of the Yangtze river economic belt. Reasonable position of urban function in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration, is an inevitable requirement for the cooperative development of regional economy in Changsha, Zhuzhou and Xiangtan. This paper takes the basic economic activities of these cities as the starting point to determine the urban function. Subsequently, this paper uses the related statistical data, introduces multivariate statistical analysis method, such as regression analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis to clarify the function of 20 cities in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration. The findings reveal that the most common functions of the regional urban agglomeration are construction, transportation, postal services, finance, real estate, manufacturing, social services, wholesale and retail industry. At the same time, the paper classifies these 20 cities according to the urban function. The classification results provide the basis for accelerating Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration construction of urban function.
Hilal Gorkem
Journal of Life Economics , 2014, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15637/jlecon.201416988
Abstract: This study seeks to reveal Bologna Process reform implementations, and the current situations of public finance departments in Turkish universities by addressing the views of public finance students. For this purpose, in the spring semester of the 2011-2012 academic year, a questionnaire was applied to 3rd and 4th grade students of public finance. Data obtained are analysed using frequency distribution, mean values, chi-square independence test, Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis H test.
Study on Sharing Modes of GMOs Intellectual Property Rights from the perspective of Public Finance

- , 2016,
Abstract: 为研究符合我国科技创新投入机制、科技资源分布现状和知识产权运营规律的转基因生物知识产权共享模式,根据共享组织主体不同,结合已有知识产权运营实践,对转基因生物知识产权共享模式进行了设计、对比和优化。结果表明,公共财政视角下,政府介入的合作联盟模式能较好地适应政府为主的科技投入机制、无形财产权运营市场环境尚不成熟的阶段性特征和转基因生物知识产权权利主体多元、客体内容复杂的特殊性,有效解决联盟成员博弈带来的共享冲突,是现阶段我国转基因生物知识产权运营的理想模式。
To research the sharing modes of GMOs intellectual property rights corresponding with the innovation mechanism and distribution of China’s scientific and technological resources and the operation patterns of intellectual property,this paper designs, compares and optimizes the sharing modes of GMOs intellectual property rights based on different subjects in the sharing modes and combination with the operation practices of intellectual property. The result shows that from the perspective of public finance, the alliance mode of government intervention is adaptable to the government based technology investment mechanism, the characteristics with immature intangible property market and the particularity of multi rights body and complex object content can effectively resolve sharing conflicts from games of alliance members.
Impact of Rapid Urbanization and Changing Housing Patterns on Urban Open Public Spaces of Amman, Jordan: A GIS and RS Perspective  [PDF]
Yahya Farhan, Sireen Al-Shawamreh
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2019.101005
Abstract: Rapid urbanization and population growth of the Amman Area were combined with land resource degradation when the city was heading for mounting urbanization from the early 1950s. The deterioration of natural resources and green areas, was coupled with the creation of different urban public open spaces in the city. The transformation from large single-family houses to dense residential apartments was associated with social and behavioral changes among the inhabitants living in the dense apartments. Consequently, a large private sector has been developed to provide public and social spaces. Photo-interpretation and satellite images were used to map and characterize land use/cover changes have been occurred in the Amman area between 1953 and 2017. Maximum Likelihood Classification method was employed to identify land use/cover changes between 1986 and 20017, and GIS was utilized also to map examples of the recently emerged socio-economic open spaces. Excessive urban development in the last two decades, and the adoption of neo-liberal privatization policies by the government, enhanced social stratification and residential segregation. So, instead of encouraging outdoor activity and social interaction among all groups of Amman residents, the freedom of accessibility to major open spaces has been restricted within the same urban fabric, thus, the “two Ammans” paradigm, a “tale of two cities”, has been recently acknowledged.
PERSPECTIVE OF PUBLIC GOODS CAPITALIZATION——How Does Land Finance Affect Public Goods Provision

- , 2016,
Abstract: 摘要 本文以中国的城镇化为背景,运用公共品资本化原理,分析了地方土地财政制度,包括土地出让金收入制度与房地产相关税收制度,对地方公共品提供激励的传导机制。城市级面板数据的实证分析表明:土地财政对地方公共品提供具有结构性的激励效应,但该激励机制建立在土地和房产交易之上,地方财政努力程度被交易时点截然分割。改革土地财政制度,完善房地产税收体系,实现从交易型向保有型“土地溢价回收”制度转换,将有助于建立对称的、可持续的地方财政激励制度。
Abstract: Under the background of China s urbanization, applying the theory of public goods capitalization, this paper analyzes how the local land finance institution, including the land grant revenue institution and the related real estate tax institution, incentives the local public goods provision. Empirical analysis of city level data shows the land finances structural incentive effect on local public goods provision, but owing to the incentive mechanism based on land and real estate transactions, local governments fiscal effort is dissevered entirely by the trading point. Reforming the land finance system, and improving the tax system of real estate, with the purpose of land value capture system transformation from transactional style to assetkeeping style, will help to establish a symmetrical, sustainable local fiscal incentive system.
Countermeasures of Improving Green Transportation of CZT Urban Agglomeration  [cached]
Dan Tan
International Business Research , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ibr.v3n2p157
Abstract: As the experiment area of two-oriented society in China, Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration is required with high level of environment friendliness and resource saving on its transportation system. The transportation of this area has entered into the harmonized development stage of various transport modes and improved capacity and quality. But the green degree of its transportation system still needs to be improved. A comprehensive evaluation on the green degree of its transportation system was made and effective solutions of improving were provided.
Lucr?ri ?tiin?ifice : Management Agricol , 2009,
Abstract: Because the private sector is so often held up as the reference point for public sector reforms, the differences that affect public sector possibilities for change must be carefully considered when trying to emulate private sector examples. Perhaps the most important--with the exception of leadership development--is the inability to establish wages fully competitive with the private sector and performance incentives linked to tangible and non-tangible rewards to attract and retain top-tier (as well as competent) staff.
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