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Determination of Total Suspended Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals in Ambient Air of Four Cities of Pakistan  [PDF]
Muhammad Ali Awan,,Syed Hassan Ahmed,,Muhammad Rizwan Aslam,Ishtiaq Ahmed Qazi
Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE) , 2011,
Abstract: Total suspended particulates (TSPs) in ambient air of four cities of Pakistan were collected using a high volume sampling technique for subsequent heavy metal analysis. The sampling was conducted for 24hours and the concentration of TSPs ranged 568-2074, 1191-3976, 1133-4400 and 112-280 μg/m3 for Islamabad, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Bahwalnagar, respectively. The level of TSP contamination was very high in ambient air of two big industrial cities, Gujranwala and Faisalabad. TSPs were also analyzed for Cd, Pb and Zn using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) following digestion using a mixture of analytical grade nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Compared to other metals, concentration of Cd was slightly high (around 325 ng/m3) in the samples of Gujranwala and Faisalabad. Overall, the order of metal concentrations were Cd > Pb > Zn.
Noverita Dian Takarina* and Andrio Adiwibowo
Journal of Coastal Development , 2010,
Abstract: Trace metal contamination of marine environments can be determined by measuring trace metalconcentration in sediments, water or biota. Biomonitor organisms have the advantages over othermeasurements that they concentrate the portion of metals that are in a biologically available form, and thisportion which is usually of interest when assessments is being made of trace metal contamination.Correspondingly, whole tissue trace metal concentrations of 4 metals in common Jakarta Bay benthic species(polychaetes, molluscs, crustaceans) from contaminated locations were measured. The mean concentrationfor Cu was 17.5 ± 21.8 μg g-1 dw in polychaetes, 11.9 ± 8.8 μg g-1 dw in molluscs, and 12.2 ± 5.5 μg g-1 dw incrustaceans. The mean concentration for Cr was 172.8 ± 262.5 μg g-1 dw in polychaetes, 31.8 ± 62.8 μg g-1dw in molluscs, and 28.5 ± 29.0 μg g-1 dw in crustaceans. The mean concentration for Zn was 152.4 ± 76.4μg g-1 dw in polychaetes, 132.0 ± 106.3 μg g-1 dw in molluscs, and 515.8 ± 503.5 μg g-1 dw in crustaceans.The mean concentration for Pb was 6.3 ± 13.6 μg g-1 dw in polychaetes and was 2.0 ± 4.5 μg g-1 dw inmolluscs. The study provides significant contribution to confirm the content of heavy metal in each commonbenthic species inhabits coastal Jakarta Bay.
The effect of the heavy metals lead (Pb2+) and zinc (Zn2+) on
RN Jackson, D Baird, S Els
Water SA , 2005,
Abstract: This investigation explored the effect of the heavy metals Pb (Pb2+) and Zn (Zn2+) individually and in combination (i.e. three metal solutions) on both the brood and larval development of the burrowing crustacean, Callianassa kraussi. Egg and larval mortalities at factorial (4x7) combinations of salinity (20, 24, 30, 35 mg/l) and seven respective metal concentrations were examined. The results provided various statistically significant trends. Individual concentrations of Pb and Zn at various salinities impacted negatively upon the brood and larval development of Callianassa kraussi. Increasing the specific concentrations of both metals further demonstrated a negative influence, especially on brood development and to a lesser extent on larval development of Callianassa kraussi. Comparing the toxicity of the three concentrations of metals to Callianassa kraussi brood and larval development, it was found that individual Pb concentrations exhibited the least mortality (LC50 Pb-eggs-35ppm = 1.580 mg/l -1 whilst individual Zn concentrations displayed considerably higher mortality (LC50 Zn-eggs-35ppm =0.066 mg/l) but that the combination of Zn and Pb concentrations produced the highest mortality (LC50 Pb&Zn-eggs-35ppm =0.036 mg l -1). Varying salinities in permutation with varying metal concentrations exhibited a significant detrimental influence on the brood and larval development of Callianassa kraussi, notably at the lowest salinities in combination with the highest metal concentrations.
Adsorption of heavy metals Cu,Pb,Zn over top sediment in North River Canal

Yang Chao,Yang Zhendong,Nie Yulun,He Xuwen,Hu Chun,

环境工程学报 , 2012,
Abstract: The concentration of heavy metals (Cu,Pb,Zn) and the characteristics of top sediment from six sampling sites distributed in North River Canal were analyzed.The distribution coefficient Kd was used to evaluate the adsorption capacity of Cu,Pb and Zn over the top sediment.The effect of solution pH and dissolved organic matter on the removal efficiency was also studied.The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of sediments significantly decreased when the dissolved organic matter was removed from the sediments.However,there was almost no significant correlation among the amount of heavy metals in sediments,the adsorption capacity of sediments and the concentration of dissolved organic matter.This may be attributed to the different species and structures of DOC in the six sampling sites.All the sediments showed the highest selectivity towards Pb with a selectivity order of Pb>Cu>Zn and the adsorption capacity increased with the increase of solution pH.The solution pH had the maximum effect on the adsorption of Zn among the three hevay metals (Cu,Pb,Zn).
Speciation of Trace Metals Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in Surficial Sediment from Makupa Creek Mombasa, Coastal Kenya
Philip K. Maritim, A. N. Gachanja, T. M. Munyao
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102679

Trace metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd) speciation of surface sediments from Makupa creek, coastal Kenya were determined by sequential extraction procedure. The procedure was used to extract the trace metals in sediments geochemical phases (exchangeable, carbonates, Fe-Mn oxides, organic matter/sulphide, and residual). Trace metals analysis was done using ICP/MS. The trace metal speciation results indicated that Pb, Zn, and Cd were mainly associated with the exchangeable, carbonates and Fe-Mn oxides in most of the sampling sites. The highest concentration of the trace metals were associated with Fe-Mn oxides with Zn concentration at 362.5 μg/g, Pb, 31.5 μg/g. Copper was mostly associated with the organic matter/sulphide and carbonate at concentration of 117.5 μg/g and 69.9 μg/g respectively. Generally, trace metals in sediment from Makupa creek were mainly associated with the bioavailable fractions (BAF) and their ranges were: Pb (60%-98%), Zn (90%-99%), Cu (70%-91%). It was found therefore, that there was trace metals enrichment in sediments from Makupa from anthropogenic sources and bioavailable to biota.

Heavy Metals Content Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and Ni in Sea Water and Sediment in Membramo Estuary and Its Relationship With Fishery Cultivation  [cached]
Z. Tarigan,Abdul Rozak,Edward
Makara Seri Sains , 2003,
Abstract: Obervation on heavy metals Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and Ni content in Jakarta Bay were carried out in August 2003. The results showed that the Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Ni content still in line with threshold value stated by for fisheries. By the all, in sea water Zn content is higher compared to the others, while in sediment Ni is higher. This data showed the result show that on waters of Membramo River Zn and Ni waste than others elements.
Survey of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu) Contamination in Sediment of Three Sites Anzali Wetland  [PDF]
M khosravi,N Bahramifar,M Ghasempour
Iranian Journal of Health and Environment , 2011,
Abstract: Background and Objectives:Anzali Wetland is one of the most important aquatic ecosystems of Iran which is located in south-west of the Caspian sea. This Wetland provides a suitable and non-market price habitat for valuable fish and aquatic animals which have an important role in the life cycle of this ecosystem. This study reports the results of some heavy metals contamination monitoring in superficial water of the Anzali Wetland, Iran.Materials and Methods: The samples were collected from three sites (east, center and west) of Anzali Wetland, in each site three stations existed and each sample replicated three times.Results: The results showed high heavy metal levels in eastern site of wetland, where there were high levels of contamination. The mean of heavy metals concentration in sediment from Anzali Wetland were in order as Cd 157.023, Pb 3.646 and Hg 300.692 ng /g dried weight, Zn 186.953 and Cu 44.452 mg /g dried weight in eastern site. The concentration levels of heavy metals in three sites were in order as follows: Zn > Cu > Hg > Cd > Pb. Conclusion: Concentrations of heavy metals in eastern zone reflected metal loadings from anthropogenic sources located at and in the vicinity of the sampling sites.
Effect of Safflower and Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb Application on the Mobility of These Four Metals in a Calcareous Soil  [cached]
Gh. Sayyad,M. Afyuni,S. F. Mousavi
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2007,
Abstract: Accumulation of heavy metals (HMs) in cultivated soils is an important environmental problem in many parts of the world. In recent years, HM leaching through preferential paths and also in the form of metal-organic acids complexes has received much attention. For this reason, the effects of plants on creating preferential flow through the soil is important. The objective of this study was to assess the mobility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a calcareous soil (Typic Haplocalcids) planted with safflower (Carthamus tinctorious). The study was conducted on 12 undisturbed soil columns (22.5 cm in diameter and 50 cm in depth) in greenhouse. The top 10 cm of soil in half of the columns were contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn at the rates of 19.5, 750, 150 and 1400 kg ha-1, respectively. Half of the contaminated and uncontaminated columns were planted with safflower at a rate of 20 seeds m-2. Leachate was collected continuously and analyzed for these four heavy metals. After the crop harvest, soil samples were taken at 10 cm intervals and analyzed for DTPA-extractable and water-soluble HMs concentration. Results showed that heavy metal concentrations (DTPA and soluble) of the subsoil in planted columns were more than in fallow columns. The DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in contaminated planted columns were 3.3-, 1.5- and 1.5-times more than in contaminated fallow columns, respectively. The water-soluble Cd, Cu and Zn in planted treatments increased 2.4, 1.2- and 1.1 times more than the fallow treatment. Lead concentrations in both planted and fallow treatments were similar. Metal uptake by safflower increased such that Cd and Zn uptake was more than Cu and Pb. Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in the leachate of planted columns increased 32.0-, 2.5-, 6.0- and 2.7- time more than the uncontaminated planted columns. In summary, although topsoil contamination increased metal uptake by safflower, however the presence of safflower increased DTPA-extractable and also soluble metal concentrations in the soil profile and therefore enhanced metal mobility. The order of metal mobility was Cd > Zn >Cu >Pb.
Behavior of metals (Pb, Zn, Fe, Al AND Ni) during coal mine drainages treatment in constructed wetlands
Marín,Julio César; López,Adriana; Behling,Elisabeth; Colina,Gilberto; Fernández,Nola;
Revista Técnica de la Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad del Zulia , 2006,
Abstract: in the present investigation the behavior of heavy metals pb, zn, fe, al and ni, during the treatment of coal mine drainages in constructed wetlands dominated by typha dominguensis was studied. the tests were done in tanks provided with two different support materials (sediment of storage drainages pit and grave), implementing the hydraulic retention times (hrt) of 24, 72, 120, 168 and 216 h. the metal determinations by atomic absorption spectrometry showed good precision (standard relative deviation = 2.41%) and accuracy (recovery percentage between 96.08 and 103.66%). the metal concentration (mg/l) was 0.48-1.36 pb, 0.67-28.28 zn, 0.13-3.38 fe, 0.62-146.80 al and 0.08-4.39 ni. in general it was observed a noticeable tendency towards the reduction of metal contents as the hrt was increased, especially in the wetlands with pit sediments (initially release). the pb showed minor trend to removal. the release from pit sediments, plant secretions and material atmospheric deposition, could be the related mechanisms to metal mobility. the necessity arises to evaluate the wetland systems like possible sink or metal sources.
Evaluation of Selected Heavy Metals (Zn, Cd, Pb and Mn) in Shrimp (Acetes indicus) from Malacca and Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia
Mustafa Rahouma,M. Shuhaimi-Othman,Zaidi Che Cob
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Environmental pollution has become a source of concern and inconvenience to the world, the study was conducted to evaluate some selected heavy metals on Acetes shrimp. The present research project was undertaken to determine heavy metal (Zn, Cd, Pb and Mn) in the tissue of shrimp (Acetes indicus) in two different sites (Malacca and Kedah) on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Samples were collected in this study during the months August, September, October and November and determine the concentrations of heavy metals zinc, lead, cadmium and manganese by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that in general, the highest heavy metals concentrations were detected in samples taken from Malacca than Kedah. The heavy metal concentration in this shrimp varied significantly depending upon the months and sample station from where the shrimp was collected. In Malacca, the highest concentration level of Zn was detected in the Acetes shrimp (45.79±2.54 μg g-1 dry weight) in October 2010 followed by that of Kedah reported in September (45.08±2.93 μg g-1). The highest concentration level of Cd was detected in Acetes at Malacca 0.83±0.64 μg g-1 in September, whereas it was 0.21±0.04 μg g-1 in November at Kedah while the highest concentration level of Pb was recorded in Malacca which was 1.29±0.85 μg g-1 in September while it was 0.55±0.12 μg g-1 in October at Kedah. The highest concentration level of Mn was detected in A. indicus in Malacca recorded 6.95±1.19 μg g-1 in August while it was 6.10±1.01 μg g-1 in November at Kedah. However, the concentrations of heavy metals in Acetes indicus collected from Malacca and Kedah were within the permissible levels and are safe for the human consumption and public health.
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