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Provision and need of HIV/AIDS services in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, 2010
Annette AM Gerritsen, Janine S Mitchell, Brenda White
South African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Objectives. To determine the need for HIV/AIDS service provision in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (CTMM), especially in municipal areas. Methods. The Foundation for Professional Development initiated the Compass Project. Using a questionnaire, data were collected during May - June 2010 from organisations providing HIV/AIDS services in the CTMM (organisational information and types of HIV/AIDS services). The need for HIV counselling and testing (HCT), antiretroviral treatment (ART), prevention of mother-tochild transmission (PMTCT), and care for orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) was estimated using data from various sources. Results. A total of 447 service providers was included in the study: 72.3% non-governmental organisations (NGOs); 18.1% in the public sector; 5.1% in the private sector; and 4.5% faithbased organisations. The majority of the prevention- (70.2%) and support-related services (77.4%) were provided by NGOs, while the majority of treatment-related services originated from the public sector (57.3%). Service need estimates included: HCT – 1 435 438 adults aged 15 - 49 years (11 127/service provider); total ART – 75 211 adults aged 15+ years (1 213/service provider); ART initiation – 30 713 adults aged 15+ years (495/service provider); PMTCTHCT – 30 092 pregnant women (510/service provider); PMTCTART – 7 734 HIV+ pregnant women (221/service provider); and OVC care – 54 590 children (258/service provider). Conclusions. Service gaps remain in the provision of HCT, PMTCT-ART and OVC care. ART provision must be increased, in light of new treatment guidelines from the Department of Health. S Afr Med J 2012;102:44-46
Water Service Provision in Owerri City, Nigeria  [PDF]
Emmanuella C. Onyenechere, Sabina C. Osuji
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.47058
Abstract: The study investigates water service provision in Owerri-a Nigerian city. For the study both primary and secondary data were obtained and analysed. Secondary data were obtained from Imo State Water Corporation (ISWC) and the Works Department of Owerri Municipal Council. While, primary data were obtained from all the 17 wards that constitute Owerri city, i.e. the municipal area. Key informants were identified and interviewed using a structured interview schedule. The analysis of variance employed showed that there are significant differences in the water service provision pattern in the seventeen wards in Owerri city. The study found that though most residents of Owerri city rely heavily on commercial borehole owners and water tanker drivers/water peddlers for their daily supplies, the government through its SWA is in control, and there is an absence of a popularly acceptable regulatory framework/water policy. It recommends that Water decree 101 from 1993 (water legislation) be reviewed to address growing challenges. In order to enhance regular water supply at less cost, the study recommends that government should collaborate with the private sector and other community based organizations in a tripartite partnership. A new regulatory framework that will carry out government ownership and control of water resources and participatory aspects of water management should be produced by ISWC.
@City: technologising Barcelona
Rojas, Jesús,Pellicer, Isabel,Santoro, Valeria,Vivas i Elias, Pep
Athenea Digital , 2007,
Abstract: This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS) and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.
Quality of Service to Users of Primary Health Care: A Study of Evaluation  [PDF]
Fábia Barbosa de Andrade, Iris do Ceu Clara Costa, Tainara L?rena dos Santos Ferreira, Dayane Caroliny Pereira Justino, Luanni Rayssa de Medeiros Souza, Cláudia Janiele Batista Fonsêca, Paula Thayse Costa Fernandes, Andréia Geíse Gomes de Araújo
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.72023
Abstract: The quality of service to people in Primary Healthcare (PHC) is linked to the provision of quality service by professionals who integrate this service in the community. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate the service given by health professionals in primary health care, from the user’s perception. This is an evaluative and quantitative study, conducted with people who use the PHC service. 180 adults are interviewed in the city of Santa Cruz, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The results show that most respondents are women. The average age is of 36.65, median of 34.00 and standard deviation of 11,554. With regards to the quality of service, it ranges from fair to good. When performing correlation between the quality of service and time spent to reach the service, most people say that they spend between 0 and 15 minutes from their house to the healthcare service unit. About reception, respondents reported being satisfied and that the service has been responsible and quality for health monitoring. Thus, it is noted that the user classifies the quality of the service in primary healthcare as regular, showing weaknesses that need to be corrected to prevent damage in service provision in Primary Healthcare.
Optimal Costly Information Gathering in Public Service Provision  [PDF]
Paul Geertsema, Christoph Schumacher
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.23060
Abstract: Imperfect information regarding the true needs of recipients is a common problem for governmental or not-for-profit service providers. This can lead to potentially dangerous under-provision or wasteful over-provision of services. We provide a method for optimally improving a service provider’s information regarding true client need through costly information gathering. Our contribution is to allow providers to endogenously and optimally choose the intensity of information gathering. Providers do so by specifying the level of correlation between observed and true recipient need, subject to an arbitrary cost function over the specified correlation. We derive the conditions that characterize the choice of optimal correlation for providers with quadratic utility. Using a realistic exponential correlation cost function, we show that there exists a critical value of true client need variance below which it is never optimal to engage in information gathering. Further, for true client variance above this critical level the optimal correlation will always exceed 0.5. Our findings have a wide range of policy implications in areas such as health care, social wellfare and even counter-terroism.
City policies, immigration and culture: Sports in Barcelona  [cached]
Sánchez Martín, Ricardo
Revista de Dialectología y Tradiciones Populares , 2010,
Abstract: The Strategic Plan of the city of Barcelona considers the need to both facilitate and promote the practice of sporting activities, since it is proved to enhance people’s quality of life and health as well as promote civic participation and social integration. This analysis shows the socio-cultural barriers for the practice of sporting activities and foreign groups’ sporting habits as well as the local policy criteria for the promotion of sports among citizens for the specific case of the city of Barcelona. It is a Social Participative Research including a documentary analysis, quantitative studies, qualitative skills as well as cooperative research techniques, participative sessions and meetings. En el Plan Estratégico del deporte de la ciudad de Barcelona se considera la necesidad de facilitar y promover la práctica de la actividad físico-deportiva de toda la población, dadas sus posibilidades como elemento generador de calidad de vida y salud, de participación ciudadana y de integración social. Como resultado de la investigación que se presenta se han determinado las barreras socio-culturales para la práctica de actividades físico-deportivas, se muestran los hábitos de práctica deportiva de los colectivos extranjeros y se establecen los criterios para la política municipal de promoción deportiva de la ciudadanía para el caso concreto de Barcelona. Se trata de una Investigación Social Participativa que incluye análisis documental, estudios cuantitativos, técnicas cualitativas, así como técnicas de investigación colaborativa, sesiones participativas y asambleas.
A Comparative Analysis of Social Service Provision and Accessibility in Regularised Settlements in Tanzania
Edmund Zakayo, Emmanuel Patroba Mhache, Wakuru Magigi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105278
Abstract:
Social service provision and accessibility play a great role in ensuring city de-velopment in both developed and developing countries with emerging econo-mies, Tanzania inclusive. This paper provides a comparative study on the situation, arguments and criticisms of three planned neighborhoods, whereby in those cases, local communities were involved in settlement upgrading through land regularization in Tanzania. The discussion centered on comparing the social infrastructure service provision and the levels of accessibility of neighborhood residents to roads, waste disposal, water and electricity supply. Similarly, the paper highlights the role of neighborhood leaders in ensuring social service provision, accessibility levels, reasons for connections, and the correlation between source of water and electricity supply as well as inferential statistics for the effects of the land regularization on the access to social services. We find that local leadership determines provision and accessibility of infrastructures in an area where informal settlement upgrading project takes place. Location differences of neighborhoods and proximity to the infrastructure service influence business growth, home improvement, service payments, and residents’ mindset change in the neighborhood land development processes. We also found that conditions set for provision of social services include: availability of permanent building structure, land ownership, affordability level, household agreement, offering land for public use and freedom from the road reserve. Local Authority sets guidelines for service provision and helps meet with the local community and thus, shows the recognized role of community involvement in settlement upgrading projects. Furthermore, the role of planning institutions and differences is highlighted. The study concludes that community involvement and local leadership championship in informal settlement upgrading are vital elements for the success of the program and towards ensuring development control, coordination and sustainability once the project ends.
A Comparative Analysis of the Alternative Approaches in the Provision of Agricultural Extension Service
N Ozor
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2010,
Abstract: In a climate of declining government support for conventional provision of extension service and the evidence of lack of success of traditional methods, the need for alternative methods is recognized. This study critically examined current alternative approaches in the provision of extension service world-wide stressing the features, gains and shortcomings of each approach. The approaches considered include privatization, commercialization, decentralization (deconcentration, delegation, devolution, and transfer to private firms and NGO), and cost-sharing. One of the key features of all the reforms is that they aim at recovering a part or all of the cost of the provision of extension service so as to take the burden away from the public sector, cut down on expenses, improve management and staff professionalism, and make users’ problems become main priorities. The paper further compared the approaches based on their major characteristic features and country case examples. Finally it recommended that individual countries should endeavor to make situational analysis and independent economic, political and technical determinations, not the use of implantation or formulas, in developing funding and delivery arrangements to provide for agricultural extension service.
Challenges with using estimates when calculating ART need among adults in South Africa
AAM Gerritsen, JS Mitchell, SM Johnson, W Delva
South African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background. The Foundation for Professional Development (FPD) collects information annually on HIV/AIDS service provision and estimates service needs in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality (CTMM). Methods. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) data from the Department of Health and Statistics South Africa (SSA) mid-year population estimates were used to approximate the ART need among adults in the CTMM. Results. According to SSA data, ART need decreased dramatically from 2010 to 2011 and was lower than the number of adults receiving ART. Although the noted difference was probably due to changes in the calculations by SSA, no detailed or confirmed explanation could be offered. Conclusions. We provide a constructive contribution to the discussion regarding the use of model-derived estimates of ART need.
The Relationship between Manufacturing and Service Provision in Operations Management
Xin Jiang
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v4n3p183
Abstract: Operations management is a large segment which is concerned with the existence of any organization. Every organization has an operations function to produce some type of products and/or services. It is well-known that manufacturing differs from service provision in many aspects. The main difference between products and services would be tangibility. While the outputs of manufacturing are tangible, the outputs of service provision are intangible. Some industries are the mixture of both manufacturing and service provision, which provide both products and services. Likewise, the operations managements which different industries apply are also very different. This article is concerning these differences in different areas, providing some industries and some companies for the analysis.
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