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Sri Lankan Presidential Commission of Inquiry (2007): Did it Amount to a Fair Hearing?
Xavier, Sujith;
Anuario mexicano de derecho internacional , 2010,
Abstract: in this paper, the aim is to assess the procedure of the recent sri lankan presidential commission of inquiry and to provide a substantive legal critique of the conflict of interest that troubled the commission.
Is There a Culture of Violence in Colombia?
Peter Waldmann
International Journal of Conflict and Violence , 2007,
Abstract: During the past decade, economic factors have been given a prominent role in explaining political violence. The example of Colombia shows that economic factors can explain the ubiquitous nature of violence in that country only in the context of a socio-culturally rooted propensity to use violence. The study draws on relevant published research to identify evidence of a culture of violence in Colombia and discusses the structural conditions that allow or cause such a culture to arise. It is shown that violence in Colombia cannot be explained without taking into account cultural factors that are in turn dependent on other explanatory factors, including economic ones.
Violence and health in Colombia
Franco Agudelo,Saúl;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49891997000900002
Abstract: in colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. every day, without respite, colombians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. to confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some important, albeit insufficient, responses. violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. doing so is not an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. with that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. the author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein.
Violence and health in Colombia  [cached]
Franco Agudelo Saúl
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1997,
Abstract: In Colombia, violence seems uncontrollable. Along with massacres and group killings of astonishing cruelty, there are also kidnappings and disappearances, abuse of children and the elderly, and rape of young adolescents. Every day, without respite, Colombians are witnesses or victims of street crimes as well as racial, sexual, and socioeconomic discrimination. Unwillingly, they become agents of aggression in public transport, at home, at school, and at work. Colombia has the highest rates of mortality from homicide in the world. Apart from the enormous institutional burden that violence imposes on the health services and forensic medicine, it now constitutes the principal public health problem in the country. To confront it, the health sector must develop policies and finance actions, develop innovative ways to train personnel, implement public education processes, and devote more effort and greater creativity to research, which up to now has provided some important, albeit insufficient, responses. Violence, which is the substitution of force for any type of dialogue, must be considered within the context of life and health. Doing so is not an attempt to rationalize violence, much less to substitute words or reflection for action, but rather an attempt to understand it in depth in order to search for alternatives. With that goal, this article analyzes the subject of violence in Colombia, principally from the perspective of its effect on the health of the citizens and its implications for the health sector. The author fully recognizes the subjectivity and limitations of the views he expresses herein.
The public health context of violence in Colombia
Garfield,Richard; Llanten Morales,Claudia Patricia;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892004001000006
Abstract: objective: among the countries of the americas, colombia has the highest level of deaths due to homicides and armed conflict. the objective of this research was to combine and contrast information from various sources on deaths due to violence in colombia in order to identify major trends in violence in the country and to compare those trends with those in other nations of the americas. methods: we drew together information from a wide array of sources, including the government of colombia, colombian forensic institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and international research centers. we considered the impact of the violence on mortality as well as in such areas as nonfatal injuries, displacement of persons, and kidnappings. results: while there have been many deaths in colombia directly related to military conflict, there have been many more deaths and injuries as an indirect result of war. the highest levels of deaths directly related to violence occurred during the 1990-1995 period. although deaths due directly to armed conflict declined in the late 1990s, the related events of kidnappings and displacement did not. conclusions: efforts to reduce the violence-related suffering in colombia must consider both direct and indirect causes of mortality as well as nonfatal outcomes such as kidnappings and displacement.
DRUGS, VIOLENCE, AND STATE-SPONSORED PROTECTION RACKETS IN MEXICO AND COLOMBIA
Snyder,Richard; Durán Martínez,Angélica;
Colombia Internacional , 2009,
Abstract: illegality does not necessarily breed violence. the relationship between illicit markets and violence depends on institutions of protection. when state-sponsored protection rackets form, illicit markets can be peaceful. conversely, the breakdown of state-sponsored protection rackets, which may result from well-meaning policy reforms intended to reduce corruption and improve law enforcement, can lead to violence. the cases of drug trafficking in contemporary mexico and colombia show how a focus on the emergence and breakdown of state-sponsored protection rackets helps explain variation in levels of violence both within and across illicit markets.
LAS COMISIONES DE ESTUDIO SOBRE LA VIOLENCIA EN COLOMBIA. LA "VOZ CRíTICA" DE UNO DE SUS PROTAGONISTAS (ENTREVISTA CON EL HISTORIADOR GONZALO SáNCHEZ) COMMISSIONS FOR THE STUDY OF THE VIOLENCE IN COLOMBIA. THE "CRITICAL VOICE" ONE OF THEIR PROTAGONISTS (INTERVIEW WITH HISTORIAN GONZALO SANCHEZ)  [cached]
Jefferson Jaramillo Marín
Análisis Político , 2011,
Abstract: En esta entrevista el profesor Gonzalo Sánchez ofrece un testimonio sobre el impacto para Colombia y para las ciencias sociales de dos comisiones de estudio de la violencia en el país (la II Comisión de Estudios sobre la Violencia (1987) y el Grupo de Memoria Histórica, de la Comisión Nacional de Reparación y Reconciliación. Con su visión académica y como parte de dichas comisiones, el profesor Sánchez aborda temas como la memoria, la verdad, la justicia y las víctimas en el contexto del conflicto colombiano. In this interview, Professor Gonzalo Sánchez offers testimony on the impact for Colombia and for the social sciences of two commissions to study violence in the country (the Second Committee for the Study of Violence (1987) and Historical Memory Group, National Commission for Reparation and Reconciliation. With his academic vision and as part of these committees, Professor Sánchez addresses issues such as memory, truth, justice and the victims in the context of the conflict.
War in Colombia testimonial literature: between memory, culture, violence and literature
Jorge Eduardo Suárez Gómez
Universitas Humanística , 2011,
Abstract: Colombia may be characterized as a society ruled over by “a routinization of war and oblivion”. When memories about violent events succeed in articulate themselves and transcend the private space, they are not necessarily incorporated to national memory through “memory policies” in transitional processes. These memories are “deposited” rather than discussed. Testimonial literature is one of those “deposits”. There are times when certain topics, witnesses, authors and narrative treatments attain an unexpected relevance. Such a relevance follows national factors, like the dynamics of conflict and society in Colombia and abroad, such as a “turn to past”. When making a survey across the development of the testimonial genre from mid-20th century Violence up to our times, the gravitation of several cultures of memory is made evident in a society where oblivion appears to prevail.
The logic of the violence in the civil war: The armed conflict in Colombia
Estrada G.,Fernando;
Perfil de Coyuntura Económica , 2011,
Abstract: this article proposes a reading of the armed conflict from an evolutionary design that takes into account the concept of private protection agencies in the works of schelling / nozick / gambetta. their aim is to assess the dynamics of conflict and changes from its author's scientific output. a context of conflicts that includes new expressions of violence and the relative failure of the paramilitary reintegration involves using new analytical models (argumentation, game theory and inconsistent information). the recent evolution of emerging gangs and their expansion into areas that were paramilitary camps requires monitoring not only of the government and the authorities, but those investigating the conflict in the present tense. the author provides heuristic research support from schelling's theory of strategy, nozick's agencies and the protection, and gambetta's recent contributions to the relationship between organized crime and drug cartels.
The trial against Rojas Pinilla and the construction of collective memory in 1950’s Colombia  [PDF]
Alberto Valencia Gutiérrez
Universitas Humanística , 2011,
Abstract: “The Violence” in Colombia in the 1950’s was closed without a trial of responsibilities, without reparation to the victims or a process to assimilate the meaning of what had happened. This paper shows that general Rojas Pinilla’s trial at the Congress of the Republic between August 1958 and April 1959, was not only a way to confer legitimacy upon the political agreement in the National Front, but also a privileged scenario to challenge and discuss the responsibilities on the events, as well as an arena to build and recreate collective memory at that time.
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