Abstract:
Efficient production of short-lived radioactive isotopes in inverse reaction kinematics is an important technique for various applications. It is particularly interesting when the isotope of interest is only a few nucleons away from a stable isotope. In this article production via charge exchange and stripping reactions in combination with a magnetic separator is explored. The relation between the separator transmission efficiency, the production yield, and the choice of beam energy is discussed. The results of some exploratory experiments will be presented.

Abstract:
In this paper, the Steiner area formula and the polar moment of inertia were expressed during one-parameter closed planar homothetic inverse motions in complex plane. The Steiner point was defined when the rotation number was different zero and it was called the Steiner normal when the rotation number was equal to zero. The fixed pole point was given with its components and its relation between Steiner point or Steiner normal was explained. The sagittal motion of a telescopic crane was considered as an example. This motion was described by a double hinge consisting of the fixed control panel of the telescopic crane and the moving arm of the telescopic crane. The theoretical concepts and results were applied for this motion.

Abstract:
this paper presents a new approach to calculate the direct and inverse differential kinematics for serial manipulators. the approach is an extension of the davies method for open kinematic chains based on a virtual kinematic chain concept introduced in this paper. it is a systematic method that unifies the kinematics of serial manipulators considering the type of kinematics and the coordinate system of the operational space and constitutes an alternative way to solve the differential kinematics for manipulators. the usefulness of the method is illustrated by applying it to an industrial robot.

Abstract:
The paper addresses kinematic and geometrical aspects of the Orthoglide, a three-DOF parallel mechanism. This machine consists of three fixed linear joints, which are mounted orthogonally, three identical legs and a mobile platform, which moves in the Cartesian x-y-z space with fixed orientation. New solutions to solve inverse/direct kinematics are proposed and a detailed workspace analysis is performed taking into account specific joint limit constraints.

Abstract:
In general, the kinematics design problems include two types: synthesis of mechanism and inverse of robot. In fact, when we deal with the design problems, the results/outputs usually are given/desired but the inputs are unknown/to be found. People must understand how to control/determine the input variables to satisfy the results/outputs. This paper systematically presents these two types of solution based on transformation matrix and Homotopy continuation method for general kinematics design problems except for mechanism and robot. The kinematic equations, which include displacement, velocity and acceleration relationships, are derived by 4x4 homogeneous transformation matrix method. Also these equations can be solved by Homotopy continuation method when these equations are non-linear.

Abstract:
The FRT quantum group and space theory is reformulated from the standard mathematical basis to an arbitrary one. The $N$-dimensional quantum vector Cayley-Klein spaces are described in Cartesian basis and the quantum analogs of $(N-1)$-dimensional constant curvature spaces are introduced. Part of the 4-dimensional constant curvature spaces are interpreted as the non-commutative analogs of $(1+3)$ kinematics. A different unifications of Cayley-Klein and Hopf structures in a kinematics are described with the help of permutations. All permutations which lead to the physically nonequivalent kinematics are found and the corresponding non-commutative $(1+3)$ kinematics are investigated. As a result the quantum (anti) de Sitter, Minkowski, Newton, Galilei kinematics with the fundamental length, the fundamental mass and the fundamental velocity are obtained.

Abstract:
This paper presents and treats (in an original way) the specific elements of the structures of robotic solid mobile anthropomorphic type. Are "placed on the wallpaper", the geometry and kinematics of the anthropomorphic robotic solid systems, in an original vision of the authors. One presents the inverse kinematics of anthropomorphic systems, with mechanical elements and points: Geometry, cinematic, positions, displacements, velocities and accelerations. They will be presented further two methods (as the most representatives): First one the method trigonometric and second one the geometric method.

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the adaptive control problem for robotic systems with both the uncertain kinematics and dynamics. By a new formulation of the unknown kinematic system, we propose an adaptive control scheme that includes a new kinematic parameter adaptation law to realize the objective of task-space trajectory tracking irrespective of the uncertain kinematics and dynamics. Unlike most existing results that rely on the approximate transpose Jacobian feedback, the proposed controller employs the inverse Jacobian feedback. The new kinematic parameter adaptation law and the inverse Jacobian feedback supplies the proposed control scheme with the desirable decomposition property and the convenient accommodation of the performance issues. The performance of the proposed control is shown by numerical simulations.

Abstract:
We derive the value of H_0 using the inverse diameter and magnitude B-band Tully-Fisher relations and the large all-sky sample KLUN (5171 spiral galaxies). Our kinematical model was that of Peebles centered at Virgo. Our calibrator sample consisted of 15 field galaxies with cepheid distance moduli measured mostly with HST. A straightforward application of the inverse relation yielded H_0\approx 80 km/sec/Mpc for the diameter relation and H_0\approx 70 km/sec/Mpc for the magnitude relation. H_0 from diameters is about 50 percent and from magnitudes about 30 percent larger than the corresponding direct estimates (cf. Theureau et al. 1997b). This discrepancy could not be resolved in terms of a selection effect in log V_max nor by the dependence of the zero-point on the Hubble type. We showed that a new, calibrator selection bias (Teerikorpi et al. 1999), is present. By using samples of signicificant size (N=2142 for diameters and N=1713 for magnitudes) we found for a homogeneous distribution of galaxies (alpha=0) H_0\approx 50 km/sec/Mpc for both the diameters and magnitudes. Also H_0's from a fractal distribution of galaxies (decreasing radial number density gradient alpha=0.8) agree with the direct predictions. This is the first time when the inverse Tully-Fisher relation clearly lends credence to small values of the Hubble constant H_0 and to long cosmological distance scale consistently supported by Sandage and his collaborators.

Abstract:
I summarize recent observations of the kinematics of hot tracers in elliptical galaxy halos (globular clusters, planetary nebulae, and integrated stellar light), and what these tell us about the dynamics, dark matter content, and formation of ellipticals. A generic result is the ubiquity of dark matter halos in ellipticals. Studies of globular clusters and planetary nebulae are now finding outer-halo rotation in many ellipticals, with V/sigma ~ 1 beyond a few R_e. In some giant ellipticals (M49, M87), there are possible kinematic differences between metal-poor and metal-rich globular clusters. These results are consistent with a merger origin for ellipticals. High-quality data and new modelling techniques now make it possible to determine simultaneously the orbital anisotropy and gravitational potential in ellipticals from integrated-light measurements; such studies now provide the best evidence for dark matter halos in ellipticals.The new generation of 8-10m telescopes, with multi-object and integral-field spectrographs, will dramatically increase sample sizes of discrete tracers and provide two-dimensional spectroscopy of elliptical halos. New methods of analysis will allow robust determinations of stellar kinematics and dark matter distributions in a much larger number of ellipticals. Comparison with numerical simulations, which are becoming ever more detailed and physically realistic, will become increasingly important.