oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
The Obesity Paradox and Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Paul A. McAuley,Nancy S. Smith,Brian T. Emerson,Jonathan N. Myers
Journal of Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/951582
Abstract: Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3±7.2 years) male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS). Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs) using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third) and fit (upper two-thirds); and by body mass index (kg/m2): nonobese (18.5−29.9) and obese (≥30.0). Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (=0.01) and 1.9 (=0.03) times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit.
Relationship of Body Fat and Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Children  [PDF]
Pei-gang Wang,Jie Gong,Su-qing Wang,Evelyn O. Talbott,Bo Zhang,Qi-qiang He
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027896
Abstract: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body fat play an important role in elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the combined effects of CRF and obesity on metabolic health in Chinese children are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent and combined associations between body fat, CRF, and CVD risk in Chinese schoolchildren.
Relationships of Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Metabolic Risk Factors, Inflammation, and Liver Transaminases in Overweight Youths  [PDF]
Dominique Bouglé,Gautier Zunquin,Bruno Sesbou?,Jean-Pierre Sabatier
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/580897
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the relationships of fatness and fitness with metabolic risk factors, including liver transaminases and inflammation in obese youth, taking in account gender, age, and pubertal stage. 241 children were studied (135 girls), age years ( ), Body Mass Index z score . For girls, was significantly associated with insulin ( ), Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ( ), and ALT ( ); a relationship was displayed between fibrinogen and age and % fat mass (FM) ( ); for boys, relationships were found between and diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides; independent associations were also found between age and insulin, HOMA-IR and HDL cholesterol; fibrinogen and sedimentation rate were related ( ) with %FM. Their relationships are observed from young age and increase with the continuous increase of factors. This supports the need to treat overweight as soon as it is detected; improving CRF is one of the ways which could be used to prevent the complications of obesity. 1. Introduction Overweight is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, even in youth [1, 2]. It is also associated with a decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), which is liable to contribute to obesity itself. Several large reports clearly show a relationship between decreased CRF and the occurrence of metabolic risk factors in overweight adults and youth. Whether fitness and fatness have independent influences on metabolic risk, however, is not fully explained [3, 4]. Some of the studies addressed only one individual factor [5–9] but most of them clustered these risks in “metabolic syndrome” (MS) [8, 10–13]; MS usually associates with obesity, dyslipoproteinemia (raised triglyceride and/or reduced HDL-cholesterol levels), hypertension, and insulin resistance or diabetes, but variables included in the MS and their relative weight vary among definitions; the last of them was given by the International Diabetes Federation [14]. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is frequently associated with MS, so that it has been proposed as a core feature of it [15, 16]. In addition inflammation is never included in the criteria of MS, while it seems to be involved in the development of its consequences [1, 17]. The value of MS concept itself is still debated [18]. A recent WHO Expert Consultation came to the conclusions that it is not a useful diagnostic or management tool [19]. The present study assessed the respective relationships of CRF and fatness on individual components of MS, including liver transaminases as a surrogate of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [15, 16];
Kung Fu Training Improves Physical Fitness Measures in Overweight/Obese Adolescents: The “Martial Fitness” Study  [PDF]
Tracey W. Tsang,Michael R. Kohn,Chin Moi Chow,Maria Antoinette Fiatarone Singh
Journal of Obesity , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/672751
Abstract: Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was %. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper ( 73026310 ) and lower ( ) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance ( ), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness ( ), lower body muscle endurance ( ; significant 95% CI: 0.37–2.49), and upper body muscle velocity ( ) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness. 1. Introduction Apart from being associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, people who are obese are also more susceptible to impairments in muscle strength, cardiovascular fitness, and physical performance [1–6]. Impaired physical function and low cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with poorer general health [1], and increased metabolic risk [7, 8], and may lead to pain and discomfort, as well as reduced mobility [9]. In more recent years, the physical function of obese adults has worsened compared to a decade ago [10], which has grave implications for today’s youth, in which obesity prevalence is steadily increasing [11]. Even by high school age (mean age: 16 years), relationships between overweight/obese status and increased functional limitation [1] and poorer cardiorespiratory fitness [12] have been established in adolescents. Additionally, there is now evidence to show that poorer muscle strength is linked to higher levels of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, not only in adults [13], but also in adolescents [14], further justifying the need to investigate physical fitness outcomes in the overweight/obese adolescent population. Aerobic exercise and/or resistance training programs have been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness [15–18] and muscle strength [19–22] in overweight/obese adolescents in many controlled trials. It is thus clear that high intensity aerobic or resistance programs are beneficial to physical fitness in overweight and obese
Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary content, and risk factors that cause a predisposition towards cardiovascular disease
Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto;Guedes, Joana Elisabete Ribeiro Pinto;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0066-782X2001000900005
Abstract: objective: to analyze associations between levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary content, and risk factors that cause a predisposition towards cardiovascular disease. methods: sixty-two individuals aged between 20 and 45 years were evaluated. levels of physical activity were established by estimates of energy demand corresponding to everyday activity; indices for cardiorespiratory fitness were obtained from estimates of maximal oxygen consumption; information about dietary content was obtained from dietary records kept on seven consecutive days. to indicate risk factors that cause a predisposition towards cardiovascular disease, use was made of body mass indexes, waist-hip circumference relationships, levels of arterial pressure and of plasma lipid-lipoprotein concentration. to establish associations between the variables studied, multiple regression analysis was used. results: physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness levels were inversely correlated with the amount and distribution of body fat and arterial pressure. taken together, the two variables were responsible for between 16% and 19% of the variation in arterial pressure. total and saturated fat ingestion was associated with higher serum lipid levels. both dietary components were responsible for between 49% and 61% of the variation in ldl-cholesterol. conclusion: high ingestion of food rich in total and saturated fat and decreased levels of physical activity and of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which supports previous data.
Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary content, and risk factors that cause a predisposition towards cardiovascular disease  [cached]
Guedes Dartagnan Pinto,Guedes Joana Elisabete Ribeiro Pinto
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia , 2001,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To analyze associations between levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary content, and risk factors that cause a predisposition towards cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Sixty-two individuals aged between 20 and 45 years were evaluated. Levels of physical activity were established by estimates of energy demand corresponding to everyday activity; indices for cardiorespiratory fitness were obtained from estimates of maximal oxygen consumption; information about dietary content was obtained from dietary records kept on seven consecutive days. To indicate risk factors that cause a predisposition towards cardiovascular disease, use was made of body mass indexes, waist-hip circumference relationships, levels of arterial pressure and of plasma lipid-lipoprotein concentration. To establish associations between the variables studied, multiple regression analysis was used. RESULTS: Physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness levels were inversely correlated with the amount and distribution of body fat and arterial pressure. Taken together, the two variables were responsible for between 16% and 19% of the variation in arterial pressure. Total and saturated fat ingestion was associated with higher serum lipid levels. Both dietary components were responsible for between 49% and 61% of the variation in LDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: High ingestion of food rich in total and saturated fat and decreased levels of physical activity and of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which supports previous data.
Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Risk, and Inflammation in Children  [PDF]
Antonios D. Christodoulos,Helen T. Douda,Savvas P. Tokmakidis
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/270515
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations among cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in children. The sample consisted of 112 children (11.4??±??0.4 years). Data was obtained for children’s anthropometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS components, and CRP levels. MetS was defined using criteria analogous to the Adult Treatment Panel III definition. A MetS risk score was also computed. Prevalence of the MetS was 5.4%, without gender differences. Subjects with low fitness showed significantly higher MetS risk ( ) and CRP ( ), compared to the high-fitness pupils. However, differences in MetS risk, and CRP between fitness groups decreased when adjusted for waist circumference. These data indicate that the mechanisms linking cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS risk and inflammation in children are extensively affected by obesity. Intervention strategies aiming at reducing obesity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood might contribute to the prevention of the MetS in adulthood. 1. Introduction The prevalence and severity of obesity is increasing dramatically among children and adolescents in many parts of the world, whereas prevalence rates are estimated to increase in the next decades [1]. In children, excess body fat appears to be strongly associated with the clustering of risk factors, such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which play a key role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) [2]. Obesity and the MetS risk in children have been recently associated with systemic inflammatory markers, in particular C-reactive protein (CRP) [3, 4], implying that low-grade inflammation can already exist in childhood and may be a potential link between the obesity and the MetS. Among behavioral variables, cardiorespiratory fitness has a protective role in MetS and inflammatory factors; however, it is not entirely clear if the interrelations among cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS risk, and inflammation in children are independent or partly due to the mediating effect of obesity, since the existing data are limited and equivocal [5, 6]. Recent evidence indicates that the prevalence rates of childhood obesity in Greece remain high [1, 7] and often coexist with low cardiorespiratory fitness [8] and an unfavorable cardiometabolic risk profile [9]. For the Greek pediatric population these data suggest an increased cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood, given that high-risk children and adolescents are likely to become high-risk adults [10]. Although the
Novel risk factors of cardiovascular disease and their associations between obesity, physical activity and physical fitness  [cached]
Duncan S. Buchan,Non E. Thomas,Julien S. Baker
Journal of Public Health Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/jphr.2012.e11
Abstract: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing around the globe and is the leading cause of death around the world. Though once thought of as an adult problem, it is now recognised that the early manifestations of disease may occur during childhood. Numerous risk factors have been linked to CVD with much of the research focusing on understanding the prevalence and relationship of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, psychosocial stress, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption to the early etiology of disease. While this line of investigation has greatly enhanced our understanding of the relationship between these risk factors and disease, they do not fully explain all cardiovascular events. To enhance our understanding and help with the management of CVD, investigations that involve the measurement of traditional as well as novel risk factors may be necessary. Public health strategies that aim to reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight encourage youth to increase their physical activity levels as a means of protecting against poor cardiometabolic profiles. Interventions that increase physical activity levels and improve cardiorespiratory fitness cause a reduction in certain CVD risk factors but the lack of agreement between findings makes it impossible to give precise recommendations that will ensure CVD risk reduction. Yet it is important that research continues in order to establish the most appropriate means of improving the health and well-being of those at most risk of future CVD.
Relationships between overweight, obesity and physical fitness of nine- to twelve-year-old South African children
L Truter, AE Pienaar, D Du Toit
South African Family Practice , 2010,
Abstract: Background: South African children show the same tendencies in overweight and obesity as children in developed countries a decade ago. Childhood overweight is associated with chronic diseases, early mortality in adulthood and psycho-social effects with lifelong consequences. This study aimed to determine relationships between overweight, obesity and physical fitness of nine- to twelve-year-old South African children. Methods: Anthropometric (body-mass index [BMI], fat percentage) and physical fitness (cardiovascular endurance, body composition, muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility) measurements were obtained from 280 children aged nine to twelve years (128 boys, 152 girls) using the Fitnessgram and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency II. International cut-off points were used to categorise children into normal-weight, overweight or obese categories. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Spearman rank order correlation and variance of analysis. Results: One in five children was overweight or obese, while girls were twice as likely as boys to be obese. Aerobic capacity and muscle strength, especially leg strength, decreased progressively with an increase in BMI. A progressive but nonsignificant decline was found in muscle endurance with increasing BMI, while flexibility showed the poorest relationships with various degrees of weight. Variance of analysis indicated significant relationships between BMI, cardiovascular endurance and strength (p < 0.05), while different relationships were found when gender was taken into consideration. Conclusions: Health-enhancing physical fitness of young children is negatively affected by overweight and obesity, and intervention strategies are recommended to improve the quality of life of such childre,n but also to prevent early mortality during adulthood.
Association of Low Muscle Mass and Combined Low Muscle Mass and Visceral Obesity with Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness  [PDF]
Tae Nyun Kim, Man Sik Park, You Jeong Kim, Eun Ju Lee, Mi-Kyung Kim, Jung Min Kim, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jong Chul Won
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100118
Abstract: Objective Previous studies have shown that low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), visceral obesity and low muscle mass may share pathophysiological mechanisms, such as insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether low CRF is associated with low muscle mass, visceral obesity, and visceral obesity combined with low muscle mass. Research Design and Methods The associations between CRF and low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity were examined in 298 apparently healthy adults aged 20–70 years. Low muscle mass was defined using a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) that was calculated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral fat area (VFA) exceeding 100 cm2 in women and 130 cm2 in men. We classified the participants into 4 low muscle mass/visceral obesity groups according to SMI and VFA. CRF was measured using a cycle ergometer test. Results CRF level correlated positively with SMI and negatively with VFA. Individuals with low muscle mass had lower CRF values than those without low muscle mass. After adjustment for age, sex, lifestyle factors, and markers for insulin resistance and inflammation, participants in the lowest quartile of CRF had an odds ratio (OR) for low muscle mass of 4.98 compared with those in the highest quartile (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19–12.99; P for trend = 0.001) and an OR for combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity of 31.46 (95% CI = 4.31–229.68; P for trend = 0.001). Conclusions Individuals with lower CRF exhibited increased risk of low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity. These results suggest that low CRF may be a potential indicator for low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity in Korean adults.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.