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Residual Luminescence in Quartz from Slack Water Deposits in Kaveri Basin, South India: A Single Aliquot Approach
Manoj K. Jaiswal, Yue Gau Chen, Vishwas S. Kale, Hema Achyuthan
Geochronometria , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10003-009-0009-1
Abstract: Optical bleaching of quartz may be incomplete due to decreased daylight intensity and narrower wavelength spectrum in water column, leading to age overestimation in young fluvial sediments. This hypothesis was tested on a low energy slack water deposits from Kaveri Basin in south India using the SAR protocol. Various tests suggest successful application of SAR on quartz from the study area despite low sensitivity and few numbers of bright grains. Partial bleaching can be ruled out if using SAR on small aliquots. The results suggest a uniform residual luminescence and a common sedimentary condition in this area. Due to partial bleaching, the lowest values of palaeodoses should be considered in preference to the average values.
Epidemiological aspects of japanese encephalitis in bellary, karnataka, india  [PDF]
Anuradha SK,Surekha YA , Sathyanarayan MS , Suresh S , Satish P,Mariraj J , Krishna S , Ravikumar RF
International Journal of Biological and Medical Research , 2011,
Abstract: Background: A study was conducted in VIMS hospital at Bellary during the epidemic of August 2004 to July 2005. Objectives: To know the association of Japanese encephalitis occurrence with epidemiological factors. Materials and methods: 82 children admitted to the Paediatric ward, VIMS, Bellary with clinical diagnosis of acute viral encephalitis, during the epidemic of August 2004 to July 2005 were studied. After pooling the samples, they were subjected to J.E. MAC ELISA. The association of epidemiological factors with both suspected cases as well as the positive cases was studied. Results: In this study the role of epidemiological features involved in J.E. is well documented. Both the suspected patients as well as the serologically confirmed cases of Japanese encephalitis were more associated with living in rural areas with unhygienic living conditions. Many of them were from the low socio economic group. More number of J.E. cases and flaviviral infections occurred in the rainy season followed by in the winter season. Conclusion: J.E. is the most common form of sporadic and epidemic encephalitis in the tropical regions and should be ruled out first before considering the other viral causes. Illiteracy, low socio economic status and living in unhygienic conditions near rice fields contributed to the high incidence of J.E. in and around Bellary. Residents in endemic areas should take personal protection to reduce the number of mosquito bites. The peak incidence of J.E. is seen from October to December which is the post monsoon period in the area of study.
Acute childhood diarrhoea in northern Ghana: epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics
Klaus Reither, Ralf Ignatius, Thomas Weitzel, Andrew Seidu-Korkor, Louis Anyidoho, Eiman Saad, Andrea Djie-Maletz, Peter Ziniel, Felicia Amoo-Sakyi, Francis Danikuu, Stephen Danour, Rowland N Otchwemah, Eckart Schreier, Ulrich Bienzle, Klaus Stark, Frank P Mockenhaupt
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-7-104
Abstract: Stool specimens of 243 children with acute diarrhoea and of 124 control children were collected. Patients were clinically examined, and malaria and anaemia were assessed. Rota-, astro-, noro- and adenoviruses were identified by (RT-) PCR assays. Intestinal parasites were diagnosed by microscopy, stool antigen assays and PCR, and bacteria by culturing methods.Watery stools, fever, weakness, and sunken eyes were the most common symptoms in patients (mean age, 10 months). Malaria occurred in 15% and anaemia in 91%; underweight (22%) and wasting (19%) were frequent. Intestinal micro-organisms were isolated from 77% of patients and 53% of controls (P < 0.0001). The most common pathogens in patients were rotavirus (55%), adenovirus (28%) and norovirus (10%); intestinal parasites (5%) and bacteria (5%) were rare. Rotavirus was the only pathogen found significantly more frequently in patients than in controls (odds ratio 7.7; 95%CI, 4.2–14.2), and was associated with young age, fever and watery stools. Patients without an identified cause of diarrhoea more frequently had symptomatic malaria (25%) than those with diagnosed intestinal pathogens (12%, P = 0.02).Rotavirus-infection is the predominant cause of acute childhood diarrhoea in urban northern Ghana. The abundance of putative enteropathogens among controls may indicate prolonged excretion or limited pathogenicity. In this population with a high burden of diarrhoeal and other diseases, sanitation, health education, and rotavirus-vaccination can be expected to have substantial impact on childhood morbidity.Diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in socio-economically developing countries. More than one billion episodes of diarrhoea occur every year among children under five years of age causing approximately 2.5 million deaths [1,2] The WHO Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group estimates that 16% of deaths in African children younger than five years are directly attributable to diarrhoeal dise
Carbon and oxygen isotope geochemistry of Neoproterozoic limestones of the Shahabad Formation, Bhima basin, Karnataka, southern India
Nagarajan, Ramasamy;Sial, Alcides N.;Armstrong-Altrin, John S.;Madhavaraju, Jayagopal;Nagendra, Raghavendra;
Revista mexicana de ciencias geológicas , 2008,
Abstract: petrography, major (including four trace elements), stable isotopes (carbon and oxygen), and 87sr/86sr geochemistry of limestones of the shahabad formation, bhima basin, karnataka, southern india are reported. these limestones show a narrow range of δ13c (1.34-1.96) and δ18o ( -6.04 to - 7.61 ) values. the petrographic study reveals the presence of microsparite and micro- and macrostylolites. the δ13c and 87sr/86sr values indicate that these limestones were deposited during the late neoproterozoic age and the δ18 o values also are very similar to the average proterozoic carbonate values. mn and sr concentrations and low mn/sr ratio (<1) together with the stable and radiogenic isotope data suggest that the studied samples are well-preserved or scarcely altered limestones and probably have retained their primary isotopic signatures.
Epidemiological factors in admissions for diarrhoea in 6 - 60-month-old children admitted to Morogoro Regional Hospital, Tanzania
R Oketcho, ED Karimuribo, CNM Nyaruhucha, S Taybali
South African Journal of Child Health , 2012,
Abstract: Objectives. To describe the diarrhoea admissions and the influencing factors in 6 - 60-month-old children at Morogoro Regional Hospital. Design. A retrospective descriptive study of the type of diarrhoea, patient age, home address, nutritional status, diagnosed infection, month of admission, admission duration and outcome. Setting. A hospital-based study: paediatric admissions at Morogoro Regional Hospital. Subjects. All children aged 6 - 60 months admitted to the infectious diseases ward over the 60-month period from May 2006 to April 2011. Results. A total of 4 988 records were extracted, among which the prevalence of diarrhoea was 2 855 (57.2%). Among the 2 855 children with diarrhoea, the majority (2 536 (88.8%)), were 6 - 24 months old, with peak admissions at 7 months and 12 months. District of residence, season, undernutrition and infection were the factors significantly associated (p<0.001) with the age at which children were admitted with diarrhoea. Conclusions. There were increased numbers of admissions for diarrhoea at the ages of 7 months and 12 months, during the dry season and together with diagnosed infection, particularly malaria. However, further study on causes of childhood diarrhoea, given the identified risk factors, may better explain the epidemiology of diarrhoea in Morogoro.
Taxonomic and epidemiological aspects of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 species through the observation of the secondary structures in the 5' genomic untranslated region
Massimo Giangaspero,Ry? Harasawa,Laura Weber,Angelo Belloli
Veterinaria Italiana , 2008,
Abstract: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2) strains demonstrated in cattle, sheep and adventitious contaminants of biological products were evaluated by the palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS) method at the three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3) in the 5’ untranslated region (UTR), to determine their taxonomic status. Variation in conserved genomic sequences was used as a parameter for the epidemiological evaluation of the species in relation to geographic distribution, animal host and virulence. Four genotypes were identified within the species. Taxonomic segregation corresponded to geographic distribution of genotype variants. Genotype 2a was distributed worldwide and was also the only genotype that was circulating in sheep and cattle. Genotypes 2b, 2c and 2d were restricted to South America. Genotypes 2a and 2d were related to the contamination of biological products. Genetic variation could be related to the spread of BVDV-2 species variants in different geographic areas. Chronologically, the species emerged in North America in 1978 and spread to the United Kingdom and Japan, continental Europe, South America and New Zealand. Correlation between clinical features related with isolation of BVDV-2 strains and genetic variation indicated that subgenotype 1, variant 4 of genotype 2a, was related to a haemorrhagic syndrome. These observations suggest that the evaluation of genomic secondary structures, by identifying markers for expression of virus biological activities and species evolutionary history, may be a useful tool for the epidemiological evaluation of BVDV-2 species and possibly of other species of the genus Pestivirus.
Geochemistry of Neoproterozoic shales of the Rabanpalli Formation, Bhima Basin, Northern Karnataka, southern India: implications for provenance and paleoredox conditions
Nagarajan, Ramasamy;Madhavaraju, Jayagopal;Nagendra, Raghavendra;Armstrong-Altrin, John Selvamony;Moutte, Jacques;
Revista mexicana de ciencias geológicas , 2007,
Abstract: the rabanpalli formation exhibits two types of shales, viz. grey and calcareous shales. these shales (grey and calcareous) have been analysed for major, trace, and rare earth elements to find out their source rocks characteristics and paleo-oxygenation conditions. the grey shales have higher concentration of sio2, al2o3, fe2o3, k2o, zr, th, u, v, cr, la, ce, and y than calcareous shales, whereas calcareous shales are enriched in cao, mn, sr, ba, cu, and zn, which indicate that the carbonate phase minerals are higher in calcareous shales. the positive correlation of k2o with other elements, and abundance of al2o3, ba, th, and rb suggest that these elements are primarily controlled by the dominant clay minerals. la/sc, th/sc, th/co, th/cr, and cr/th ratios of shales were compared with those of sediments derived from felsic and basic rocks (fine fraction), upper continental crust (ucc) and post-archean australian average shale (paas) ratios, which reveal that these ratios are within the range of felsic rocks. the la/sc vs. th/co plot also suggests the felsic nature of the source rocks. the shales show slightly light rare earth element (lree) enriched and flat heavy rare earth element (hree) patterns with negative eu anomaly, and are similar to the granitoids from dharwar craton, which suggest that the archean dharwar craton contributed the sediments to the bhima basin. the geochemical parameters such as u, authigenic u, u/th, v/cr, ni/co, and cu/zn ratios indicate that these shales were deposited under oxic environment.
Diarrhoea and malnutrition
E.D Nel
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: The relationship between diarrhoea and malnutrition is bidirectional: diarrhoea leads to malnutrition while malnutrition aggravates the course of diarrhoea. Many factors contribute to the detrimental effect of diarrhoea on nutrition. Reduced intake (due to anorexia, vomiting, and withholding of feeds), maldigestion, malabsorption, increased nutrient losses, and the effects of the infl ammatory response are some of the factors involved. High volume stool losses (greater than 30 ml/kg/day) are associated with a negative balance for protein, fat, and sugar absorption. Enteric infections often cause increased loss of endogenous proteins, particularly after invasive bacterial infections. Initially, the major emphasis of treatment of acute diarrhoea in children is the prevention and treatment of dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities and comorbid conditions. The objectives of diarrhoeal disease management are to prevent weight loss, to encourage catch-up growth during recovery, to shorten the duration and to decrease the impact of the diarrhoea on the child’s health. Addressing only diarrhoea or only food security is unlikely to be successful in decreasing the prevalence of malnutrition. Existing evidence provides some guidelines as to the optimal nutritional management of children with diarrhoea and novel treatments may prove to be valuable in future.
Cancer Incidence in the Ecuadorian Amazon Basin: An Epidemiological descriptive study  [PDF]
Wilmer Tarupi,Maria Blettner,Peter Kaatsch
Revista Peruana de Epidemiologia , 2012,
Abstract: Objetive: Despite the fact that cancer is underreported in most Latin American countries, available data suggest that it has progressively become a major cause of concern throughout the region. To provide additional descriptive information on cancer incidence in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon Basin (NEAB), different sources of data were used. Methods: Cancer cases from the NEAB in the period 1985-2003 reported by the National Cancer Registry (NCR) of Ecuador were used to calculate incidence rates. Incidence rates were obtained in periods of five-years and were compared with those found at national and international level. The population at risk was estimated according to two consecutive national censuses (1990; 2001). Results: 1 415 cases of cancer (858 women and 557 men) reported by the NCR were analyzed. The most frequent cancers in the NEAB are in line with those found at national level. During the period 2000-2003, the age-standardized rates (ASR) were highest for cervical and stomach cancer among women with 19.9 (IC95% 10.9 - 28.9) and 5.9 (IC95% 0.6 - 10.8) cancer cases per 100 000 habitants/year respectively. For men stomach cancer was the most frequent type with 7.7 (IC95% 2.3 - 13) cases per 100 000 habitants/year. The ASR of cervix cancer is among the highest reported by cancer registries internationally. About 50% of the cancer cases were diagnosed in people with primary education (6 school years) in both men and women. Conclusion: The analysis that evidenced a high underreporting rate, outlines first but incomplete insights into pattern of cancer incidence trends in NEAB. It will be of high importance for the health system to develop sound monitoring and registration practices to inform and generate evidence-based health policy and support comprehensive cancer care and its prevention without neglecting sociocultural aspects.
Bendre And Linguistic Movement In Karnataka
Golden Research Thoughts , 2012, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: Language has been a binding factor and also the strength of the people of a region. Thus, language provided the base for the growing nationalist movement in Karnataka in late 19th and early 20th century. The people, more particularly the intelligentsia, protested against Kannada being replaced or dominated by other languages, especially the neighbouring regional ones like Marathi, Telugu. The resistance was surprisingly not much against English, the official language of the ruling class. The movement that initially started as a protest against linguistic oppression soon morphed into one that demanded a separate state to be created consolidating all Kannada-speaking regions. Thus, making the unification of Karnataka one of the major historical events in India.The paper is an attempt to study the linguistic movement in Karnataka during late 19th and early 20th century. D.R. Bendre, the noted Kannada poet represent a significant moment in the history of Karnataka. Here an attempt has been made to analyse his role in the unification movement
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