Abstract:
One of the most popular class of tests for independence between two random variables is the general class of rank statistics which are invariant under permutations. This class contains Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation statistic, Fisher-Yates statistic, weighted Mann statistic and others. Under the null hypothesis of independence these test statistics have a permutation distribution that usually the normal asymptotic theory used to approximate the p-values for these tests. In this note we suggest using a saddlepoint approach that almost exact and need no extensive simulation calculations to calculate the p-value of such class of tests.

Abstract:
We present a simple a bijection between permutations of $\{1,..., n\}$ with $k$ descents and permutation tableaux of length $n$ with $k$ columns.

Abstract:
The random permutation is the Fra\"iss\'e limit of the class of finite structures with two linear orders. Answering a problem stated by Peter Cameron in 2002, we use a recent Ramsey-theoretic technique to show that there exist precisely 39 closed supergroups of the automorphism group of the random permutation, and thereby expose all symmetries of this structure. Equivalently, we classify all structures which have a first-order definition in the random permutation.

Abstract:
Permutation tests are often presented in a rather casual manner, in both introductory and advanced statistics textbooks. The appeal of the cleverness of the procedure seems to replace the need for a rigorous argument that it produces valid hypothesis tests. The consequence of this educational failing has been a widespread belief in a “permutation principle”, which is supposed invariably to give tests that are valid by construction, under an absolute minimum of statistical assumptions. Several lines of argument are presented here to show that the permutation principle itself can be invalid, concentrating on the Fisher-Pitman permutation test for two means. A simple counterfactual example illustrates the general problem, and a slightly more elaborate counterfactual argument is used to explain why the main mathematical proof of the validity of permutation tests is mistaken. Two modifications of the permutation test are suggested to be valid in a very modest simulation. In instances where simulation software is readily available, investigating the validity of a specific permutation test can be done easily, requiring only a minimum understanding of statistical technicalities.

Abstract:
A permutation P on {1,..,N} is a_fast_forward_permutation_ if for each m the computational complexity of evaluating P^m(x)$ is small independently of m and x. Naor and Reingold constructed fast forward pseudorandom cycluses and involutions. By studying the evolution of permutation graphs, we prove that the number of queries needed to distinguish a random cyclus from a random permutation on {1,..,N} is Theta(N) if one does not use queries of the form P^m(x), but is only Theta(1) if one is allowed to make such queries. We construct fast forward permutations which are indistinguishable from random permutations even when queries of the form P^m(x) are allowed. This is done by introducing an efficient method to sample the cycle structure of a random permutation, which in turn solves an open problem of Naor and Reingold.

Abstract:
Given a permutation statistic $s : S_n \to \mathbb{R}$, define the mean statistic $\bar{s}$ as the statistic which computes the mean of $s$ over conjugacy classes. We describe a way to calculate the expected value of $s$ on a product of $t$ independently chosen elements from the uniform distribution on a union of conjugacy classes $\Gamma \subseteq S_n$. In order to apply the formula, one needs to express the class function $\bar{s}$ as a linear combination of irreducible $S_n$-characters. We provide such expressions for several commonly studied permutation statistics, including the excedance number, inversion number, descent number, major index and $k$-cycle number. In particular, this leads to formulae for the expected values of said statistics.

Abstract:
We propose several techniques to construct complete permutation polynomials of finite fields by virtue of complete permutations of subfields. In some special cases, any complete permutation polynomials over a finite field can be used to construct complete permutations of certain extension fields with these techniques. The results generalize some recent work of several authors.

Abstract:
Given independent samples from P and Q, two-sample permutation tests allow one to construct exact level tests when the null hypothesis is P=Q. On the other hand, when comparing or testing particular parameters $\theta$ of P and Q, such as their means or medians, permutation tests need not be level $\alpha$, or even approximately level $\alpha$ in large samples. Under very weak assumptions for comparing estimators, we provide a general test procedure whereby the asymptotic validity of the permutation test holds while retaining the exact rejection probability $\alpha$ in finite samples when the underlying distributions are identical. The ideas are broadly applicable and special attention is given to the k-sample problem of comparing general parameters, whereby a permutation test is constructed which is exact level $\alpha$ under the hypothesis of identical distributions, but has asymptotic rejection probability $\alpha$ under the more general null hypothesis of equality of parameters. A Monte Carlo simulation study is performed as well. A quite general theory is possible based on a coupling construction, as well as a key contiguity argument for the multinomial and multivariate hypergeometric distributions.

Abstract:
In this article, we describe an algorithm to determine whether a permutation class C given by a finite basis B of excluded patterns contains a finite number of simple permutations. This is a continuation of the work initiated in [Brignall, Ruskuc, Vatter, Simple permutations: decidability and unavoidable substructures, 2008], and shares several aspects with it. Like in this article, the main difficulty is to decide whether C contains a finite number of proper pin-permutations, and this decision problem is solved using automata theory. Moreover, we use an encoding of proper pin-permutations by words over a finite alphabet, introduced by Brignall et al. However, unlike in their article, our construction of automata is fully algorithmic and efficient. It is based on the study of pin-permutations in [Bassino, Bouvel, Rossin, Enumeration of pin-permutations, 2011]. The complexity of the overall algorithm is O(n log n + s^{2k}) where n denotes the sum of the sizes of permutations in the basis B, s is the maximal size of a pin-permutation in B and k is the number of pin-permutations in B.

Abstract:
In theory of Coxeter groups, bigrassmannian elements are well known as elements which have precisely one left descent and precisely one right descent. In this article, we prove formulas on enumeration of bigrassmannian permutations weakly below a permutation in Bruhat order in the symmetric groups. For the proof, we use equivalent characterizations of bigrassmannian permutations by Lascoux-Schutzenberger and Reading.