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Self-disclosure of HIV diagnosis to sexual partners by heterosexual and bisexual men: a challenge for HIV/AIDS care and prevention
Paiva, Vera;Segurado, Aluisio C.;Filipe, Elvira Maria Ventura;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2011000900004
Abstract: this study investigated the disclosure of hiv-positive serostatus to sexual partners by heterosexual and bisexual men, selected in centers for hiv/aids care. in 250 interviews, we investigated disclosure of serostatus to partners, correlating disclosure to characteristics of relationships. the focus group further explored barriers to maintenance/establishment of partnerships and their association with disclosure and condom use. fear of rejection led to isolation and distress, thus hindering disclosure to current and new partners. disclosure requires trust and was more frequent to steady partners, to partners who were hiv-positive themselves, to female partners, and by heterosexuals, occurring less frequently with commercial sex workers. most interviewees reported consistent condom use. unprotected sex was more frequent with seropositive partners. suggestions to enhance comprehensive care for hiv-positive men included stigma management, group activities, and human rights-based approaches involving professional education in care for sexual health, disclosure, and care of "persons living with hiv".
HIV heterosexual transmission to stable sexual partners of HIV-infected Brazilian hemophiliacs
Nicolau, José Eduardo;Benard, Gil;Fonseca, Luis Augusto Marcondes;Casseb, Jorge Sim?o Rosário;Sato, Maria Natomi;Cianga, Marcia;Tanji, Mauri Massani;Lorenzi, Therezinha Ferreira;Duarte, Alberto José da Silva;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 1996, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31801996000300008
Abstract: nineteen brazilian hiv-infected hemophiliacs and their stable heterosexual sexual partners were studied with the aim of assessing the rate of hiv transmission in this at risk group. the mean length of relationship between couples was 7.4 years. the hemophiliac men were class ii (n=6), iii (n=11) and iva (n=2) of the cdc classification. they had decreased cd4+ and elevated cd8+ cell numbers; five had p24 antigenemia. we found 3 hiv-infected women (15.8 percent) by routine and confirmatory tests, a prevalence similar to that seen in other countries. they were asymptomatic and had no detectable p24 antigenemia. the 3 seropositive women's partners were class ii and iii-cdc, and had normal cd4+ and cd8+ values and no p24 antigenemia. all seronegative women also had normal cd4+ and cd8+ numbers, except for elevated cd8+ cells in three of them, but immune abnormalities had already been seen in some seronegative partners at high risk for hiv infection. our results reinforce previous suggestions that heterosexual transmission to stable female partners occurs preferentially early after initiation of sexual exposure, and possibly when the transmitter has high levels of viremia and regular sexual activity.
Heterosexual and Homosexual Partners Practising Unprotected Sex May Develop Allogeneic Immunity and to a Lesser Extent Tolerance  [PDF]
Cherry Kingsley,Barry Peters,Kaboutar Babaahmady,Laura Pomeroy,Durdana Rahman,Robert Vaughan,Thomas Lehner
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007938
Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggest that allogeneic immunity may inhibit HIV-1 transmission from mother to baby and is less frequent in multiparous than uniparous women. Alloimmune responses may also be elicited during unprotected heterosexual intercourse, which is associated ex vivo with resistance to HIV infection.
Prevalence of DNA-HPV in Male Sexual Partners of HPV-Infected Women and Concordance of Viral Types in Infected Couples  [PDF]
Maria Gabrielle de Lima Rocha, Fabio Lopes Faria, Leonor Gon?alves, Maria do Carmo M. Souza, Paula ávila Fernandes, Ana Paula Fernandes
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040988
Abstract: Investigation of HPV infection in men remains important due to its association with genital warts and anorectal cancer, as well as to the role men play in HPV transmission to their female sexual partners. Asymptomatic men (n = 43), whose sexual partners had presented cervical HPV infection, were enrolled in this study. Among the 43 men, 23 had their female partner included and tested for HPV-DNA, totaling 23 couples. HPV-DNA was detected by PCR. Type specific PCR to detect HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45 and 6/11 was performed. At least one type of HPV was detected in 86.0% (37/43) of the male patients and more than one HPV type was identified in 39.5% (17/43) of the samples, including high and low risk HPV. HPV-16 proved to be the most prevalent viral type in both male and female samples. Concordance of at least one viral type was observed in 56.5% (13/23) of the couples. Among couples that have shown concordance of viral types, 84.6% (11/13) of the men had the same high risk viral type presented by the female sexual partner. These data suggest that HPV infected men is an important reservoir, contributing to a higher transmission to women and maintenance of infection, and consequently, a higher risk of developing cervical cancer. HPV vaccination in men will protect not only them but will also have implications for their sexual partners.
Limited evidence of HCV transmission in stable heterosexual couples from Bahia, Brazil
Bessa, Márcia;Rodart, Itatiana Ferreira;Menezes, Gisele Barreto Lopes;Carmo, Theomira Mauadi de Azevedo;Athanazio, Daniel A.;Reis, Mitermayer G.;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702009000400004
Abstract: hcv infected patients frequently ask their physician about the risk of transmission to their partners. although it is easy to answer that the risk does exist, it is difficult to quantify. we studied the transmission of hcv infection in stable heterosexual couples: anti-hcv positive patients in hemodialytic therapy and their partners. thirty-four couples were tested by third generation elisa and riba. blood samples of anti-hcv positive patients were evaluated by rt-pcr and detected sequences were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism. concordance of infection was observed in only one couple in which both subjects were in dialytic therapy. one other partner had two positive elisa tests and an indeterminate riba, with negative rt-pcr, which may suggest a false positive or a previous resolved infection. either sexual relations, sharing of personal items and history of parenteral exposure (hemodialysis, blood transfusion) could explain transmission in the only couple with concordant infection. we observed, in accordance with previous reports, that this risk is minimal or negligible in stable heterosexual couples.
Viral Linkage in HIV-1 Seroconverters and Their Partners in an HIV-1 Prevention Clinical Trial  [PDF]
Mary S. Campbell,James I. Mullins,James P. Hughes,Connie Celum,Kim G. Wong,Dana N. Raugi,Stefanie Sorensen,Julia N. Stoddard,Hong Zhao,Wenjie Deng,Erin Kahle,Dana Panteleeff,Jared M. Baeten,Francine E. McCutchan,Jan Albert,Thomas Leitner,Anna Wald,Lawrence Corey,Jairam R. Lingappa
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016986
Abstract: Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519) was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners.
Determinants of condom use with occasional partners among MSM in Ukraine  [cached]
Nadiya Klymenko,Tatiana Andreeva
Tobacco Control and Public Health in Eastern Europe , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered a high-risk group for HIV. As condom use prevents HIV transmission, a study of factors associated with condom use with occasional partners (CUWOP) among MSM was undertaken.METHODS: Case-control study with 866 participants was nested in a cross-sectional survey among MSM conducted in 2007. Controls were those who used a condom during the most recent sexual contact with an occasional partner, and cases – those who did not. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, other risky behaviors, HIV knowledge and sources of information. Bivariate analysis used chi-square test and multivariate – binary logistic regression.RESULTS: Better knowledge and use of harm reduction services (HRS) was associated with safer behaviors. Those respondents, who were unaware whether HIV testing was available to them, had a greater risk of unprotected sex: OR = 2.344 (95%CI 1.09-5.00) as well as those who were unclear about the quality of condoms they get from HRS. Among those not covered by HRS, older MSM and those who have multiple commercial partners are at higher risk of unprotected sex. Among those attending HRS, a major barrier to use condoms is their perception as diminishing sensitivity: OR=4.143 (95%CI 1.305-13.152). The dose-dependent association was found with frequency of alcohol consumption – unsafe sexual contacts were more likely in daily alcohol users compared to those who used alcohol on a monthly basis: OR=2.264 (95%CI 1.041-4.923). DISCUSSION: Low CUWOP is typical for those MSMs who practice other risky behaviors including frequent alcohol use, contacts with multiple commercial sex partners and non-use of HRS which include provision of information, condoms and testing. Thus HIV prevention depends not only on the fact whether preventive services are provided but whether they are used by the target group.
Determinants of Export Services of USA with its Asian Partners: A Panel Data Analysis  [PDF]
Sandeep KAUR
Eurasian Journal of Business and Economics , 2011,
Abstract: Trade in services has accounted for 20 per cent of global trade. Despite the increasing importance of services trade in global economy, there has been limited research on service trade which uses determinants driving such trade. The present paper has examined the export potential in service sector of USA with its Asian trade partners (Japan, China, India, Singapore, South Korea and Hong Kong) by taking into account geographic, economic and other features. The approach is based on gravity model, widely used to analyze trade in goods and has more recently been applied to service sector. Being a nature of study is of panel data i.e. for 9 years (2000-2008) and six cross sections, the study used panel data methodology. The study revealed that USA has export potential in services for India and Japan. Regarding the convergent and divergent economies, USA had convergence in exports with three Asian countries (Hong Kong, India and Korea) and divergence with three Asian countries (Japan, China and Singapore). There is a large scope for export expansion for Hong Kong, India and Korea.
The Dynamics of Condom Use with Regular and Casual Partners: Analysis of the 2006 National Sexual Behavior Survey of Thailand  [PDF]
Aphichat Chamratrithirong,Paulina Kaiser
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042009
Abstract: This study aims to determine factors associated with levels of condom use among heterosexual Thai males in sex with regular partners and in sex with casual partners.
HPV Prevalence and Concordance in the Cervix and Oral Cavity of Pregnant Women  [PDF]
E. M. Smith,J. M. Ritchie,J. Yankowitz,D. Wang,L. P. Turek,T. H. Haugen
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2004, DOI: 10.1080/10647440400009896
Abstract: Objectives: This investigation examined human papillomavirus (HPV) in pregnant women in order to characterize viral prevalence, types and concordance between infection in the cervix and in the oral cavity.
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