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Comparative studies on enhanced oil recovery by alkali–surfactant and polymer flooding
Abhijit Samanta,Achinta Bera,Keka Ojha,Ajay Mandal
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technologies , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13202-012-0021-2
Abstract: Chemical flooding methods are now getting importance in enhanced oil recovery to recover the trapped oil after conventional recovery. In the present study, a comprehensive study has been carried out on alkali, surfactant and polymer flooding. The chemicals with different compositions and combinations were used to recover the oil after conventional water flooding. It has been observed that increase in concentration of alkali, surfactant and polymer increases the additional recovery, but beyond a certain limit, the increase in recovery is only marginal. A series of flooding experiments using the combination of the above methods have been performed with additional recoveries more than 25 %. An analysis has been made on the relative cost of the different chemical slugs injected and the corresponding additional oil recovery. Based on the analysis, an optimum composition of the alkali–surfactant–polymer system has been recommended.
Study of the multiple-profile control system to enhance oil recovery after polymer flooding
Q. H. Feng,X. C. Chen,M. D. Sun
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technologies , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13202-012-0029-7
Abstract: There is still half oil remaining in the reservoir after polymer flooding. This paper has carried out the laboratory studies on multi-profile control and displacement system to enhance oil recovery after polymer flooding. First of all, the multiple system comprising a gel particle, cross-linking agent and high effective surfactant, is screened according to specific criteria. Then the profile control experiments on binary and ternary system after polymer flooding are separately carried out to verify the potential of enhanced oil recovery. The results show that the multiple injection system not only blocks the high permeable layers and channels, but also makes full use of medium and low permeability layers, finally improving the whole sweep efficiency. Owing to the surfactant injection, the displacement efficiency is simultaneously improved to some extent, and thus greatly improves the oil recovery after polymer flooding.
Experimental Study on the Properties and Displacement Effects of Polymer Surfactant Solution  [PDF]
Ke-Liang Wang,Lei-Lei Zhang,Xue Li,Yang-Yang Ming
Journal of Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/956027
Abstract: Based on the characteristics of oil reservoirs and the requirements of further enhancing oil recovery at high water cut stage of Pubei Oilfield, the displacement performance of polymer surfactant is evaluated. Reasonable injection parameters and oil displacement effects after water flooding are also researched. Compared with conventional polymer with intermediate molecular weight, polymer surfactant has the properties of higher viscosity at low concentration condition and lower interfacial tension. Laboratory experiments indicate that the displacement effect of polymer surfactant is much better than that of conventional polymer at a slug size of 0.57?PV. The oil recovery of polymer surfactant increases by more than 10% after water flooding. Considering the actual situation of low-permeability of Pubei Oilfield reservoirs, the system viscosity of 30?mPa·s is chosen. The corresponding concentration of Type III polymer surfactant is 600?mg/L and the injected slug is 0.57?PV and the oil recovery can be increased by 11.69%. 1. Introduction Polymer flooding has already entered the industrial application period in major reservoirs of Daqing Oilfield, and pilot trial has also been conducted in Pubei Oilfield, one of the many oilfields of Daqing Oilfield. Both laboratory and field data have shown that polymer flooding could improve oil recovery by nearly 10%, but this value was not perfect [1]. It was indicated that the oil recovery of ASP flooding was 20% higher than that of water flooding in Daqing Oilfield pilot tests [2, 3]. However, some problems such as formation damage due to alkali scale, production well pollution, and effluent treatment difficulties appeared in ASP development process [4, 5]. Experimental results showed that the oil recovery of binary combination flooding in major reservoirs increased by more than 15% [6]. However, the adsorption, diffusion, and migration properties of different chemical agents in porous media are quite different. This difference may result in the phenomenon of chromatographic separation and negative synergistic effect during the mixture system simultaneous flow [7]. In recent years, some functional groups have been grafted to hydrocarbon main chains to form a multivariate graft copolymer which is called functional polymer surfactant (also referred to as polymer surfactant) [8, 9]. As a new type of polymer, polymer surfactant is a single component oil displacement agent. In addition to the general nature of polymer, polymer surfactant can improve solubilization and emulsification capacity of crude oil in the absence of
Polyvinyl Alcohol with Superior Flooding Properties to Enhance Oil Recovery Process  [cached]
O. Arjmand,S. Izadi,M. Mousavi,V. Rahmanian
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Polymer flooding is one of most important Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR) processes. This study concerns two key parameters influencing polymer flooding efficiency. As it is expected, some of key parameters such as: salinity and reservoir temperature and pressure, play important roles in improving oil recovery through polymer flooding. Regarding the fact that Hydrolyzed Poly Acryl Amid (HPAM) decomposes in high temperature and pressure conditions, only reservoirs with medium temperature and pressure are suitable for polymer flooding technique. On the other hand, viscosity of polymer solution decreases in high reservoir salinity, therefore HPAM is not effective for reservoirs with high salinity and temperature .We strongly believe that Poly vinyl Alcohol (PVA), as a viscous surfactant and IFT reducer, would be stable in extreme conditions of high salinity and high temperature (above 480o F) and therefore, it can be used for reservoirs with high salinity and temperature.
Investigation of polymer and surfactant-polymer injections in South Slattery Minnelusa Reservoir, Wyoming
Panqing Gao,Brian Towler
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technologies , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13202-010-0002-2
Abstract: This paper presents an investigation of the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential in the South Slattery Minnelusa formation. The South Slattery Field, which is characterized by low permeability and high saline brine, is stepping into the economic limits of secondary waterflood. A chemical flooding simulation model which was based on experimental parameters was set up for the potential investigation of EOR. Both polymer and surfactant-polymer floods were investigated. The recoveries of these EOR methods are presented, and the development efficiencies are analyzed.
Chemical Structure of Surfactant-Grafted Polyacrylamide Used in Oilfields  [PDF]
Tingting Jiang, Haiyu Wang, Baohui Wang
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2014.49043
Abstract: Surfactant-grafted Polyacrylamide (S-PAM) flooding is a new technique used in Daqiang Oil Field in China and also a novel way for improving the recovery efficiency of primary oil layer after polymer flooding. S-PAM flooding technology is perfected gradually with the proceeding of multiple polymer surfactant oil displacement tests. Test results showed that the S-PAM used in field was greatly different with conventional ones. Therefore, it is necessary to study the chemical structure of S-PAM. Aiming at making clear the chemical structure of S-PAM, this study characterized the two commonly used S-PAM in oil field through chemical analysis and Fourier infrared spectrometer detection and analyzed the main composition and chemical structure of the two S-PAM.
An experimental study on ASP process using a new polymeric surfactant
Khaled Abdalla Elraies
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technologies , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13202-012-0039-5
Abstract: This paper presents an alternative chemical formulation using a new polymeric surfactant to improve the conventional alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding. It is a one-component system for interfacial tension reduction and viscosity control. To simulate the conventional ASP flooding, the performance of the polymeric surfactant was studied in the absence and presence of sodium carbonate. The most outstanding feature of the new polymeric surfactant lies in its viscosity insensitivity towards an increasing alkali concentration up to 1.2 wt%. This feature makes the new formula superior to the conventional ASP process. A combination of alkali and surfactant with a concentration of 0.8 and 0.4 wt% was found to significantly reduce the interfacial tension while maintaining the desired solution viscosity. The optimal polymeric surfactant concentration was then validated in coreflood experiments using different surfactant concentrations. Using the optimum surfactant and alkali concentrations, tertiary oil recovery could reach 16.3 % of the original oil in place by injecting a 0.5 pore volume of the formulated slug. This makes the new polymeric surfactant promising because it has structural feature that can be modified to give a width range of interfacial tension reduction and viscosity control to suit reservoir conditions.
Scientific research and field applications of polymer flooding in heavy oil recovery
Chang Hong Gao
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technologies , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13202-011-0014-6
Abstract: According to past experiences, polymer flood was not recommended for oil viscosity higher than 100 centipoises. In recent years, polymer flood becomes a promising technology for heavy oil recovery thanks to the widespread use of horizontal wells. This paper highlights the research advances of polymer in heavy oil recovery since 1977. In laboratory tests, polymer achieved tertiary recovery of more than 20% for heavy oil. A few field cases in China, Canada, Turkey, Suriname and Oman are also reviewed and analysed. Some field pilots have shown positive results. Field experiences indicate the major challenge facing polymer flooding effectiveness is to maintain good viscosity of polymer solution.
Investigation on Mechanisms of Polymer Enhanced Oil Recovery by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Microscopic Theoretical Analysis

ZHANG Ji-Cheng,SONG Kao-Ping,LIU Li,YANG Er-Long,

中国物理快报 , 2008,
Abstract: Polymer flooding is an efficient technique to enhance oil recovery over water flooding. There are lots of discussions regarding the mechanisms for polymer flooding enhancing oil recovery. The main focus is whether polymer floodingcan increase sweep efficiency alone, or can increase both of sweep efficiency and displacement efficiency. We present a study on this problem. Oil displacement experiments on 4 natural cores show that polymer flooding can increase oil recovery efficiency by more than 12% over water. Moreover, photos are taken by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method both after water flooding and after polymer flooding, which show remaining oil saturation distribution at the middle cross section and the central longitudinal section. Analyses of these photos demonstrate that polymer flooding can increase both sweep efficiency and displacement efficiency.
高温高盐高黏油藏缔合聚合物-表面活性剂二元驱技术
Technology of PolymerSurfactant Flooding on HighTemperature, HighSalinity and HighViscosity Reservoir
 [PDF]

庄永涛,刘鹏程,郝明强
ZHUANG Yongtao
, LIU Pengcheng, HAO Mingqiang

- , 2017,
Abstract: 摘要: 针对大港油田孔南地区高温、高盐、中低渗、稠油等制约化学驱提高采收率的瓶颈技术问题,以官1091断块枣Ⅴ油组为目标油藏,在优选适合缔合聚合物和表面活性剂基础上,进行聚合物-表面活性剂二元驱技术室内实验和现场应用研究。通过室内实验优选,缔合聚合物APP7和表面活性剂BHS01二元体系溶液与常规体系相比,具有较好的耐温抗盐性,拓展了常规二元驱适用油藏的温度和矿化度范围;缔合聚合物经过岩心剪切后仍能够有效建立阻力系数和残余阻力系数;通过岩心驱替实验,体系能有效提高稠油油藏的采收率,拓宽了聚合物驱适用的原油黏度范围;矿场单井试注后,注入井注入压力和启动压力升高,纵向吸水剖面得到改善,说明该体系在高温高盐条件下仍能保持较高黏度,能够有效改善水油流度比,效果明显。
Abstract: According to the technical bottleneck problems of hightemperature, highsalt,middlelow permeability and heavy oil,which has become the constraints to enhance oil recovery, the lab and field experiment researches of polymersurfactant flooding technology were carried out based on the oil formation of V in G109-1 reservoir after the polymer and surfactant systems were optimized. Through to the laboratory optimization,the association polymer AP-P7 and the surfactant BHS-01 system had better temperatureresistance and saltresistance than the regular system, and this result extended the temperature and salinity scope of application; The association polymer could build the resistance coefficient and residual resistance factor effectively after the core shearing. According to the core displacement experiments,this system could enhance the heavy oil recovery factor,which extended the oil viscosity scope of application. After the well injection test in the field, the starting and the injecting pressure increased and the longitudinal profilelog monitoring was improved,which could demonstrate that this system could reduce the mobility ratio of oil to water obviously
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