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Association of exclusive smokeless tobacco consumption with hypertension in an adult male rural population of India
Ambarish Pandey, Nivedita Patni, Sasmit Sarangi, Mansher Singh, Kartavya Sharma, Ananth K Vellimana, Somdutta Patra
Tobacco Induced Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1617-9625-5-15
Abstract: All male residents of a village in north India above 15 years of age, who did not have any acute or chronic morbidity were included after taking an informed consent. Subjects were interviewed regarding their demographic profile, socioeconomic status and tobacco consuming habits. Current smokeless tobacco user was defined as one who has ever consumed tobacco orally in past 1 month. Blood pressure of the subjects was also recorded. Cut offs used for systolic and diastolic hypertension were 140 mm hg and 90 mm Hg respectively.443 subjects were included in the study. Prevalence of exclusive ST users was 21% while 19.4% consumed both forms and 26.6% did not take any form of tobacco. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were significantly higher in exclusive ST users(systolic BP=139.2+17.4,diastolic BP = 86.8+11.5)as compared to the non users(systolic BP= 135.7+18.8 , diastolic BP= 82.6 +11.5; p value < 0.05). The prevalence of diastolic hypertension was significantly higher in exclusive ST users as compared to non users ( 40.9%, 22.9% ;p value = 0.01) . The OR for diastolic hypertension in male ST users was 2.3( 95% C.I. = 1.3-4.3). Prevalence of systolic hypertension was higher in exclusive ST users too though this was not statistically significant (43%,36.4%;p value = 0.39.).ST consumption is associated with increased prevalence of high BP in the adult male rural population.This is an indicator of increased predisposition to major adverse cardiac events later in their life time. Prevention of ST consumption could be an important intervention in preventing the ongoing upswing in prevalence of chronic heart disease.Tobacco consumption is a major source of mortality and morbidity in India. According to estimates there are approximately 5 million deaths due to tobacco consumption annually which is expected to reach 10 million by 2025. Currently over 20% of worldwide tobacco related mortality occurs in India [1,2].In developing countries like India, tobacco consumption is mainly
Self-reported tobacco smoking practices among medical students and their perceptions towards training about tobacco smoking in medical curricula: A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey in Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh
Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Sushil Suri, Ritesh G Menezes, HN Harsha Kumar, Mahbubur Rahman, Md R Islam, Xavier V Pereira, Mohsin Shah, Brijesh Sathian, Ullasa Shetty, Vina R Vaswani
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1747-597x-5-29
Abstract: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical students in Malaysia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire included items on demographic information, students' current practices about patients' tobacco smoking habits, their perception towards tobacco education in medical schools on a five point Likert scale. Questions about tobacco smoking habits were adapted from GHPSS questionnaire. An 'ever smoker' was defined as one who had smoked during lifetime, even if had tried a few puffs once or twice. 'Current smoker' was defined as those who had smoked tobacco product on one or more days in the preceding month of the survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated.Overall response rate was 81.6% (922/1130). Median age was 22 years while 50.7% were males and 48.2% were females. The overall prevalence of 'ever smokers' and 'current smokers' was 31.7% and 13.1% respectively. A majority (> 80%) of students asked the patients about their smoking habits during clinical postings/clerkships. Only a third of them did counselling, and assessed the patients' willingness to quit. Majority of the students agreed about doctors' role in tobacco control as being role models, competence in smoking cessation methods, counseling, and the need for training about tobacco cessation in medical schools. About 50% agreed that current curriculum teaches about tobacco smoking but not systematically and should be included as a separate module. Majority of the students indicated that topics about health effects, nicotine addiction and its treatment, counselling, prevention of relapse were important or very important in training about tobacco smoking.Medical educators should consider revising medical curricula to improve training about tobacco smoking cessation in medical schools. Our results should be supported by surveys from other medical schools in developing countries of Asia.Tobacco use is one of the l
An international review of tobacco smoking among medical students  [cached]
Smith D,Leggat P
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: We conducted a systematic international review of tobacco smoking habits among medical students. Particular attention was paid to countries where smoking rates have been historically well-documented in local journals, but were less often included in larger international review articles. The methodology involved a search of relevant medical subject headings, after which the reference lists of journal papers were also examined to find additional publications. A total of 66 manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. The most common countries previously studied included India, the United States, Australia, Japan, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Overall, our review suggests that the prevalence of smoking among medical students varies widely amongst different countries and also between male and female students within the same areas. Consistently low smoking rates were found in Australia and the United States, while generally high rates were reported in Spain and Turkey. Given their important future role as exemplars, more effective measures to help reduce tobacco smoking among medical students are clearly needed worldwide.
Tobacco use in Indian high-school students
Pal Ranabir,Tsering Dechenla
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2009,
Abstract: To assess the prevalence rate of tobacco use among high-school students in India, we had done a systematic review. Through an extensive search in the indexed literature and website-based population survey reports, 15 epidemiologic studies were identified of tobacco use among Indian high-school (6 th -12 th classes) students from 200 potentially relevant articles during 1991-2007. We included those articles that had been included at least once in life-time experience as positive cases. Wide differences in samples and primary outcome variables in these studies were observed. The median prevalence of ever users of tobacco was 18.15% and IQR 9.42-53.9%. In 13-15 years old male and female students had the prevalence of 14.00% with IQR 8.50-22.50% and 6.34% with IQR 1.9020.00%, respectively. This new finding indicates the that prevalence of tobacco ever use among high-school students in India is quiet high.
Psychosocial Determinants of Tobacco Use among School Going Adolescents in Delhi, India  [PDF]
Varun Kumar,Richa Talwar,Neelam Roy,Deepak Raut,Saudan Singh
Journal of Addiction , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/170941
Abstract: Background. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world. Many psychosocial factors were found to influence tobacco use. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the role of psychosocial factors associated with tobacco use among school going adolescents in Delhi, India. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2013 to September 2013 in four government schools in South district of Delhi, India. The questionnaire contains questions adapted from GYTS (Global Youth Tobacco Survey) to find the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among adolescents. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results. The prevalence of ever and current tobacco use was found in 16.4% and 13.1%. Current smoking and current tobacco chewing were found in 10.2% and 9.4% students, respectively. The risk of current tobacco use was found to be higher among males ( value = 0.000) and in those who got higher pocket money ( value = 0.000). Psychosocial factors like lower general self-efficacy and maladjustments with peers, teachers, and schools were also found to be significant predictors of current tobacco use. Conclusion. The study has revealed higher prevalence of ever and current tobacco use among adolescent students in Delhi, India. 1. Introduction Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of premature death and disease in the world [1]. A disproportionate share of the global tobacco burden falls on developing countries, where 84% of 1.3 billion current smokers reside. Nearly 70% of the world’s smokers live in low and middle-income countries [2]. The World Health Organization (WHO) attributes approximately 5 million deaths a year to tobacco. The number is expected to exceed 10 million deaths by 2020, with approximately 70% of these deaths occurring in developing countries [3]. India is the second largest consumer of tobacco in the world. The tobacco situation in India is unique because of a vast spectrum of tobacco products available for smoking as well as smokeless use. The early age of initiation underscores the urgent need to intervene and protect this vulnerable group from falling prey to this addiction. In India alone, nearly 1 in 10 adolescents in the age group 13–15?yr have ever smoked cigarettes and almost half of these report initiating tobacco use before 10?yr of age. Addiction to tobacco and harmful nontobacco products by youth is assuming alarming proportion in India [4]. Recent studies have found that tobacco use is increasing among school children in India and a sizeable
Adolescents' perceptions about smokers in Karnataka, India
Upendra M Bhojani, Maya A Elias, Devadasan N
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-563
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified random sampling with probability proportional to school-type (government or private owned). Data was collected using a pretested, self-administered, anonymous questionnaire with a mix of close and open-ended questions from a sample of 1087 students. Chi-square test was used to measure associations. Qualitative data was analysed through inductive coding.The response rate for the study was 82.5% and the sample population had a mean age of 16.9 years (SD = 1.9) with 57.8% male students. Majority of respondents (84.6%) reported negative perceptions about smokers while 20.4% of respondents reported positive perceptions. Female students reported significantly higher disapproval rate (negative perceptions) for smoking compared to male students (89.7% Vs 71.6% in case of male smoker; 81.2% Vs 67.3% in case of female smoker). Dominant themes defining perceptions about smokers included 'hatred/hostility/Intolerance', 'against family values/norms', 'not aware of tobacco harms' and 'under stress/emotional trauma'. Themes like 'culture', 'character' and 'power' specifically described negative social image of female smoker but projected a neutral or sometimes even a positive image of male smoker. There was a significant association between adolescents' positive perceptions of smokers and tobacco use by themselves as well as their close associates.Adolescents' stereotypes of smokers, especially female smokers are largely negative. We suggest that tobacco control interventions targeting adolescents should be gender specific, should also involve their peers, family and school personnel, and should go beyond providing knowledge on harmful effects of smoking to interventions that influence adolescents' social construct of smoking/smoker.Prevalence of tobacco use among adolescents in India is quite high. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 2006 indicated that the national prevalence of current tobacco use among school-going
Tobacco control in India
Shimkhada,Riti; Peabody,John W.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862003000100010
Abstract: legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. india, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (dalys) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. india's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. in the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. a new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. it includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in india. the indian government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.
Tobacco control in India  [cached]
Shimkhada Riti,Peabody John W.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003,
Abstract: Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.
Tobacco control in India  [cached]
Chaly Preetha
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2007,
Abstract: Portuguese introduced tobacco to India 400 years ago. Ever since, Indians have used tobacco in various forms. Sixty five per cent of all men and 33% of all women use tobacco in some form. Tobacco causes over 20 categories of fatal and disabling diseases including oral cancer. By 2020 it is predicted that tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. A major step has to be taken to control what the World Health Organization, has labeled a ′smoking epidemic′ in developing countries. India′s anti-tobacco legislation, first passed in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance including banning smoking in public places, advertising and forbidding sale of tobacco to minors. Preventing the use of tobacco in various forms as well as treating nicotine addiction is the major concern of dentists and physicians. The dental encounter probably constitutes a "teachable moment" when the patient is receptive to counseling about life- style issues. Both policy makers and health professionals must work together for achieving a smoke free society for our coming generations.
Tobacco abuse and physical activity among medical students  [cached]
Gawlikowska-Sroka A,Dzieciolowska E,Szczurowski J,Kamienska E
European Journal of Medical Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/2047-783x-14-s4-86
Abstract: Objective This lifestyle is mainly determined during childhood and connected with poor public prophylactic health policy. The aim of this study was to estimate physical activity and level of tobacco abuse, as well as knowledge about health behaviours, among medical students. Methods Questionnaires were completed by Polish (243) and foreign medical students (80). Results It was stated that about 20% of the students smoked cigarettes. Female students from Norway took up smoking significantly more often than other participants, whereas there were more smokers among those from Poland. There was a significantly larger percentage of smoking males from Norway than among male Polish students. The same students presented a low level of physical activity. The smallest level of physical activity was characteristic of the Polish women. Conclusion This situation requires an intensification of activities aimed at supporting pro-health lifestyles and the elimination of unfavourable effects, especially among medical students.
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