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AN OVERVIEW OF REGULATIONS THAT PROTECT REAL ESTATE STOCKS, REITS AND DERIVATIVE INVESTORS IN HONG KONG
Rita Yi Man LI,Yi Lut LI
Lex et Scientia , 2011,
Abstract: All investors seek to make money. The repeated financial crises in recent years not only caused many people to lose their money; it also reminds us of the importance of financial regulations to reduce investors’ losses due to improper business activities in a company or stock market. Together with London and New York, Hong Kong is one of the best known financial markets in the world. Real estate investment does not rest on direct investments in hotels, residential units, or the stock market. In this decade, Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) and derivatives provide a new source of investment. Yet, the huge volume of transactions coupled with increasingly complicated investment tools also implies that the rules of the legal system affect many people. While many European countries and China follow civil law systems, Hong Kong follows a common law system. Judge-made law forms one of the major sources of law and lays down the important rules on indirect real estate investment. The code of practice and legislation also provide a framework for investors and entrepreneurs.
Interpolating Greedy and Reluctant Algorithms  [PDF]
P. Contucci,C. Giardina',C. Giberti,F. Unguendoli,C. Vernia
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: In a standard NP-complete optimization problem we introduce an interpolating algorithm between the quick decrease along the gradient (greedy dynamics) and a slow decrease close to the level curves (reluctant dynamics). We find that for a fixed elapsed computer time the best performance of the optimization is reached at a special value of the interpolation parameter, considerably improving the results of the pure cases greedy and reluctant.
As crises do capitalismo democrático
Streeck, Wolfgang;
Novos Estudos - CEBRAP , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-33002012000100004
Abstract: the article retraces the successive economic crises in the capitalist countries since the 1970's, reading them as the result of tensions and contradictions between capitalist markets and democratic politics.
Between Dependency and Autonomy – Taiwanese Entrepreneurs and Local Chinese Governments
Chun-yi Lee
Journal of Current Chinese Affairs , 2010,
Abstract: This paper focuses on the changing interaction between Taiwanese entrepreneurs and local Chinese governments. Through the analysis of this changing process, it can be seen that Taiwanese businesses are a special “asset” of Chinese governments. The main argument of this paper is that both central and local governments in China have strategic considerations in respect of Taiwanese businesses. The Chinese central government values Taiwanese businesses because more Taiwanese investment in China strengthens the Beijing government in negotiations with the Taibei government. Nevertheless, since the Kuomintang (KMT) (Guomindang) regained power in 2008, the strategic value of Taiwanese businesses in the cross-Strait relationship seems to have decreased. The central government has created a profitable macro-environment enabling local officials to give a warm welcome to Taiwanese businesses. Chinese local governments value Taiwanese businessmen not only because of the central government’s deliberate policy but also because they are pursuing their own self-interest. This paper firstly focuses on the changing interaction between Taiwanese businesses and Chinese local governments. It then further analyses the different but complementary interests of both central and local governments in China in relation to Taiwanese investors.
Investors’ Purchasing Behaviour via a Behavioural Finance Approach  [cached]
Duygu Firat,Sibel Fettahoglu
International Journal of Business and Management , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v6n7p153
Abstract: According to the Efficient Markets Hypothesis, investors have complete knowledge regarding the financial markets. As a result, they behave rationally. However, investors are affected by internal and external factors when making decisions. Therefore, the objective of the study examines investors’ profiles and to distinguish different demographic groups in terms of their perspective towards stock markets, other financial markets and socio – cultural factors. The other objective of the study is to gauge the importance scale of the factors that drive investors purchase behaviour in the decision-making process. The questions of which social dynamics determine prices in markets which factors investors take into account and which information resources they use when making decisions have not been adequately investigated in the Turkish context, Kocaeli, an industrial city, was preferred as a sampling area. ANOVA and X2 were used to test variables. As a conclusion, investors are not always rationally, they behave with their feelings in decision making process of investment.
Dairy Sector in the Crises: The Case of Turkey
Sema Gun,I. Coskun Ceylan,Ilkay Dellal,Gulsen Keskin,Emine Olhan,Gursel Dellal
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2010.429.435
Abstract: Agriculture especially animal product markets are vulnerable in the crises times. The 2006-2008 period has passed within different crises in entire world. Each crisis has an effect on agricultural sector. Extreme meteorological events due to climate change, food crises and finally Global Financial Crises in 2006-2008 affect the number of actors. In this study, it was studied that the outlook of the agricultural sector and dairy sub sector in Turkey in this period. Therefore, general structure of crises, economic and sectoral developments were given. And dairy sub sector expected to be mostly affected was examined as a case.
Investors’ perception on mutual funds with reference to Chidambaram town
N. Geetha,M. Ramesh
Perspectives of Innovations, Economics and Business , 2011,
Abstract: Mutual funds in India play a vital role in mobilizing funds for capital and financial markets. The role of mutual funds in India felt significant as it generates funds from small investors at large across the country. The main objective of the study is to elucidate the perceptions and behaviors of the small investors located in the town of Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, South India towards the mutual funds and also suggest some measures to increase the quantum of investors and investments as well.
What Role Have Banks in Financial Crises?
Alin Marius ANDRIES
Review of Economic and Business Studies (REBS) , 2009,
Abstract: Financial crises mainly manifest themselves at the level of financial institutions. Although financial crises can also be generated within non-financial institutions, the role of banking institutions in the occurrence, transmitting and solving of financial crises is a deciding one. Banks play a deciding role in the development of financial crises as financial intermediaries who contribute to the efficient transfer of funds from the abundant agent towards the deficit agents. Banks can facilitate the financial crises through the activities performed on the financial markets that can influence the interest rates, the uncertainty on the market and the price of assets, but moreover bank crises can occur that transform financial crises. This paper aims to analyze the role of banks in the emergence, the propagation, the prevention or solving financial crises.
Legal Protection of Business Investors in Nigerian Stock Exchange  [PDF]
Ajabor, Ifeanyi E.,Osadi, B. E.
International Journal of Advanced Legal Studies and Governance , 2011,
Abstract: This review x-rayed the fundamental areas where investors are protected under some Nigerian laws. However, the rationale behind investors' protection is twofold. Firstly, to protect investors from fraud and secondly to ensure that the security markets work efficiently without suffering from fraud. The study therefore periscoped the legal framework for investors protection, fiduciary duty of directors and the surrounding provisions which enjoins a director to observe utmost good faith, best interest of the company, interest of the employees, powers for proper purpose, duty not to abdicate power and much more. Conclusively, it was recommended among others that investors' protection should be provided under the Nigerian laws supported with proper enlightenment campaign so as to avoid fraud and high interest investment companies from exploiting them.
Bond markets and banking crises in emerging market economies: The role of institutions
Boukhatem Jamel
Panoeconomicus , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/pan1205625b
Abstract: This paper deals with the question of knowing if countries whose activity of financing is mainly bank based face crises more expensive than those where the bond markets are broader and more developed. The results of the empirical tests on a panel of emerging countries suggest that bank based financial systems are associated with crises slightly more expensive, whereas the relationship between the bond markets and the crises’ costs is fragile. Moreover, financial systems where bond markets play an important role are associated with a higher growth of the production, and this, independently of the presence or not of crises. The consideration of the combined effect of financial liberalization and institutional framework on the bond markets development shows the importance of the direction of the financial liberalization. We join in this case one of the most significant aspects of the “sequencing” theorized by McKinnon (1973). Finally, an effective prudential regulation tends to reduce significantly the probability of occurrence of banking crises.
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