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PROPOSAL OF A MINIMUM SET OF BIOPHYSICAL INDICATORS FOR MONITORING THE SUSTAINABILITY IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS
Omar Daniel,Laércio Couto,Elias Silva,Carlos Alberto Moraes Passos
CERNE , 2001,
Abstract: Agroforestry Systems are considered sustainable alternatives to intensive production systems and due to the scarcity of research work related to the evaluation of sustainability of Agroforestry Systems, selection criteria are proposed which were applied to indicators already known in the pertinent literature. The objective of this paper comprised therefore the use of the smallest group of indicators which would be able to satisfy the requirements for monitoring environmental sustainability of Agroforestry Systems including or not the animal component. The main conclusions were: the category of endogenous resources involved the greatest number of indicators in the biophysical component; the greatest concentration of indicators in the category of endogenous resources is located in the fauna, flora and soil components; the element technical management showed the major occurrence of indicators in the category of operation of the system; all elements of the category of exogenous resources showed about the same number of indicators; the animal component of the Agroforestry Systems require greater number of indicators; the majority of the indicators suggested in this paper depend only upon the direct observations and only a small number need laboratorial analyses; most indicators suggested is cheap and easy to apply; Agroforestry Systems without the animal component are easier and cheapes to monitor.
The Social Dimensions of Sustainability and Change in Diversified Farming Systems  [cached]
Christopher M. Bacon,Christy Getz,Sibella Kraus,Maywa Montenegro
Ecology and Society , 2012, DOI: 10.5751/es-05226-170441
Abstract: Agricultural systems are embedded in wider social-ecological processes that must be considered in any complete discussion of sustainable agriculture. Just as climatic profiles will influence the future viability of crops, institutions, i.e., governance agreements, rural household and community norms, local associations, markets, and agricultural ministries, to name but a few, create the conditions that foster sustainable food systems. Because discussions of agricultural sustainability often overlook the full range of social dimensions, we propose a dual focus on a broad set of criteria, i.e., human health, labor, democratic participation, resiliency, biological and cultural diversity, equity, and ethics, to assess social outcomes, and on institutions that could support diversified farming systems (DFS). A comparative analysis of case studies from California's Central Valley, Mesoamerican coffee agroforestry systems, and European Union agricultural parks finds that DFS practices are unevenly adopted within and among these systems and interdependent with institutional environments that specifically promote diversified farming practices. Influential institutions in these cases include state policies, farmers' cooperatives/associations, and organized civic efforts to influence agroenvironmental policy, share knowledge, and shape markets for more 'sustainable' products. The Californian and Mesoamerican cases considers organic and fair trade certifications, finding that although they promote several DFS practices and generate social benefits, they are inadequate as a single strategy to promote agricultural sustainability. The complex governance and multifunctional management of Europe's peri-urban agricultural parks show unexpected potential for promoting DFS. Unless DFS are anchored in supportive institutions and evaluated against an inclusive set of social and environmental criteria, short-term investments to advance diversified agriculture could miss a valuable opportunity to connect ecological benefits with social benefits in the medium and long terms.
Research advances in plant competition in agroforestry systems
农林复合系统植物竞争研究进展

MAO Rong,ZENG De-Hui,
毛 瑢
,曾德慧

中国生态农业学报 , 2009,
Abstract: Plant competition plays an important role in the success and sustainability of agroforestry systems. Minimizing competition and maximizing resource utilization increase crop yield and overall productivity of agroforestry systems. This paper introduces the concept and theory of plant competition, reviews competition for light, water and nutrient among trees and crops, and summarizes allelopathy and competition related plant traits in agroforestry systems. Aboveground competition for light among trees and crops is a major constraint under humid climate conditions, while belowground competition for water predominates in semi-arid tropics and temperate agroforestry systems. In agroforestry systems, plant competitive ability for light is decided by leaf area, canopy structure, et al. Root traits related to belowground competitive ability include occupied soil space, morphological and physical elasticity and spatial and temporal soil partitions. It is suggested that future research on agroforestry systems focus on comparisons among different components in different climatic conditions, competition processes and physiological mechanisms, plant allelopathy and the role and mechanism of mycorrhizae in plant competition, interactions between above- and below-ground competition and the effect of global climate change on plant competition of the agroforestry systems.
Comparative Analysis of Sustainability in Traditional Livestock Production Systems: The Case of Animal Husbandries in Firouzabad County  [cached]
R. Nikdokht,E. Karami,M. Ahmadvand
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2007,
Abstract: Sustainability of livestock production systems (LPSs) is of prime importance to the needs of human beings. From a sustainability point of view, an LPS is sustainable when it is environmentally nondestructive, economically viable and socially provides appropriate quality of life for producer and the whole community. Iran LPS is primarily based on traditional production systems. Therefore, an important issue for animal production in this country is the question of sustainability of traditional LPSs.The aim of this paper was to investigate and compare the sustainability of traditional LPSs in Firouzabad County. Three dimensions of sustainability were considered. Survey research was used to reach this purpose. Therefore, 300 livestock producers in “Nomadic”, “Semi-nomadic” and “Village- based” system were interviewed. Respondents were selected by a multi-stage cluster random sampling method. Face validity was confirmed by experts and the questionnaires were subjected to reliability testing using data collected in the pilot study. Findings showed that all three LPSs were unsustainable with regard to social, economical, and technico-environmental dimensions. Comparison of LPSs showed that Village-based LPS was from social dimension relatively sustainable and technically and environmentally unsustainable. While nomadic LPS was from social dimension relatively unsustainable and technically and environmentally sustainable.
Methodology of Sustainability Indicators Determination for Enterprise Assessment  [cached]
Loreta Kinderyt?
Environmental Research, Engineering and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5755/j01.erem.52.2.73
Abstract: Lithuanian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) need the indicators system for evaluating their sustainability. Because of some difficulties to quantify the aspects of sustainability, not only quantitative but also qualitative indicators are recommended. To select sustainability indicators, an initial set of quantitative indicators was compiled from both sustainability indicators and separate environmental indicators systems. A qualitative indicators set was compiled from one developed qualitative indicators system. The survey of experts was organized for determining qualitative and quantitative sustainability indicators. Budget allocation processes were used as a weighting method. To adjust indicators and weighting coefficients for enterprises in developing or developed countries determination and weighting procedure by national experts should be repeated. Assessment according to the standardized methodology can show only essential problems and it is the first step towards the improvement process.
Research advances in interspecific interactions in agroforestry system
农林复合系统种间关系研究进展

LIU Xing-yu,ZENG De-hui,
刘兴宇
,曾德慧

生态学杂志 , 2007,
Abstract: The productivity and sustainability of agroforestry system depend on a large extent the interspecific interactions in the system.To understand these interactions is critical to the successful management of agroforestry system.Among the interactions,aboveground interaction includes the competition and facilitation for light,as well as the effects of microclimate change on system productivity,while belowground interaction includes the competition and facilitation for water and nutrients,the effects of nitrogen-fixing plants on system productivity and allelopathy.The studies on the comparison of interspecific interactions in different agroforestry systems under different site conditions,the spatial distribution patterns of agroforestry system component,allelopathy,as well as the models of interspecific interactions in agroforestry system should be strengthened in the future.
Agroforestry Systems in Nigeria: Review of Concepts and Practices
JI Amonum, FD Babalola, SIN Agera
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment , 2009,
Abstract: The paper reviews agroforestry systems, highlighting their potential and significance with the aim of improving its adoption. Cultivating trees and agricultural crops in intimate combination with one another is an ancient practice that farmers have used throughout the world. Agroforestry can be viewed as a societal response, primarily born out of a need to fulfill immediate basic human needs of food, fuel, fodder, shelter, protection etc. Effort to define Agroforestry began in the mid 1970s and evolved rapidly as studies began on the diversity and scope of Agroforestry practices. There are three basic types of Agroforestry systems viz: Agrisilviculture (Crops + trees), silvopastoral (Pasture/animal + trees); and Agrosilvopastoral (crops + pasture + trees). Other specified Agroforestry can also be defined e.g. apiculture (bees with trees), aquaculture (fishes with trees and shrubs) and multipurpose tree lots). Agroforetry is becoming recognized as a land use system which is capable of yielding both wood and food while at the same time conserving and rehabilitating ecosystems. There is therefore the dire need for an aggressive Agroforestry extension to convince farmers to adopt this farming system, most of which is fast disappearing at the former places it was earlier practiced.
Economic analysis of agroforestry systems with candeia
Silva, Charles Plínio de Castro;Coelho Junior, Luiz Moreira;Oliveira, Antonio Donizette de;Scolforo, José Roberto Soares;Rezende, José Luiz Pereira de;Lima, Isabel Carolina Guedes;
CERNE , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-77602012000400008
Abstract: cultivation of nonnative candeia under conditions of monoculture or in agroforestry systems comes as an interesting alternative to meet the market demand for timber from this particular species, while at the same time helping reduce pressure on native candeia fragments. the objective of this study was to analyze the economic feasibility of candeia cultivation, in risk situations, under conditions of monoculture and intercropped with other agricultural crops. the study site is located in the municipality of baependi, southern minas gerais state, and the experiment was set up in an area of 3.2 hectares, using a randomized block design with six treatments and three replicates. the analysis of economic feasibility was performed using the net present value method for an infinite planning horizon (vpl ?). for the risk analysis, the monte carlo method was used. the agroforestry systems being tested were found to be economically feasible, noting that the system in which candeia is cultivated at spacing intervals of 10 x 2 meters, intercropped with corn in between rows, is more profitable and less risky than the others. candeia cultivation as a monoculture is economically feasible, provided that soil tillage is done conventionally.
Economic analysis of agroforestry systems with candeia  [PDF]
Charles Plínio de Castro Silva,Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior,Antonio Donizette de Oliveira,José Roberto Soares Scolforo
CERNE , 2012,
Abstract: Cultivation of nonnative candeia under conditions of monoculture or in agroforestry systems comes as an interesting alternative to meet the market demand for timber from this particular species, while at the same time helping reduce pressure on native candeia fragments. The objective of this study was to analyze the economic feasibility of candeia cultivation, in risk situations, under conditions of monoculture and intercropped with other agricultural crops. The study site is located in the municipality of Baependi, southern Minas Gerais state, and the experiment was set up in an area of 3.2 hectares, using a randomized block design with six treatments and three replicates. The analysis of economic feasibility was performed using the Net Present Value method for an infinite planning horizon (VPL ). For the risk analysis, the Monte Carlo method was used. The agroforestry systems being tested were found to be economically feasible, noting that the system in which candeia is cultivated at spacing intervals of 10 x 2 meters, intercropped with corn in between rows, is more profitable and less risky than the others. Candeia cultivation as a monoculture is economically feasible, provided that soil tillage is done conventionally.
The Evolution of an Ecosystem Approach: the Diamond Schematic and an Adaptive Methodology for Ecosystem Sustainability and Health  [cached]
David Waltner-Toews,James Kay
Ecology and Society , 2005,
Abstract: Over the past 15 yr, an international network of researchers has developed and tested a methodology for integrating complex systems theories into sustainable development projects. Drawing on our best theoretical understanding of complex systems and combining it with best practices of community engagement drawn from a wide variety of sources, we have developed a methodology that is theoretically sound and practically effective. AMESH, an Adaptive Methodology for Ecosystem Sustainability and Health, has emerged from, and been tested in, Nepal, Kenya, Canada, and Peru.
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