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Increase coverage of HIV and AIDS services in Myanmar
Brian Williams, Daniel Baker, Markus Bühler, Charles Petrie
Conflict and Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1505-2-3
Abstract: By the beginning of the new decade, a number of organisations had begun working on HIV and AIDS, though not yet in a formally coordinated manner. The Joint Programme on AIDS in Myanmar 2003–2005 was an attempt to deliver HIV services through a planned and agreed strategic framework. Donors established the Fund for HIV/AIDS in Myanmar (FHAM), providing a pooled mechanism for funding and significantly increasing the resources available in Myanmar. By 2006 substantial advances had been made in terms of scope and diversity of service delivery, including outreach to most at risk populations to HIV. More organisations provided more services to an increased number of people. Services ranged from the provision of HIV prevention messages via mass media and through peers from high-risk groups, to the provision of care, treatment and support for people living with HIV. However, the data also show that this scaling up has not been sufficient to reach the vast majority of people in need of HIV and AIDS services.The operating environment constrains activities, but does not, in general, prohibit them. The slow rate of service expansion can be attributed to the burdens imposed by administrative measures, broader constraints on research, debate and organizing, and insufficient resources. Nevertheless, evidence of recent years illustrates that increased investment leads to more services provided to people in need, helping them to obtain their right to health care. But service expansion, policy improvement and capacity building cannot occur without more resources.Myanmar is one of South-East Asia's countries hardest hit by the HIV epidemic. At the end of 2005, UNAIDS and WHO estimate that 1.3% (range 0.7–2.0%) of the adult population were infected by HIV [1]. This percentage results in an estimated 360,000 people (range 200,000–570,000) living with HIV. Epidemiological analysis suggests that the HIV epidemic may be levelling off since the early part of the decade [2] (See Table 1).An
A comparative analysis of coverage of AIDS in Pakistani press: a case study of AIDS days
Shaheen H,Zia A
theHealth , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Media is considered one of the most effective tool in creating awareness and has the tendency to change the minds of masses regarding any issue. The present study assessed the role of print media in the coverage of AIDS day in Pakistan. Methods: A coverage of the concerned day and disease from 2003 to 2009 was estimated. The universe of study comprise of news items in five prominent dailies of Pakistan. The method of content analysis was used for the analysis and comparison. Results: Out of all the studied dailies, Jang published 16 news (11%), Nawa-i-Waqt 15 (11%), Dawn 49 (35%), The Nation 26 (18%), and The News 36 (25%). All the news published in the Jang and The News were in the positive direction whereas 26 in Dawn, 10 in The Nation, and 23 in The News were in the positive. None of the newspaper published negative news.Conclusion: Despite of the fact that health problems are increasing rapidly yet their coverage is limited. The Urdu press is not playing its due role to aware the masses about AIDS. In Pakistan there are many misconceptions among the public regarding AIDS thus creating awareness is inevitable.
PROCEDURAL ASPECTS REGARDING REFERENCES FOR PRELIMINARY RULINGS
Oana - M?riuca Petrescu
Romanian Journal of European Affairs (RJEA) , 2008,
Abstract: The purpose of preliminary rulings, or the preliminary reference as it is known, can be traced directly to the need to secure uniformity in the Community legal order throughout the Member States. The procedure of preliminary rulings was mentioned for the first time by the Advocate General Joseph-Louis Lagrange 40 years ago in this Opinion in Bosch v de Geus case. Much of the responsibility for applying the rules laid down in the European Community Treaty (EC Treaty) and in Community acts belongs to the national courts of the Member States. To help safeguard the uniform application of Community law, article 234 (former art.177) of EC Treaty, therefore lays down a procedure which enables national courts to refer to the European Court of Justice questions of Community law that they have to decide before giving a judgment.
SENTENCIAS RECIENTES EN MATERIA TRIBUTARIA DE LAS CORTES DE APELACIONES Y DE LA CORTE SUPREMA: DICIEMBRE DE 2009 RECENT RULINGS ON TAX MATTERS FROM THE COURT OF APPEALS AND THE SUPREME COURT: DECEMBER OF 2009  [cached]
Patricio Masbernat
Revista Chilena de Derecho : Publicado por la Facultad de Derecho Universidad Católica de Chile , 2010,
Abstract: El presente estudio analiza un grupo de sentencias de las cortes de Apelaciones y Suprema, en materias vinculadas al Derecho Tributario. En ellas se puede observar las líneas jurisprudenciales, los votos de minoría, y las materias que normalmente se debaten en Chile. Este trabajo intenta hacer observaciones acerca de aspectos que las sentencias normalmente no tratan debiendo hacerlo, o que tratan de modo deficiente. Asimismo, el autor intenta mostrar las deficiencias argumentales de las sentencias en relación a las conclusiones obtenidas. This paper analyzes a group of judicial decisions from the Court of Appeals and the Supreme Court, in matters connected to Tax Law. In them, it is possible to observe the jurisprudential lines, the minority votes, and the matters that normally are debated in Chile. This work tries to make observations about aspects that the judgments normally do not mention, or that are treated poorly. Also, the author attempts to show deficiencies in the argumentation of the judgments for obtaining conclusions.
Trends in the epidemiology of HIV infection/AIDS in the municipality Pereira, Colombia, 1998-2011  [cached]
Paola A. Saldarriaga-Arenas,Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales
Revista Médica de Risaralda , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: HIV infection/AIDS continue to be a highly relevant global public health problem. Colombia is one country, in Latinamerica, with a considerable epidemiology, with high incidence municipalities; among those is included Pereira. Materials and methods: Assessment of main epidemiological indicators (estimations of incidence, mortality and lethality) of HIV infection/AIDS, period 1998-2011, Municipality Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia. Results: During the period a total of 1471 cases were recorded (mean 105.1±27.6/year, range 51-159); increasing (r2=0.3028; p=0.0415), specially between 2006-2011 (r2=0.845; p=0.0095). Incidence oscillated between 11.8 (2001) to 34.6 (2011) cases/100,000 pop (95%CI 29.0-40.0), without a significant increase between 1998-2005 (r2=0.0351; p=0.6567), and increasing significantly between 2006-2011 (r2=0.8318; p=0.0113). A total of 631 deaths were recorded (mean 45.1±8.9/year, range 32-64), no significant variation between 1998-2005 (r2=0.042; p=0.6262); from 2006-2011 were significantly reduced (r2=0.7016; p=0.0374). Mortality oscillated from 7.0 (2010) to 14.3 (2006) deaths/100,000 pop (95%CI 11.0-18.0), significantl decreasing between 2006-2011 (r2=0.7251; p=0.0314). Lethality (CFR) in the period oscillated from 21.9% (2010) to 88.2% (2001) (95%CI 8.41-98.06). Discussion: Although HIV/AIDS incidence is increasing, lethality and mortality are progressively decreasing. This could be related to multiple factors that include a better diagnostic and therapeutic coverage, higher access to the health care system, more information availability, as well appropriate and skilled multidisciplinary management. However, at promotion and prevention there are still great challenges to achieve, that include more communitary participation in the processes of information access, epidemiological surveillance, quality assessment at the use of health care services related to HIV/AIDS, among others.
A comparative study of two communication models in HIV/AIDS coverage in selected Nigerian newspapers
Onjefu Okidu
Global Health Action , 2013, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v6i0.18993
Abstract: The current overriding thought in HIV/AIDS communication in developing countries is the need for a shift from the cognitive model, which emphasises the decision-making of the individual, to the activity model, which emphasises the context of the individual. In spite of the acknowledged media shift from the cognitive to the activity model in some developing countries, some HIV/AIDS communication scholars have felt otherwise. It was against this background that this study examined the content of some selected Nigerian newspapers to ascertain the attention paid to HIV/AIDS cognitive and activity information. Generally, the study found that Nigerian newspapers had shifted from the cognitive to the activity model of communication in their coverage of HIV/AIDS issues. The findings of the study seem inconsistent with the theoretical argument of some scholars that insufficient attention has been paid by mass media in developing countries to the activity model of HIV/AIDS communication. It is suggested that future research replicate the study for Nigerian and other developing countries’ mass media.
Benefits of an educational program for journalists on media coverage of HIV/AIDS in developing countries
Martinez-Cajas Jorge L,Invernizzi Cédric F,Ntemgwa Michel,Schader Susan M
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-11-2
Abstract: Objective a) To assess the suitability of the curriculum content and didactical quality of information delivered to educate journalists in the J2J program in HIV/AIDS (process evaluation) and b) to explore the effects of such programs on journalists' reporting of HIV/AIDS related information (outcome evaluation). Design Descriptive study. Methods For the process evaluation, each J2J program curriculum was evaluated for accuracy and pertinence by individuals with high familiarity with HIV/AIDS research. For the outcome evaluation, a survey of J2J attendees and evaluations of the program lectures by attendees were performed in chronological order to determine their perception on usefulness of the program. Results Overall, the J2J curriculum is successful in providing journalists with a clear understanding of the current HIV/AIDS medical research objectives and issues with most journalists reporting an increased ability to better investigate and disseminate accurate information on this subject. Furthermore, the journalists surveyed reported positive community responses directly as a result of the J2J training. Conclusion The J2J program helps to increase global awareness of pertinent HIV/AIDS concepts. Through this professional development strategy, journalists from around the world may help to amplify efforts to prevent new HIV infections and quench the dissemination of inaccurate information and folklore.
Rulings of Legendrian knots as spanning surfaces  [PDF]
Tamás Kálmán
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Each ruling of a Legendrian link can be naturally treated as a surface. For knots, the ruling is 2-graded if and only if the surface is orientable. For 2-graded rulings of homogeneous (in particular, alternating) knots, we prove that the genus of this surface is at most the genus of the knot. While this is not true in general, we do prove that the canonical genus (a.k.a. diagram genus) of any knot is an upper bound for the genera of its 2-graded rulings.
EL PRECEDENTE CONSTITUCIONAL EN COLOMBIA Y SU ESTRUCTURA ARGUMENTATIVA SíNTESIS DE LAS EXPERIENCIAS DE UN SISTEMA DE CONTROL MIXTO DE CONSTITUCIONALIDAD A LA LUZ DE LA SENTENCIA T-292 DE 2006 DE LA CORTE CONSTITUCIONAL
LANCHEROS-GáMEZ,JUAN CARLOS;
Díkaion Revista de Fundamentación Jurídica , 2012,
Abstract: the present article looks at the basic components of the structure of the argument justifying the application of constitutional precedent colombia, through the reconstruction of constitutional court decision t-292, 2006, which is a key ruling on the issue. it begins by placing the question in context and looking at its current state, in addition to providing a brief description of colombia's constitutional system and the use of judicial precedent within it. after that, the classical notions and the current ones on the binding nature of decisions on constitutionality are presented. however, although the emphasis is on abstract constitutional control, several clarifications are provided on rulings that resolve writs for the protection of fundamental rights. concepts and features that are crucial to the purpose of this article are summarized as well, such as the workings of vertical and horizontal precedent, and the change in the line of decision, all within the framework of colombian constitutional jurisprudence. in the end, several considerations are put forth on the implications of the mandatory nature of constitutional precedent and the role of judges in that respect, considering the definition of the crime of breach of trust by disregard for precedent, as referred to in ruling c-335/ 2008.
Características de las tutelas en salud tramitadas en Medellín, Colombia
Rodríguez Tejada,Claudia Milena; Molina Marín,Gloria; Jiménez,Santiago Alejandro;
Investigación y Educación en Enfermería , 2010,
Abstract: objective: to describe the health right infringement features, as reflected in the protective actions processed in the city of medellin (colombia). methodology: retrospective descriptive study, in which the protective actions processed in the antioquia?s sectional direction court during the years 2001-2007 were analyzed. a randomized sampling was taken, stratified by defendant entity and years of protective actions rulings. results: 79% of the people who filed protective actions were affiliated to the contributive tax regime, 88% of them required health services, medicines, or medical supplies included in the mandatory health plan. from the affiliates to the subsidy regimen 57% required attention and services included in the benefit plan. 62% of the people asked for integral attention. the circulatory and osteomuscular system diseases took a bigger number of people to file a protective action (19% and 15%) respectively. conclusion: most of the people regardless the type of affiliation to the general social security system, ask for health attention and services included in their benefit plan through the protective action.
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